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Illustrated.     Cr.  8vo,  5s. 

Adventures   of  a  Younger   Son,      By  E.  J. 

Trelawny.     WiiA  an  Introduction  by  Edward 
Garnett.    Second  Edition. 

Robert    Drury's    Journal    in    Madagascar. 

Edited,  with  an  Introduction  and  Notes,  by 
Captain  S.  P.  Oliver. 

Memoirs    of    the     Extraordinary    Military 
Career  of  John  Shipp.     With  an  Introduction 
by  II.  Manners  Chichester. 

The    Adventures    of    Thomas    Pellow,    of 
Penryn,    Mariner.       Written   by   himself,    and 
Edited  with  an  Introduction  and  Notes  by  Dr. 
Robert  Brown. 


The  Buccaneers  and  Marooners  of  America. 

Being  an  Account  of  the  Famous  Adventures 
and  Daring  Deeds  of  certain  Notorious  Free- 
booters of  the  Spanish  Main.  Edited  by  Howard 









/  i  ? ) 


(1)  Editor's  Introduction  7 

(2)  The  Adventures  of  Thomas  Fallow : — 

The  Author ;  youth  and  schooling — He  goes  to  sea — Is  captured 
by  the  Sallee  rovers  and  wrecked  on  the  bar  of  the  Bouragreb 
River  between  Sallee  and  Rabat — Escapes  drowning  only  to 
become  a  slave — Is  sent  to  Mequinez  with  the  rest  of  his 
shipmates — They  are  attacked  by  the  mob — They  are  taken 
before  the  Emperor  Mnley  Ismail — The  author  becomes  the 
slave  of  Muley  Spha,  the  Emperoi^'s  son — He  is  beaten  in 
order  to  force  him  to  change  his  religion — He  "  turns  Moor," 
and  is  made  an  officer  of  the  Emperor — He  has  a  perilous 
adventure  with  the  latter — His  uncle  dies — The  craelties  of 
the  Emperor — The  terrible  punishments  inflicted  by  him — 
The  dreadful  death  of  Larbe  Shott,  whose  ghost  appeared 
unto  Muley  Ismail 47 


Mr.  Pellow  is  better  housed  and  higher  in  favour — He  dines  more 
frequently  off  cuscassoo — How  this  dish  is  prepared — The 
misery  of  the  slaves — The  arrival  of  Commodore  Stewart  to 
ransom  the  English  captives — The  author,  being  excluded 
from  the  provisions  of  the  treaty,  is  left  behind — Cruelties  of 
the  Emperor — His  character  and  the  subservience  j)aid  him 
— The  danger  of  anticipating  a  remark — The  drilling  of 
marksmen — He  gets  married — How  weddings  are  conducted 
in  Morocco — He  sets  out  on  a  military  expedition — Curious 
advice  from  a  Moslem — The  march — At  Shan-oot — Kill  hun- 
dreds of  wild  boars — He  takes  command  of  the  castle  (or 
Kasbah)  of  Tannonah — His  lazy  life  during  six  years — He 
marches  to  Morocco  city — Expedition  into  the  mountains     .    C6 





The  Emperor's  troops  surprise  the  castle  of  Ehiah  EmbeUde,  and 
take  vengeance  upon  the  rebels — The  march  is  continued  and 
the  revolted  towns  reduced  to  submission — Touching  divers 
httle  places — A  new  mode  of  defence — A  city  is  taken  by 
storm — Fire  and  sword — The  return  to  Morocco  with  hostages 
and  booty — The  Fast  of  Eamadan — The  punishment  of  a 
Queen  who  failed  to  "  nick  the  time  " — Her  expiation  in  the 
way  of  bridges  and  golden  balls — Mr.  Pellow  attempts  the 
madcap  freak  of  trying  to  steal  the  latter — The  palace  gardens 
and  the  death  of  Muley  Ar'scid  (Reschid)^-The  march  to 
Mequinez,  and  a  description  of  the  intervening  country — The 
amount  of  plunder  brought  back  from  the  Expedition — 
Treatment  of  prisoners — An  English  executioner — The  soldiers 
meet  with  their  wives — Shooting  and  fishing — Feasts  regard- 
less of  the  law — Wild  beasts  and  their  ways  .        .        .89 


Mr,  Pellow  goes  with  the  troops  to  Guzlan,  and  shares  in  the 
siege  of  that  town — He  is  wounded — The  place  surrenders 
and  a  number  of  the  inhabitants  are  beheaded — Our  author 
is  advanced  in  the  Moorish  service  and  returns  to  Tamnsnah 
— He  is  now  inured  to  the  cruel  wars  of  the  Emperor,  and 
takes  part  in  most  of  his  attacks  on  rebelUous  tribes  and 
towns — He  goes  across  the  Atlas  to  Tafilet,  and  enters  the 
desert — How  the  Royal  children  are  disposed  of — The  wild 
Arabs  or  Bedouins  and  their  ways  of  life — Bashmagh  the 
negro  and  his  extraordinary  adventures — He  is  sold  and  sold 
again  by  hig  own  request,  and  always  returns  with  a  good 
horse  and  weapons — The  return  to  Tafilet — The  march  to  the 
borders  of  Algeria — The  author  often  visits  his  countrymen 
at  Sallee,  and  begins  to  meditate  his  escape — The  death  of 
Muley  Ismail 110 


The  rise  of  Muley  Ismail — His  character  a  mixture  of  vice  and 
virtue  and  piety  and  cruelty — How  he  made  himself  master 
of  the  kingdom — He  clears  the  country  of  robbers — His 
empire — His  mode  of  government — How  the  governors  of 
provinces  are  called  to  account — Degrading  ceremonies  in- 
cumbent on  officials  before  they  enter  the  Imperial  presence 
— His  supposed  sanctity — His  severity  against  law-breakers 
— His  disturbed  sleep — The  terror  his  attendants  had  for 
telhng  him  whom  he  had  killed — His  duel  with  a  woman— 



His  Bokhari,  or  Black  Guards — His  esteem  for  them — His 
fickleness — The  story  of  an  attempted  assassination  of  him — 
The  influence  of  Maestro  Juan  over  him — His  mania  for 
buildinp:  in  an  economical  fashion — His  attention  to  the 
affairs  of  State — Civil  war  on  his  death — The  contrast  between 
Muley  Hamet  Deby  and  his  brothers — Character  of  Muley 
Hamet — How  Mr.  Fellow's  career  was  influenced  by  these 
turmoils 134 


Mr.  Fellow  makes  a  determined  attempt  to  escape  from  Morocco 
— He  succeeds  in  reaching  Mazagan,  then  in  the  possession 
of  the  Portuguese — He  unfortunately,  however,  mistakes  the 
Moorish  outposts  for  the  Christian,  and  is  seized  and  sent  to 
Azamoor — He  is  thrown  into  a  dungeon  and  is  threatened 
with  execution — A  friend  saves  him,  and  he  is  able  to  reach 
his  family  in  Agoory — The  revolt  of  the  Black  Army — The 
author  takes  part  in  the  Siege  of  Fez — He  is  sent  to  Sallee 
to  bring  new  carriages  for  the  field-guns — Arrived  there,  he 
plots  another  attempt  at  freedom — Is  betrayed  by  another 
Christian  renegado — He  saves  himself  with  difficulty,  and 
abandoning  the  plan  returns  to  Fez  with  the  gun  carriages — 
Is  well  received  by  Muley  Hamet — The  author  is  wounded, 
and  while  thinking  of  returning  to  his  wife  and  daughter 
hears  of  the  death  of  both 154 


More  uses  for  wine  than  one — Mr.  Fellow  and  his  renegade  atten- 
dant find  Uttle  diflBculty  in  trying  how  far  Malaga  is  potent 
to  cure  wounds — He  amazes  his  surgeon — Doctor  end  patient, 
their  adopted  faith  notwithstanding,  have  a  merry  evening 
over  the  forbidden  cup — The  surrender  of  Fez — The  hmnili- 
f^  ation  and  murder  of  Abdemeleck — A  general  beheading  more 
Mauritiano — Muley  Hamid  Ed-dehebi  is  poisoned  by  Muley 
AbdaUah's  mother — This  prince  seizes  the  throne — A  new 
master  but  old  habits — War  again — Fez  once  more  in  rebel- 
hon — A  terrible  siege  of  seven  months — Famine  compels  the 
Fasees  to  yield  and  meet  their  retribution — Hopes  of  escape 
again  disappointed  by  a  fi-esh  rebellion  and  a  long  march — 
How  malcontents  are  brought  to  book 176 


"War  is  exchanged  for  commerce — Fellow  is  sent  with  the  trading 
caravan  to  the  coast  of  Guinea — The  route  taken  by  him — 
Privations  from  want  of  water — How  to  find  it — Wonderful 



aeuteness  of  the  senses  displayed  by  a  blind  Arab — Lions  and 
ostriches — How  the  latter  are  killed  in  the  desert — Business 
being  finished  on  the  coast  the  caravan  returns  to  Morocco — 
Displeasure  of  the  Emperor  Muley  Abdallah  at  the  results  of 
the  journey — He,  as  usual,  slaughters  a  great  many  innocent 
men — He  kills  a  plotting  Marabout  or  Saint — An  expedition 
to  the  Eiver  Draa  country — A  cruel  sight — The  deaths  of 
Jerrory  and  Bendoobash — Treachery  of  the  Emperor — An 
easy  Hfe  again — Hunting  and  fishing — To  Mequinez — War 
once  more 194 


The  truce  between  England  and  Morocco  broken  by  the  Sallee 
men  capturing  an  English  ship — A  Jewish  interpreter  burnt 
for  daring  to  advise  the  Emperor — Mr.  Pellow  meets  with  an 
old  schoolfellow  in  misfortune  like  himself — The  flight  of 
Muley  Abdallah  to  Tarudant — Another  reverse  in  the  fortunes 
of  war — Muley  Ah  deposed  and  Muley  Abdallah  again  Em- 
peror— The  fate  of  a  rebellious  chief — How  the  Fez  deputation 
was  treated  by  Abdallah,  and  how  the  blind  man  spared 
utilized  his  freedom — Our  author  once  more  meditates  escape 
in  the  confusion  of  the  civil  war— A  native  fortune-teller  pro- 
phecies fair  things  for  the  future— He,  at  last,  makes  a  burst 
for  freedom 215 


On  the  road  to  freedom — At  SaUee  the  fugitive  meets  with  Muley 
El  Mustadi,  afterwards  Emperor  of  Morocco—  He  is  suspected 
and  arrested,  but  is  permitted  to  go — Leaves  for  Mequinez  as 
a  blind,  but  actually  makes  for  Tedla — Meets  a  band  of  con- 
jurers, and,  as  the  result  of  being  in  bad  company,  is  robbed 
by  a  rival  gang — Falls  in  with  two  Spanish  quack  doctors, 
and  takes  up  their  trade — He  meets  an  old  friend,  and  prac- 
tises physic  with  indifferent  success — Fish  without  fish-hooks 
— In  perU  from  wild  beasts — Food  without  lodgings — How  a 
Moorish  highway  robber  is  chowsed — Arrives  in  Morocco 
city,  and  is  succoured  by  a  fiiend — Sets  out  for  Santa  Cruz — 
Doctoring  on  the  way 233 


On  the  road  to  Hberty — Another  old  Mend — An  awkward  meeting, 
but  a  former  enemy  is  luckily  not  recognized — Robbed  of 
everything,  Mr.  PeUow  reaches  Tarudant  in  a  woeful  phght 
— Re-equipped,  he  arrives  at  Santa  Cruz,  and  as  a  measure 



of  precaution  takes  up  his  quarters  in  a  cave,  where  he  meets 
with  strange  company — Dreams,  and  their  interpretation — 
Enters  into  a  new  partnership — Takes  to  duck  killing  for  a 
livelihood — A  new  partner  of  the  faint-hearted  order — Being 
again  stripped,  he  "  borrows  a  point  of  the  law  "  in  order  to 
exist — He  takes  refuge  in  the  Kasbah  of  Ali  Ben-Hamediish 
at  the  Tensift  Eiver — At  WiUadia  he  falls  in  with  an  old 
schoolfellow,  and,  worse  luck,  meets  the  mother  of  Muley 
Abdallah — Plays  the  courier,  escapes  from  robbers,  and  passes 
the  night  in  a  tree,  surrounded  by  wild  beasts         .         .         .  260 


Mr.  Pellow  keeps  north — Gets  to  the  Tensift  River  and  again  takes 
shelter  in  the  castle  of  Ali  ben  Hammiduh — Back  to  Safii — 
He  finds  it  necessary  to  try  a  Cornish  hug  with  a  robber  on 
the  road — At  Willadia,  where  he  meets  with  Enghsh  ships — 
Engages  himself  as  interpreter,  when  he  frustrates  a  plot  of 
a  Moorish  merchant  to  get  quit  of  his  obUgations — The  vessel 
on  which  he  is  on  board  of  is  plundered  by  the  knavish 
officials — The  hard  way  in  which  ship  captains  had  to  trans- 
act their  business  in  those  days — Mr.  Pellow  has  to  keep  con- 
cealed, as  the  Moors  suspect  him — Sails  for  Sallee — More 
trouble,  which  detennined  the  captain  to  take  French  leave — 
As  a  precaution  the  Jews  and  Moors  are  put  under  hatches   .  289 


Compelled  to  anchor  off  Mamora,  fresh  troubles  make  their  ap- 
pearance— Apprehension  of  an  attack  from  the  Moors — Arms 
are  served  out ;  but  a  fair  wind  springing  up,  Mamora  is  left 
behind — Distress  of  an  involuntary  lady  passenger — In  pass- 
ing Cape  Spartel,  those  who  had  never  sailed  through  the 
Straits  before,  pay  their  footing  to  those  who  have — A  Jew 
objects,  and  what  came  of  his  objection — Gibraltar  is  reached, 
and  the  slave,  after  twenty-three  years  of  captivity,  is  again 
a  free  man  among  his  own  countrymen — He  is  cross-qnes- 
tioned  by  the  officials,  and  claimed  as  a  Moorish  subject  by 
the  Emperor's  agent — Governor  Sabine  speaks  a  bit  of  his 
mind — He  is  well  treated,  and  arrives  in  the  Thames — A 
painful  meeting  with  WiUiam  Johnson's  sister,  and  a  happy 
arrival  in  his  native  town — The  end 313 

NOTES 333 

INDEX 373 


(1)  MuLEY  Abd- Allah,  Emperor  of  Morocco  1729-1757 

(from  Troughton's  Narrative  of  the  "Wreck  of  the 
Jws^ec^or  Privateer  in  1745)  ...         ...  Frontispiece 

(2)  British  Captives  driven  from  Tangier  to  Muley 

Abd-Allah's  Camp  at  Buscoran  (Bu-Sacran)  in 
the  interior  of  Morocco.  1.  Hadj  Abd-Akrim,  Kald, 
or  Governor  of  Tangier.  2.  The  British  Captives. 
3.  The  City  of  Mequinez.  4.  The  Pilot  or  Guide. 
5.  Guards  who  drove  the  Captives.  6.  Tents  of  the 
Arabs  who  supply  the  town  with  butter,  &c.  7.  Sidi 
Hamria,  a  saint's  tomb  (from  Troughton).   To  face  p.     52 

(3)  Marakesch,   or   Morocco   City,      a,   The    Kutubia 

Quarter,  in  which  is  situated  the  Mosque  of  Sidi 
Abou  Labbas  ;  b,  the  Atlas  Mountains ;  c,  the 
Garden  of  Muley  Idris  ;  d,  a  Powder  Magazine ; 
e,  the  Mosque  of  Ali  ben  Yusef ;  /,  the  Mosque  of 
Abd  el  Mmnen,  w^hich,  according  to  some  accounts, 
is  the  one  which  possessed  the  Golden  Balls  (p. 
341);  g,  h,  the  Palace  Quarter  (from  Hosts'  "Nach- 
richten  von  Marokos  und  Fes,"  1760-1768).  To  face  p.  97 
(3)  An  Audience  of  Sidi  Mohammed,  Emperor  of 
Morocco,  about  the  year  1760.  a,  The  Emperor  ; 
b,  five  Councillors ;  c,  the  Envoy's  introducer  and 
attendant ;  d,  the  Jewish  interpreter ;  e,  a  Euro- 
pean Envoy  with  his  suite  ;  /,  a  Courtier ;  g,  Jews 
bearing  gifts,  all  barefooted  (from  Host).    To  face  p.  135 


(4)  AzAMOOB  IN  1760.     a,  A  saint's  tomb;  b,  feiry  over 

the  river  and  the  road  to  Saffi ;  c,  the  Jewish 
Quarter  or  Mellah ;  d,  the  river  Om-er-E'bia  ;  e,  the 
road  to  Sallee  (from  Host)          ...         ...    To  face  p.  156 

(5)  Mequinez  in  1760.     a,  b,  The  Palace ;   c,   the  old 

Spanish  Convent,  now  abandoned  (from  Host). 

To  face  p.  185 

(6)  Christian    Slaves    at    Work    in    the    Castle   of 

BuscoEAN  (Bu-Sacean)  not  fae  feom  Mequinez 
(1745).  1.  The  task-masters.  2.  The  Enghsh  slaves 
at  hard  labour.  3.  The  manner  in  which  the  slaves 
raised  pieces  of  tabia,  weighing  ten  or  twelve  tons, 
"  by  the  purchase  of  a  plank,  and  then  jogging  on 
it,  which  is  fixed  at  the  bottom  of  the  said  pieces 
of  tabby  wall."  4.  The  ruins  of  the  remainder  of 
the  Castle  which  the  English  slaves  pulled  down. 
5.  The  gate  at  the  entrance  of  the  Castle.  6.  The 
Castle  walls  (from  Troughton)   ...         ...    To  face  p.  211 

(7)  Sallee  and  Eabat  in  1760.     In  this  view  Eabat  is  on 

the  right  (c)  and  Sallee  on  the  left  side  of  the 
picture  (a),  the  river  Bou-ragrag  dividing  them. 
In  Eabat,  at  b,  there  were  five  cannon,  but  with- 
out carriages  or  other  appurtenances,  and  lying  on 
the  rocks,  though  sometimes  used ;  at  c  is  the  town 
of  Eabat  proper,  though  it  lies  so  low  that  it  is  not 
seen  over  the  walls,  and  cannot  therefore  be  repre- 
sented in  the  engraving.  The  tower,  Sma-  (or 
Barge-el)  Hassan,  is  shown  at  d ;  at  g'  is  the  sea- 
gate  of  the  town  and  also  the  cemetry,  the  cupolas 
shown  in  the  view  being  "  kubbas,"  or  tombs  of 
saintly  personages,  of  whom  there  are  a  great  many 
in  these  parts ;  /,  a  small  battery,  where  a  landing 
is  more  frequently  effected  than  by  passing  over  the 
river  bar.  On  the  Sallee  side  (a)  the  entrance  to 
the  river  is  at  e,  where  there  was  a  battery  of  some 
thirty  cannon  (from  Host)  ...         ...    To  face  p.  262 

(8)  Santa  Ceuz,  oe  Agadie  (from  Host)         ...    To  face  p.  304 

(9)  A  PiEATE  Zebek  of  Sallee,  1760  (from  Host). 

To  face  p.  335 


HE  voyager  who  sails  for  North  Africa 
by  way  of  the  Spanish  Peninsula,  is  not 
long  before  he  becomes  conscious  of  the 
enduring  personality  of  the  Moors.  At 
Lisbon  even,  should  he  be  a  philologist, 
he  will  find  the  dialect  of  the  Portuguese 
boatmen  plentifully  tinctured  with  words,  phrases,  and 
idioms  which  may  at  once  be  recognized  as  Arabic.  These 
foreign  admixtures  grow  more  numerous  as  the  region 
once  held  by  the  Moorish  sovereigns  is  reached,  until  in 
Andalusia  there  are  towns  like  Tarifa  which  look  more 
Oriental  than  European.  But  it  is  at  Gibraltar  and  the 
Strait  which  separates  Spain  from  Morocco,  Christendom 
from  Islam,  that  the  nearness  of  the  true  home  of  the 
Moors  is  apparent.  Here,  is  Djebel-Tarik,  "  the  Mountain 
of  Tarik,"  the  spot  on  which  that  invader  of  the  country 
which  is  still  lovingly  spoken  of  as  "Andaloss"  first  set 
foot.  The  old  Moorish  castle  forms  a  prominent  object 
amid  the  buildings  which  cover  the  side  of  the  rock,  and 
the  streets  are  lighted  up  by  the  gay  costumes   of  the 


stately  subjects  of  Muley-El-Hassan  from  the  African 
side  of  the  narrow  gut,  which  the  Scandinavians  knew  as 
Norfa's  Sound.  East  and  west  of  Gibraltar  the  shore  is 
dotted  at  intervals  by  tumbling  towers,  where,  within  the 
memory  of  man,  wake-fires  blazed  for  the  purpose  of 
warning  the  country  when  a  Moorish  raid  was  expected ; 
and  half  the  legends  which  the  peasants  tell  are  filled 
with  gruesome  memories  of  the  days  when  the  sea  between 
the  Pillars  of  Hercules  was  scoured  by  desperate  pirates, 
intent  on  pillaging  the  commerce  of  Christendom  and  carry- 
ing into  slavery  the  hapless  crews  of  the  captured  vessels. 

The  two  sides  of  this  division  between  Europe  and  Africa 
do  not  differ  widely.  If  the  season  when  they  are  sighted 
is  spring,  they  are  equally  green  with  the  early  herbage, 
variegated  with  a  hundred  flowers,  and  fragrant  with  the 
blossoms  of  orange,  and  oleander,  and  prickly  pear. 
But  autumn  finds  them  both  alike  brown,  and  bare,  and 
dry.  Yet  it  is  scarcely  possible  to  point  to  any  other 
twelve  miles  of  water  which  divides  two  lands  more  the 
antipodes  of  each  other,  so  far  as  manners  and  faith  and 
future  are  concerned.  For  they  intervene  between  the 
Cross  and  the  Crescent,  between  Europe  with  its  pro- 
gressive culture  and  Africa  with  its  unadvancing  barbarism. 
In  an  hour  we  are  back  into  the  middle  ages — we  seem 
to  have  steamed  a  thousand  miles.  And  all  this  holds 
true  of  "  brown  Barbary "  until  the  exotic  civilization  of 
Algeria  is  reached  in  one  direction,  and  the  still  less  native 
polish  of  Senegambia  in  an  opposite  course.  Along  the 
Mediterranean  shore  of  Morocco  there  are  a  few  posts  to 
which  Spain  clings  tenaciously  ;  but  along  the  Atlantic 
sea-board  Muley-El-Hassan  is  not  offended  by  the  flouting 
of  an  infidel  flag,  until  he  come  to  Ifini,  on  the  border  of 
the  Empire,  where  Spain  is  supposed  to  have  a  fishing- 
station — unless  indeed  the  English  trading-post  at  Cape 


Juby  is  within  his  bounds.  For  when  there  are  indemnities 
to  be  paid  for  outrages,  the  Sultan  denies  his  responsibility 
for  the  tribesmen  thereabouts ;  but  he  is  apt  to  play  the 
King  when  there  are  duties  in  the  wind. 

As  we  sail  southward  along  the  tawny  African  Tiie  sauee 
shore,  we  pass  many  a  decaying  town,  the  Rovers, 
white  houses  of  which  look  like  huge  cubes  of  chalk  heaped 
along  the  strand.  Here  for  instance  are  Azila,  and 
Larache,  and  Mamora,  with  little  to  tempt  a  merchant  to 
tarry ;  and  by  and  by  a  picturesque  collection  of  white 
buildings  on  either  side  of  a  river,  over  the  bar  of  which 
the  breakers  moan  in  wearisome  monotony,  attracts  the 
eye.  A  sea-wall  with  some  not  very  dangerous  looking 
guns,  the  minarets  of  a  few  mosques,  and  the  great  tower 
of  Sma-Hassan  behind,  form  a  scene  seemingly  more  sug- 
gestive to  the  artist  than  to  the  historian.  Yet  this  is  the 
twin  town  of  Kabat-Sallee,  which  has  a  long  chronicle  of 
blood  and  slaughter,  and  has  perhaps  been  the  scene  of  as 
much  misery  as  any  spot  between  Agadir  and  Algiers. 
For  Sallee  was,  during  several  ages,  the  capital  of  those 
Moslem  pirates  who  divided  with  the  Tunisians,  Tripo- 
litines,  and  Algerines,  the  evil  eminence  of  doing  more 
damage  to  commerce  than  any  other  set  of  sea-robbers  at 
large.  Over  that  bar  has  passed  in  tears  and  sadness, 
hopeless  as  the  entrants  into  Dante's  Inferno,  thousands 
of  Christian  *  captives,  from  the  period  when  first  this  port 
conceived  the  idea   of  growing  wealthy  by  other  means 

*  In  the  Barbary  States  religion  is  the  great  division  between  one 
people  and  another.  All  who  are  not  Moslems  are  "  Christians  "  if  they 
are  not  Jews,  albeit  their  Christianity  is  often  of  the  slenderest  cha- 
racter. Indeed,  as  an  Arab  once  told  me,  the  Jews  would  soon  have 
everything  were  it  not  that  they  keep  their  Sunday.  But  the  "  Chris- 
tians "  in  Morocco  regarding  aU  days  aUke,  get  just  twenty-four  hours 
ahead  of  the  pan-absorbing  Israelites.  Hence  we  hear  in  Barbary  of 
Christian  clothes,  of  Christian  swindlers,  and  even  of  Christian  oaths. 


than  decent  toil,  until  the  wrath  of  Europe  and  the 
shoaling  up  of  their  harbour  no  longer  permitted  of  piracy 
being  profitable.  Yet  while  it  lasted,  the  "  Bailee  Eovers  " 
bulked  more  largely  in  history  and  romance,  and  were  the 
cause  of  more  diplomatic  missions,  correspondence  and 
expense,  than  it  seems  possible  to  believe  so  despicable  a 
band  of  rufiians  could  ever  become  to  maritime  powers 
owning  guns  enough  to  pound  this  den  of  thieves  into  its 
native  dust. 
Origin  of  -^^^  stereotyped  tale  told  of  the  origin  of  Bar- 
Morocco  bary  piracy  is  that  the  Moors,  driven  out  of 
Piracy,  gpain,  took  revenge  upon  the  Christians  by 
preying  on  their  shipping.  I  have  long  seen  good  reasons 
for  doubting  the  universal  accuracy  of  this  statement.  The 
Moriscoes  of  Spain  were  for  the  most  part  an  inland  people 
with  little  sea-borne  commerce,  and  few  ships  of  any 
sort,  while  their  Christian  compatriots  were  in  possession  of 
a  large  and  powerful  fleet.  It  is  therefore  difficult  to 
understand  how  a  race  unaccustomed  to  maritime  war- 
fare became  so  speedily,  merely  by  the  stimulus  of  hatred, 
the  most  skilful  corsairs  of  the  years  succeeding  their 
arrival  on  the  opposite  shores  of  Africa.  Those  who  fled  to 
what  is  now  Algeria  and  Tunis  might,  no  doubt,  have 
taken  more  aptly  to  their  new  trade.  For  the  Turks  were 
there  already,  and  besides  having  at  their  disposal  a 
plentiful  supply  of  Greek  and  Italian  apostates,  all  expert 
in  seafaring  wickedness,  these  Moslems  had  long  been 
accustomed  to  traverse  the  Mediterranean  either  as 
"common  carriers,"  or  for  the  more  congenial  purpose  of 
obeying  the  mandate  of  the  prophet  touching  the  spoiling 
of  the  Infidel. 

But  no  such  ready  teachers  were  to  be  found  in  Morocco. 
The  truth  seems  to  be  that  the  Bailee  men,  and  their 
brother  pirates  in  the  few  other  parts  of  Morocco  not  in 


the  hands  of  Spain  and  Portugal,  were  taught  their  trade 
by  European  outlaws,  the  majority  of  whom  were  sea- 
robbers  chased  from  the  English  coasts,  and  that  they  in 
their  turn  imparted  their  knowledge  to  the  latest  refugees 
from  Spain.  This  is  clearly  shown  by  a  statement  of  the 
famous  Captain  John  Smith,  of  Virginia,  who  it  may  be 
remembered  **took  a  turn,"  as  Dugald  Dalgetty  would 
have  said,  in  the  Sultan  of  Morocco's  service.  This 
passage,*  though  of  great  historical  value,  seems  to  have 
been  strangely  neglected  even  by  those  writers  who  profess 
to  obtain  their  information  at  first  hand.  For  here  we 
learn  that  the  most  **  ancient  pyrats  "  on  the  English  coast 
within  the  threescore  years  over  which  Smith's  recollection 
extended,  were  "  one  Cellis,  who  refreshed  himself  upon  the 
coast  of  Wales ;  Clinton  and  Pursser,  being  companions 
who  grew  famous  till  Queene  Elizabeth  of  blessed  memory 
hanged  them  at  Wapping ;  Flemming  was  as  expert  and  as 
much  sought  for  as  they,  yet  such  a  friend  to  his  country, 
that  discovering  the  Spanish  Armada,  he  voluntarily 
came  to  Plimouth,  yeelded  himselfe  freely  to  my  Lord 
Admirall,  and  gave  him  notice  of  the  Spaniards  comming ; 
which  good  warning  came  so  happily  and  unexpectedly 
that  he  had  his  pardon  and  good  reward."  t 

The  vigilance  of  the  armed  merchantmen  was,  however, 
so  great,  that  until  the  peaceful  reign  of  James  I.  let  loose 
a  host  of  privateers  or  "  men  of  warre "  who  had  been 
amply  employed  in  the  stormy  times  of  Elizabeth,  there 
were  very  few  rovers  at  large.  They  were  all  good  patriots 
enriching  themselves    by  robbing    the  Queen's  Enemies 

*  "  The  Trve  Travels,  Adventvres  and  Observations  of  Captaine 
lohn  Smith  in  Europe,  Asia,  Africke,  and  America,  beginning  about 
the  yeere  1593,  and  continued  to  the  present,  1G29 ''  (1G30),  pp.  59-60. 

f  This  is  an  even  more  picturesque  tale  than  Macaulay's  "  gallant 
merchant  ship,"  apart  from  the  fact  of  the  one  story  being  tnae,  and 
the  other  only  a  poet's  figment. 


along  the  Spanish  Main.  But  in  the  early  years  of  the 
seventeenth  century  a  host  of  masterless  men  were  left  at 
large  without  anything  to  do,  or  much  taste  for  an  honest 
calling.  Then  "  those  that  were  poor,  or  had  nothing  but 
from  hand  to  mouth,  turned  Pirats  :  some  because  they 
became  slighted  of  them  for  whom  they  had  got  such 
wealth  ;  some  for  that  they  could  not  get  their  due  ;  some, 
that  had  lived  bravely,  would  not  abase  themselves  to 
poverty ;  some  vainly,  only  to  get  a  name  ;  others  for 
revenge,  covetousnesse,  or  as  ill ;  and  as  they  found  them- 
selves more  and  more  oppressed,  their  passions  increasing 
with  discontent,  made  them  turne  Pirats."  Hunted  out 
of  the  European  seas,  hosts  of  these  knaves  retired  to 
Barbary,  and  there  "  turning  Turk,"  entered  the  service 
of  the  Grand  Seigneur,  who  by  his  deputies,  the  Dey  of 
Algiers,  the  Bey  of  Tunis,  and  the  Bashaw  of  Tripoli,  had 
taken  very  kindly  to  the  ancient  trade  of  Piracy.*  But 
several  preferred  Morocco,  where  for  a  time  they  did 
famously  well.  "  Ward  a  poore  English  sailer,  and 
Dansker  a  Dutchman,  made  first  here  their  marts,  when  the 
Moores  knew  scarce  how  to  saile  a  ship  :  Bishop  was  ancient 
and  did  little  hurt  :  but  Easton  got  so  much  as  made 
himselfe  a  Marquesse  in  Savoy  :  and  Ward  lived  like  a 
Bashaw  in  Barbary  :  these  were  the  first  that  taught  the 
Moores  to  be  men  of  warre."  Now  and  then  they  came  to 
condign  grief  if  captured  by  the  galleys  of  the  Knights 
of  Malta,  of  the  Pope,  the  Florentines,  and  the  Genoese,  or 
by  the  Dutch  and  English  men-of-war,  on  the  outlook  for 
them.  But  King  James  was  a  merciful  prince,  when  his 
own  life  was  not  in  peril,  and  pardoned  whole  batches  of  the 
captured   Corsair    captains,   though   "  Gennings,  Harris, 

*  For  a  full  account  of  Piracy  in  tlie  Barbary  States  other  than 
Morocco,  the  reader  is  referred  to  Mr.  Lane-Poole's  "  Barbarj'  Cor 
sairs  "  in  the  "  Story  of  the  Nations  "  series  (1890). 


Thompson,  and  divers  others,"  being  taken  red-handed  in 
Ireland,  a  coast  much  in  favour  with  them,  were  duly 
executed  at  Wapping  Old  Stairs.  They  were,  however,  a 
lazy  set  of  villains,  rioting  ashore  among  Jews,  Turks, 
Moors  and  worse,  until  their  ill-gotten  gains  were  gone, 
and  soon  disgusted  their  Moslem  associates.  By  and  by 
the  latter  having  learned  all  they  could  teach,  "beganne  to 
command  them  as  slaves  "  and  the  worthless  rapscallions 
they  were,  one  and  all.  In  this  way,  Captain  John  Smith 
tells  us — and  he  is  speaking  of  what  he  knew  as  well  as 
any  of  those  contemporary  with  the  events  described — 
the  Sallateens — as  the  Sallee  folk  were  called — became  so 
powerful  that  by  the  advent  of  Charles  I.  they  were  the 
terror  of  "  all  the  Straights,"  and  even  of  the  merchantmen 
in  the  Atlantic  and  in  "  the  narrow  seas  of  England," 
where  their  armed  vessels  were  often  seen. 

This  explanation  of  the  origin  of  the  Morocco  pirates  is 
confirmed  by  the  fact  that,  on  the  Portuguese  capturing 
Mamora,  they  found  *  it  a  perfect  kennel  of  European  out- 
laws— English,  French,  and  Dutch,  but  few  Italian  or 
Spanish — the  offscourings  of  every  port,  who,  like  the 
**  squaw  men  "  of  the  West,  and  the  **  Beach  Combers  "  of 
the  Pacific,  led  a  congenial  existence  among  the  Bar- 
barians. But  when  the  Sallee  Eovers  first  occupy  a 
prominent  plan  in  history — and  they  appear  very  often  in 
the  Public  Records  of  the  two  and  a  half  centuries  between 
the  eras  of  Elizabeth  and  George  IV. — they  were  to  all 
intents  and  purposes  Moors,  though  now  and  then  a 
Renegade  Captain  is  noted  as  in  command. 

Sallee  had,  indeed,  soon  after  the  establish- 
ment of  Muley  Ismail  on  the  united  throne  of  tj^^^^^  °* 
Morocco,  become  a  sort  of  Republic,  under  a 
Bashaw  of  the  Emperor's  appointment,  but  otherwise  to  a 

*  Note  40. 


large  extent  self-governing.  The  Emperor  not  only  shared 
in  their  plunder  and  winked  at  their  inequity,  but  actually 
provided  the  vessels,  though  it  was  not  until  Sallee  lost 
its  gwasi  independence  that  the  Sultan  became  his  own 
pirate,  and  took  all  the  profits.  Even  then  he  preyed,, 
nominally  at  least,  only  on  the  commerce  of  the  Christian 
States  with  which  he  was  at  enmity,  or  had  not  been 
bribed  to  keep  at  peace.  In  truth,  he  was  not  very 
particular,  disputes  continually  arising  over  the  unfriendly 
nations  sailing  under  the  flags  of  the  friendly  ones,  and 
exhibiting  their  "passes."  But  when  the  Sallateens  were 
most  flourishing,  there  was  no  pretence  of  favouring  any 
flag ;  and  at  the  very  time  the  "  rovers  "  were  bringing  their 
prizes  into  the  Bou-ragreg  River,  there  were  merchants- 
of  all  nations  living  peacefully  in  the  pirate  town,  and  even 
Consuls  (Jews  generally  and  traders  always)  accredited 
to  the  country,  and  yet  powerless  or  reluctant  to  interfere. 
The  rise  of  the  twin-town,  after  the  combined  attack  upon 
it  by  Muley  Zidan's  forces  by  land  and  Charles  the  First 
of  England's  fleet  on  the  seaward  side,  and  its  elasticity 
under  various  subsequent  sieges,  were  due  to  the  wealth 
which  the  lucrative  trade  of  the  majority  of  the  inhabitants 
poured  into  the  Corsairs  capital.  At  all  events,  in  the 
reign  of  George  I.,  when  the  hero  of  this  volume  made 
his  first  involuntary  visit  to  it,  Sallee  was  flourishing^ 
and  continued  to  prosper  for  many  years  afterwards. 

This  port  was  especially  in  favour  with  the  pirates,  mainly 
because  the  others  were  in  the  hands  of  foreign  powers. 
But  after  Mamora,  Azila,  and  Efl  Arish  (Larache)  were 
taken  from  Portugal,  and  Tangier  was  abandoned  by 
England,  all  of  these  places,  and  especially  the  first, 
shared  in  its  evil  reputation,  though  the  destruction  of  the 
mole,  the  remains  of  which  can  still  be  seen  above  the 
surface  of  the  sea  at  low  water,  coupled  with  the  proximity 


of  Gibraltar,  rendered  the  latter  a  less  convenient  shelter 
than  it  would  otherwise  have  been.  When  it  suited  the 
Sultan's  purpose,  he  disowned  responsibility  for  Sallateens, 
declaring,  as  he  did  at  a  later  date  in  the  case  of  the  Eiff 
Pirates,  that  they  were  beyond  his  jurisdiction.  At  other 
times,  he  treated  them  simply  as  privateers  who  paid  him 
well  for  the  privilege  of  preying  with  impunity  on  the 
Nazarenes.  Yet  in  January,  1745,  at  a  date  when  England 
was  at  peace  with  Muley  Abdallah,  the  crew  of  the  Inspector, 
a  British  privateer  wrecked  in  Tangier  Bay,  were  seized  and 
detained  for  five  years  in  captivity  at  Mequinez  and  Fez  ; 
the  Emperor  being  evidently  of  opinion  that,  as  another 
Moorish  monarch  remarked  on  being  reproached  with 
breaking  a  treaty,  a  Moslem  should  not,  like  a  Christian, 
"  be  the  slave  of  his  word."  Indeed,  had  Muley  El-Jezid 
been  able  to  take  Ceuta,  which  he  besieged  twice  towards 
the  close  of  last  century,  his  intention  was  to  use  it  as  a 
port  from  whence  his  galleys  might  sally  forth  for  the 
purpose  of  capturing  ships  passing  through  the  Straits, 
without  much  punctilio  as  to  the  flags  which  they  flew. 

The  Moors'  capacity  for  ship-building  rarely  permitted  of 
vessels  much  larger  than  thirty,  forty,  or  at  the  outside 
sixty  tons  being  built  by  themselves,  by  the  renegadoes,  or 
by  their  Christian  slaves ;  and  even  when  they  captured 
larger  craft  suited  for  their  purpose,  the  difficulty  of 
getting  them  over  the  bars  of  the  Bou-ragreb  and  Sebou, 
rivers  which  were  yearly  more  and  more  shoaling  up  the 
harbours  of  Sallee  and  Mamora,  rendered  them  chary  of 
utiHzing  such  windfalls.  Muley  Abdallah  and  his  son, 
Sidi  Mohammed,  swaggered  loudly  about  their  intention  of 
fitting  out  larger  vessels  capable  of  cruising  on  the  high 
seas.  But  their  efforts  never  went  very  far  in  that  direc- 
tion, for  by  the  time  the  latter  managed  to  launch  a 
frigate  of  forty-five  guns,  with  a  crew  of  330  men,  under 


the  Eeis  Hadjj  Ben  Hassan  Houet  Sbivi,  the  bar  was 
so  bad  that  the  cannon  had  to  be  unloaded  into  barges 
before  such  a  heavy  draught  vessel  could  enter  the  port. 
Even  Tetuan,  which  was  tried  as  a  harbour,  was  found 
too  exposed,  in  spite  of  the  chains  across  the  Martin 
Eiver  which  were  jealously  maintained  far  into  this 
century,  for  this  fleet,  which,  if  we  may  judge  of  the 
remnants  of  it  which  until  lately  lay  rotting  in  El 
Arish — the  Garden  of  the  Hesperides — would  be  nowa- 
days accounted  a  sorry  task  for  the  smallest  of  gun-boats 
to  demolish.  But  these  heavily  armed  rovers,  manned  by 
bold,  desperate  ruffians  skilled  in  attack  and  defence, 
were  formidable  foes  for  the  crew  of  a  merchant-ship  of 
small  tonnage  and  few  hands.  Generally  the  Sallateens 
managed  to  get  alongside  by  flying  false  colours,  or  by 
pretending  to  be  Algerines,  then  much  dreaded,  and  often 
on  some  pretence  or  other  weakened  the  doomed  ship's 
power  of  resistance  by  inducing  the  captain  and  some  of 
the  crew  to  come  on  board  their  own  vessel.  Yet  when 
fighting  was  necessary,  the  Moors  seldom  showed  any 
lack  of  courage,  boarding  the  enemy  in  gallant  style  after 
she  had  been  disabled  by  the  fire  of  their  artillery.  Most 
frequently  they  contented  themselves  with  i)lundering  the 
ship,  and  then  either  scuttling  or  setting  her  adrift.  But 
the  crew  were  invariably  carried  into  port,  for  they  consti- 
tuted the  most  valuable  portion  of  the  prize.  The  daring 
of  these  Sallateens  was  occasionally  remarkable,  for  not 
only  did  they  attack  large  ships,  and  make  sudden  raids 
on  the  farms  and  villages  of  the  opposite  coast,  but  in 
summer  they  would  venture  across  the  Bay  of  Biscay, 
and  lie  under  the  shelter  of  Lundy  Island  ready  to  cut  out 
vessels  sailing  down  the  Bristol  Channel.  Now  and  then, 
however,  they  met  with  sore  disasters,  and  not  only  were 
beaten  o£f  with  loss,  but  even  had  the  tables  turned  upon 


them  ;  while  cases  are  on  record  in  which  they  were  tempted 
to  try  issues  with  a  disguised  war-sloop,  when,  in  the 
words  of  an  old  song  describing  such  an  encounter — 

"  The  answer  tliat  we  gave  them, 
Did  sink  them  in  the  sea." 

It  must  have  been  after  some  such  mishap  that,  with  at 
view  to  keep  the  peace,  the  governor  ordered  every  man  to 
put  his  thumbs  in  his  girdle  the  moment  the  painful 
theme  was  discussed  in  the  street.  The  Chevalier  Acton, 
commander  of  a  Tuscan  war-ship,  falling  in  with  five  of 
Sidi  Mohammed's  "  xebeks  "  off  Cape  Spartel,  captured, 
ran  ashore,  or  dispersed  all  of  them. 

Indeed,  the  ships  which  the  Sultans  built  when  they 
took  piracy  into  their  own  hands  were  constantly  being 
lost  by  the  clumsiness  of  their  captains,  as  the  "  Eeis  " 
was  selected  not  so  much  for  his  seamanship  as  for  his 
ability  to  pay  for  any  damage  which  the  vessel  in  his 
charge  might  sustain.  The  result  was  extreme  caution 
on  his  part,  and,  as  the  Emperor  took  all  the  profit,  a 
natural  reluctance  on  the  part  of  the  Moors  to  serve  as 
sailors — a  circumstance  which  led  to  a  decline  in  the 
number  of  the  prizes  taken.  But  this  was  not  always  so. 
In  Muley  Ismail's  reign,  the  Sultan  claimed  ten  per  cent  of 
the  value  of  the  prize  :  if  he  took  more  than  this  number 
of  slaves,  which  he  generally  did,  the  pirates  were  sup- 
posed to  receive  value  for  them.  Hence,  in  spite  of 
many  of  them  being  armed  with  no  better  artillery  than 
stones,  with  which  the  crew  were  so  violently  assailed  that 
they  ran  below  and  allowed  their  vessel  to  be  easily 
boarded,  the  rovers  did  a  brisk  trade.  Muley  Abdallah 
reserved  the  slaves  for  himself,  paying  the  pirates  for 
them  at  a  low  fixed  rate ;  but  Sidi  Mohammed,  after 
depriving    Sallee-Eabat   of    its    semi-independency,  com- 



manded  the  Corsairs  to  act  for  his  profit  alone.  How- 
ever, looking  upon  the  slaves  as  a  resource  of  revenue, 
he  treated  them  with  more  humanity  than  his  father  or 

„  This  was,  nevertheless,  very  much  a  matter 

captives  were  of  chance,  depending  as  it  did  on  the  whim  of 

treated.  ^  despot,  or  the  character  of  the  officials  to 
whose  custody  they  were  committed.  The  latter  were 
rarely  actuated  by  kindly  feelings  to  the  unfortunates. 
Embittered  by  religious  fanaticism,  or  by  the  memory 
of  their  countrymen  driven  out  of  "  Andaloos,"  drowned 
in  the  Straits,  or  hung  at  the  yard-arm  or  toiling  in 
the  Christian  galleys,  they  heaped  upon  the  prisoners 
every  malediction  to  be  raked  out  of  the  foul  kennel 
of  Moorish  profanity,  cursing  their  burnt  fathers  and 
unveiled  mothers  to  the  remotest  generation,  and  too 
frequently  emphasizing  their  words  by  blows.  As 
the  captives  defiled  through  the  filthy  lanes  to  the 
underground  dungeons — still  to  be  seen — in  Sallee,  they 
were  hooted  by  the  rabble,  pelted  by  the  children,  and 
spat  upon  by  the  women.  And  from  the  hour  they  left 
that  town,  until  ten  days  later,  they  arrived  footsore  and 
weary  in  Fez  or  Mequinez — then  the  usual  residence  of  the 
Sultan — hard  fare,  black  looks,  and  constant  revilings 
were  there  unvarying  lot.  In  the  interior  they  met  with 
no  countrymen  in  a  position  to  help  them  ;  all  were  either 
slaves  like  themselves,  or  apostates  who  had  forsworn 
their  king  and  their  faith.  But  even  in  the  coast 
towns  the  merchants,  living  as  they  did  by  sufferance,  and 
eager  to  truckle  to  the  authorities,  seldom  displayed  much 
pity  for  their  helpless  compatriots.  For  when  they  might 
have  been  less  timorously  discreet,  they  were  afraid  lest 
any  familiarity  might  lead  the  officers  to  imagine  that  the 
captives  to  whom  the  foreign  trader  or  "  tadjir  "  showed 


attention  were  people  of  consequence,  and  therefore  likely 
to  fetch  a  heavier  ransom. 

In  the  capital,  the  life  of  the  white  slaves  was  no  better. 
There,  after  being  inspected  by  the  Emperor,  they  were 
set  to  work,  until  overtures  for  their  ransom  arrived. 
This  system,  it  ought  in  justice  to  the  Moors  to  be 
remembered,  was  not  long  before  in  vogue  all  over 
Europe.  For  were  not  sovereigns  seized  in  passing  through 
the  territories  of  rival  princes,  and  shipwrecked  mariners 
treated  in  like  manner,  until  their  freedom  could  be 
purchased  for  a  sum  of  money  proportionate  to  their 
rank — a  state  of  matters  still  kept  in  memory  by  the  phrase, 
**  a  king's  ransom "  ?  The  only  difference  was  that  the 
Moors  were  a  little  behind  the  progress  of  the  age  in 
following  this  fashion  of  a  bygone  period,  just  as  they 
are  at  the  present  day  in  selling  offices  when  this  method 
of  entering  the  Civil  Service  has  been  abandoned  in  the 
realms  of  Christendom.  The  slavery  of  the  times  to  which 
we  refer  was  dismal  in  the  extreme.  Compared  with  the 
toil  to  which  thousands  of  English  sailors  were  put,  the 
life  of  the  negroes  in  the  Southern  States  of  America  was 
a  pleasure.  Muley  Ismail  and  his  successors  had  a  mania 
for  building.  No  Moorish  sovereign  ever  inhabiting  the 
same  palace  or  the  same  rooms  as  bis  predecessor,  the 
slaves  were  for  the  most  part  employed  in  erecting  houses, 
or  in  preparing  the  materials  for  the  masons.  This 
consisted  in  stamping  earth  mixed  with  lime,  gravel, 
and  water,  in  order  to  make  the  "  taib  "  or  concrete, 
which  after  being  moulded  like  bricks  in  boxes,  hardens 
into  blocks  almost  as  lasting  as  stone.  The  amalgamation 
is  accomplished  by  a  heavy  wooden  stamper  of  about 
twelve  or  fifteen  pounds  weight,  being  worked,  as  an  old 
slave  of  Muley  Ismail  has  put  on  record,  **  from  the 
Break  of   Day  till  Stars  appear  at  Night  without  inter- 


mission  or  standing  still."  The  whish !  wbish  !  of  this 
instrument  is  still,  in  the  interior  cities  of  Morocco,  where 
no  rumble  of  wheels  breaks  the  stillness  of  these  sleepy 
hives  of  Drowsihead,  the  most  frequent  sound  which 
reaches  the  ear.  Others  were  engaged  in  digging  out  earth, 
quarrying  limestone,  and  burning  it,  or  in  collecting  fuel 
with  which  to  heat  the  kilns.  Among  the  many  buildings 
which  they  erected  in  Muley  Abdallah's  reign  may  be 
mentioned  the  palace  of  Dar  Debibeg  near  Fez,  and  in 
Muley  Ismail's  an  entire  "town  for  the  Jews."  The 
eight-span  bridge  over  the  Tensift  Eiver  near  the  city 
of  Morocco  is  also  said  to  have  been  built  by  the  Portu- 
guese captives  who  survived  the  defeat  of  Dom  Sebastian 
at  that  battle  of  Alcazar  which  has  been  the  theme  of  so 
many  poems  and  stories,  besides  the  famous  play  of  George 

In  those  days  wheeled  carriages,  now  all  but  unknown 
in  the  interior  of  Morocco,  appear  to  have  been  in  use ;  for 
the  slaves  were  also  employed  as  carters,  and  went  all  day 
with  waggons  full  of  building  materials,  drawn  by  bulls 
and  horses  yoked  together — this  incongruous  team  being 
nothing  out  of  the  way  in  a  country  where  a  camel  and 
a  mule  may  be  seen  drawing  a  one-stilted  plough,  and 
on  two  occasions  I  noted  a  woman  and  a  donkey  harnessed 
to  this  primitive  agricultural  implement.  The  Christians 
had  even  to  drag  the  Moslem  artillery.  The  more  skilful 
mechanics  were  set  to  make  gunpowder,  and  to  cast 
cannon — an  art  which  died  out  after  Christian  slavery 
ceased — or  to  help  the  native  artizans  to  make  or  repair 
small  arms.  Sawing,  cutting,  cementing,  and  erecting 
marble  pillars  occupied  the  time  of  others.  The  less 
able-bodied  watched  the  beasts  in  the  fields  at  night, 
attended  to  the  horses,  or  raised  water  by  the  cumbersome 
wheel  still  in  use.     Pulling  down  old  buildings  with  the 


rudest  tools  was  another  labour  to  which  they  were 
commonly  put,  and  so  careless  were  their  overseers  that 
it  often  happened  the  slaves  were  killed  or  hurt  by  the 
falling  walls.  Their  tasks  were  sometimes  superintended 
by  the  Emperor  Ismail  in  person,  and  if  it  suited  his 
humour  he  would  dismount  and  take  a  turn  with  the 
pickaxe,  or  the  mallet.  Yet  his  presence  was  even  less 
desired  than  that  of  the  ordinary  overseer  ;  for  during 
the  time  he  remained  the  slaves  were  not  allowed  a 
moment's  rest,  not  even  to  stand  upright  to  ease  their 
weary  backs  or  to  get  a  drop  of  water,  though  the  summer 
sun  was  so  hot  as  to  blister  their  half-naked  bodies. 

Sickness,  which  soon  overtook  the  whites  unused  to 
such  toil  in  such  a  climate,  was  not  considered  any  plea 
for  relief,  and  many  a  poor  fellow  worked  under  the 
stimulus  of  the  stick  until  he  fell  down,  and  was  carried 
oflf  to  die.  They  were  beaten  on  the  slightest  provocation 
or  out  of  mere  wantonness,  and  the  most  insulting  epithets 
hurled  at  the  poor  wretches,  in  any  language  of  which 
the  drivers  happened  to  have  picked  up  a  few  words. 
The  daily  toil  over,  they  were  housed  in  damp  underground 
cellars,  or  "  Matamoras,"  or  in  open  sheds  exposed  to 
the  rain  or  snow,  which  in  winter  sometimes  falls  to  a 
considerable  depth  in  Fez  and  Mequinez,  where  ice  an 
inch  thick  is  by  no  means  unknown.  Even  there  they 
were  not  always  free  of  annoyance,  by  the  baser  order 
amusing  themselves  by  throwing  stones  and  clods  of  dirt 
at  them.  "Kaffir!"  or  "  Unbeliever,"  was  about  the  mildest 
word  addressed  to  them,  and  as  an  Arab  generally  applies 
this  term  to  his  donkey  in  the  interval  of  whacks,  the 
opprobriousness  of  the  epithet  may  be  imagined. 

To  sustain  a  life  of  such  unending  toil  the  captives  were 
fed  very  sparingly  on  the  worst  of  food.  Sometimes  they 
were  allowed  a  small  sum — about  2d. — to  board  themselves. 


Yet  as  they  were  not  always  permitted  to  go  at  large  in 
the  town,  and  had  therefore  to  entrust  their  marketing 
to  some  Moor,  they  were  usually  cheated  out  of  half  their 
dues.  Clothing  they  had  none  except  a  few  rags,  so  that 
the  most  miserable  beggar  in  Mequinez  was  better  fed  and 
sheltered  than  the  man  who  might  a  few  days  before  have 
been  the  master  of  a  stout  ship,  or  a  merchant  in  a  con- 
siderable way  of  business.  Occasionally,  however,  their 
feet  fell  in  pleasanter  places,  in  so  far  that  the  Emperor 
soundly  bastinadoed  a  more  than  ordinarily  brutal  over- 
seer, and  solaced  the  injured  slaves  by  sending  them  a 
plentiful  supply  of  **  Cuscussoo,"  the  favourite  Moorish 
dish.  Yet  a  few  minutes  later,  the  same  uncertain-tempered 
tyrant  would  spear  a  captive  whose  mode  of  work  dis- 
pleased him,  or  order  him  to  fight  with  the  wild  animals 
in  his  menagerie. 

In  very  exceptional  cases,  the  slaves  enjoyed  a  life 
almost  of  freedom,  being  permitted  to  engage  in  trade,  and 
even  to  keep  taverns,  where  they  made  so  much  money 
as  to  be  able  to  buy  their  freedom.  But  the  common 
lot  of  a  white  slave  in  Morocco,  if  not  worse  than  that 
of  the  captives  in  Algiers,  Tripoli,  or  Tunis,  was  no  better, 
except  that  they  were  seldom  employed  to  row  in  the 
galleys,  the  Emperor  not  caring  to  risk  keeping  them  near 
the  coast.  All  classes  had  to  endure  this  misery,  though 
as  a  rule  most  of  them  were  seamen,  and  often  the  higher 
the  position  of  the  slave  the  worse  he  was  treated,  in  order 
to  stimulate  his  friends  to  send  all  the  sooner  the  large 
ransom  demanded  for  him.  Often  after  obtaining  their 
liberty,  the  captives'  constitutions  were  seriously  injured 
by  their  treatment  in  Barbary,  though,  judging  from  the 
pious  titles  of  the  narratives  which  they  wrote  on  their 
return,  and  the  religious  reflections  after  the  manner  of 
Eobinson  Crusoe  on  his  island,  or  of  Master  Pellow  at  the 


outset  of  his  story,  their  moral  fibre  was  considerably 
improved  by  the  chastening  they  had  endured.  But  in 
all  my  reading  of  these  quaint  little  volumes,  I  cannot 
remember  more  than  one  instance  in  which  a  captive's 
physique  was  benefited  by  his  travail  among  the  infidels. 
This  exception  was  that  of  Sir  Jeffrey  Hudson,  the  peppery 
dwarf  of  Charles  I.,  who  went  into  captivity  eighteen 
inches  high,  and  emerged  therefrom  three  feet  and  a 
quarter,  a  result  which  the  little  man  attributed  to  the 
hard  work  he  had  to  perform. 

There  have,  however,  been  instances  in  which  the  slaves 
utilized  the  experience  they  gained  for  the  mutual  benefit 
of  themselves  and  their  relations.  A  romantic  instance 
of  this  is  commemorated  by  a  huge  tenement  in  the 
Canongate  of  Edinburgh,  still  known  as  "  Morocco  Land." 
Though  now  inhabited  by  the  poorest  people,  it  bears 
like  many  houses  in  that  street  the  traces  of  former 
grandeur.  Over  the  alley  passing  under  it  is  a  Latin 
legend  : — 

"  Miserere  mei,  Domine  :  a  peccato,  probo,  Debito  et  morte 
SUBITA.     Libera  ME  l.G. 18" — 

and  from  a  recess  above  the  second  floor  projects  the 
eflSgy  of  a  Moor,  a  black  naked  man,  with  a  turban  and 
necklace  of  beads.  This  was  evidently  the  notion  enter- 
tained by  the  Scottish  artist  of  1618  regarding  an  African 
potentate  belonging  to  the  same  race  as  Othello,  who  even 
yet,  with  a  realism  to  which  ethnology  lends  no  coun- 
tenance, is  represented  by  a  negroised  personage.  The 
tradition  attaching  to  this  building  is,  that  early  in  the 
reign  of  James  L,  a  Scottish  girl  having  bean  captured  by 
a  Sallee  Rover,  became  a  favourite  with  the  then  Emperor 
of  Morocco.  Desirous  of  utilizing  her  influence  for  the 
benefit  of  her  brother,  she  sent  for  him,  and  he,  proving 


successful  in  his  commercial  dealings,  returned  home,  and 
erected  this  mansion,  on  the  facade  of  which  he  set  up  the 
effigy  of  his  imperial  brother-in-law  and  benefactor.  This 
is  one  legend.  But  there  are  several  others,  and  possibly 
the  following  alternative  one  is  quite  as  picturesque,  and 
perhaps  not  less  historical.  It  is  to  the  effect  that  soon  after 
the  accession  of  Charles  I.,  the  house  of  the  Lord  Provost 
— or  chief  magistrate — was  set  on  fire  by  a  mob  led 
by  Andrew  Gray,  the  scapegrace  cadet  of  a  noble 
family,  who,  in  spite  of  all  the  influence  brought  to  bear 
upon  the  judges,  was  condemned  to  be  hanged.  But 
before  the  day  appointed  for  his  execution  arrived,  the 
culprit  managed  to  escape,  and  was  forgotten,  until,  many 
years  subsequently,  a  Barbary  pirate  appeared  in  the 
Frith  of  Forth,  and  demanded  an  enormous  ransom  from 
the  city.  At  that  hour  the  town  was  so  depopulated  by 
the  plague  that  there  were  not  sixty  able-bodied  men 
capable  of  resisting  the  fierce  Corsairs.  The  stricken 
citizens  had  perforce,  therefore,  to  agree  to  their  terms. 
But  the  Provost  was  unable  to  send  his  son  as  a  hostage 
for  the  fulfilment  of  the  contract,  for  his  only  child  was 
a  daughter,  and  she  was  dying  of  the  epidemic.  On 
hearing  this  the  pirate  captain  declared  that  he  had  an 
elixir  which  would  cure  her,  and  that  if  he  failed,  the  city 
should  get  quit  of  the  promised  ransom.  The  lady  was 
cured,  and  then  the  pirate-physician  revealed  his  identity. 
He  was  the  fugitive  Andrew  Gray,  who,  entering  the 
service  of  the  Emperor  of  Morocco,  had  returned  on  board 
this  pirate  ship  determined  to  take  vengeance  on  the  city 
which  had  so  despitefully  used  him.  But  love  was  then 
as  now  '*  the  lord  of  all,"  and  so  the  Sallee  Eeis  abjured 
roving,  married  the  Provost's  daughter,  and  died  a  sober 
citizen  in  the  town  where  he  had  begun  life  so  untowardly. 
He   it   was,    according    to   this    version,   who    fixed    the 


Emperor's  bust  on  the  house  to  which  he  brought  his 
bride,  and  where  in  his  piratical  days  he  cured  her  of 
the  plague.  This  was  in  1645,  the  year  in  which  Muley 
El- Valid,  the  most  clement  of  the  El-hhoseini  dynasty, 
died,  and  his  brother  Muley  Ahmed- Sgeikh,  last  of  the 
sons  of  Muley  Zidan,  began  his  indolent  reign.  History, 
very  fragmentary  so  far  as  the  Morocco  of  those  times 
is  concerned,  has  preserved  no  trace  of  this  repentant 
renegade.  But,  curiously  enough.  Sir  Daniel  Wilson,  the 
eminent  archaeologist,  tells  us  that  though  the  existing  title- 
deeds  of  Morocco  Land  do  not  extend  further  back  than 
1731,  the  owner  at  that  date  was  one  John  Gray,  who 
might  therefore  have  been  a  descendant  of  the  Sallee 
Eover  and  the  Provost's  daughter. 

How  far  this  pretty  tale  is  true  cannot  now  be  known  for 
certain.  But  except  that  it  is  doubtful  whether  in  1645 
the  Saltan  of  Morocco  had  any  vessels  large  enough  to 
venture  as  far  as  Scotland,  there  is  nothing  in  either 
variant  not  in  accordance  with  actual  incidents  in  the 
romantic  chronicles  of  Moroquin  slavery.  The  mother  of 
Muley  Abdallah — the  astute  Lalla  Yoneta  or  Khoneta — is 
said  to  have  been  an  English  captive,  and  among  the  many 
other  wives  of  Muley  Ismail  were  ladies  of  Spanish,  English, 
Greek,  and  other  European  nationalities.  Thus  the 
mother  of  Muley  El- Valid  was  a  Spaniard,  and  that  of 
Muley  es  Shereef — often  mentioned  in  Fellow's  narrative — 
"  a  Christian  "  until  she  "  turned  Moor."  Early  in  last 
century  a  Mrs.  Shaw,  an  Irishwoman,  was  a  temporary 
inmate  of  his  harem,  but  in  1727  she  was  seen  in  Mequinez 
in  rags,  the  wife  of  a  Spanish  renegado,  and  so  far  lost 
to  civilization  as  to  have  forgotten  her  native  tongue  in 
the  course  of  the  nine  years  she  had  been  in  captivity. 
Muley  Ismail  had  even  the  effrontery  to  demand  in 
marriage   the   Mdlle.    de  Blois,    afterwards    Princess    de 


Conti,  daughter  of  Louis  XIV.  of  France  and  Mademoiselle 
de  la  Valliere,  an  incident  which  forced  the  wits  of  Ver- 
sailles into  verse,  of  which  J.  B.  Eousseau's  lines  are 
perhaps  not  the  worst : — 

"  Votre  beaute,  grand  princesse, 
Porte  les  traits  dont  elle  blesse, 
JusqueS  aux  plus  sauvages  lieux  ; 
L'Afrique  avec  vous  capitule 
Et  les  conquetes  de  vos  yeux 
Vont  plus  loin  que  celles  d'Hercule." 

One  of  the  first  wives  wed  by  Sidi  Mohammed  was  Lalla 
Seersceta,  or  Zazet,  daughter  of  an  Irish  or — as  other 
legends  affirm — a  Hessian  renegade ;  and  one  of  his  last 
was  Lalla  Douvia,  a  member  of  the  Genoese  family  of 
Francischini.  But  though  the  first-named  lady  was  the 
mother  of  Muley  El-Jezid,  the  present  Sultan  being 
descended  not  from  that  sovereign,  but  from  his  brother, 
Muley  Hisciam  (the  son  of  another  wife),  cannot,  as  often 
said,  have  **  Irish  blood  in  his  veins."  There  is,  no  doubt, 
a  tale  told  how  the  widow  of  an  Irish  sergeant  of  artillery 
who  had  been  employed  by  the  father  or  grandfather  of 
Muley  El-Hassan,  finding  favour  in  the  Sultan's  eyes,  and 
being  a  "  lone  woman,"  accepted  his  Majesty's  offer,  and 
so  rose  into  lofty  rank  as  the  mother  of  the  future  Emperor. 
But  except  as  a  confused  version  of  Sidi  Mohammed's 
matrimonial  venture,  I  cannot  find  any  basis  for  this  bit 
of  Hibernian  romance.  Again,  some  of  the  captives  now 
and  then  managed  to  obtain  considerable  influence  over 
the  Sultan.  Thus,  Muley  Ismail's  doctor  was  a  Spanish 
slave,  and  the  "  Maestro  Juan,"  who  exercised  such  power 
that  he  was  denied  almost  nothing,  seems  to  have  been 
a  Catalonian  captive,  noted  for  his  sincerity,  discretion, 
and  good  works.  The  Spanish  prisoners,  however,  like 
the  Portuguese,  though  allowed  a  chaplain  and  a  hospital 
in  Mequinez,  were  never  regarded  with  the  same  goodwill 


as  those  belonging  to  other  nationalities.  Abdallah, 
Fellow's  last  master,  would  seldom  permit  them  to  be 
ransomed,  in  revenge  for  the  hardships  inflicted  upon  the 
Moorish  captives  in  the  galleys  of  Cadiz  and  Lisbon,  and 
on  the  Moriscoes  when  they  were  driven  out  of  the 
Peninsula.  As  the  English  did  not  then  enslave  their 
captives,  the  Emperor  treated  our  people  rather  better, 
though  none  of  them  were  quite  pampered  either  by  him 
or  by  his  successor.  Yet  Muley  El-Jezid,  the  **  Red 
Sultan,"  amidst  all  his  truculence,  bestowed  marked 
favours  on  the  countrymen  of  his  mother,  albeit  that  lady 
received  little  filial  affection  at  his  hands. 

The  Moors  had,  however,  no  great  liking  for  Ransom  or 
Christians  simply  as  slaves,  though  Muley  ^^<=*p«- 
Ismail,  for  ostentation's  sake,  kept  great  numbers  about 
him.  Negroes  were  in  every  respect  better  servants — 
unless  the  captive  happened  to  be  a  skilled  artificer — and 
made  no  attempt  to  escape.  This,  it  is  needless  to  add, 
the  captured  Christians  never  ceased  to  regard  as  a  possi- 
bility. Ransom  was  therefore  what  they  were  detained  in 
the  hope  of  bringing.  The  wealthier  only  could  usually 
arrange  for  this  being  sent  from  home.  The  poorer  ones, 
if  Roman  Catholics,  looked  to  the  Fathers  of  Our  Lady  of 
Mercy,  or  to  the  Trinitarian,  or  Mercenarian,  or  Redemp- 
tionist  Fathers,  orders  specially  charged  with  the  collection 
of  money  for  the  ransom  of  "  Christians  among  the 
infidels,"  and  to  undertake  the  weary,  and  oftentimes 
dangerous,  journeys  demanded  by  their  benevolent  missions. 
The  English  bondmen  lived  in  hope  of  the  king  sending, 
as  he  usually  did,  a  periodical  embassy  for  the  purpose  of 
obtaining  the  freedom  of  his  enslaved  subjects.  If  this 
failed,  there  were  pious  benefactions  like  that  which 
Thomas  Betton  left  in  trust  with  the  Ironmongers'  Com- 
pany for   the  express    purpose  of   redeeming    those  so 


unfortunate  as  to  experience  the  fate  which  had  been  his. 
At  every  church  door  also  there  were  collections  for  the 
manumission  of  poor  sea-faring  folk  who  had  been  "taken" 
by  Algerines  or  Salleteenes,  so  that  with  patience  there 
was  always  a  chance  of  the  slave  seeing  his  native  land 
again.  But  as  the  experience  of  many  of  them  proved, 
by  and  by  meant  an  indefinite  number  of  years.  Even 
when  the  Sultan  was  willing  to  free  them  there  were  end- 
less obstacles  in  the  way,  and  it  is  feared  that  not 
unfrequently  the  *'  Christian  merchants  "  and  the  Jews, 
who  somehow  or  other  managed  to  squeeze  a  profit  out  of 
the  Nazarenes'  toil,  did  something  to  retard  their  ransom  ; 
for  as  the  Sultan  did  not  care  to  be  paid  for  his  prisoners 
in  money,  but  in  ammunition,  arms,  and  the  like,  the 
traders  in  the  coast  towns  found  a  less  lucrative  customer 
in  him  than  they  would  otherwise  have  done.  Nor  were 
the  apostates  very  fond  of  seeing  their  countrymen  who 
had  been  more  steadfast  in  the  faith  receiving  the  reward 
of  their  endurance.  Hence,  dealing  as  the  agents  did  with 
a  shifty  despot,  they  had  sometimes  to  return  without 
accomplishing  their  errand.  Even  when  they  succeeded, 
the  average  cost  was  between  two  and  three  hundred 
dollars  for  the  purchase  of  each  captive,  and  when 
Moorish  prisoners  were  accepted  in  exchange  it  was  seldom 
that  the  rate  was  lower  than  ten  of  the  Faithful  for  one  of 
the  Unbelievers ;  and  when  manuscripts  left  in  Spain  were, 
as  in  one  instance,  accepted  in  barter,  the  ratio  was  fixed 
in  a  manner  quite  as  disproportionate. 

To  escape  was  not  so  easy.  The  captives  were  closely 
watched,  and  treachery  among  their  own  number  was  con- 
stantly to  be  dreaded ;  for  just  as  misfortune  brings  out 
the  heroic  in  the  humblest  of  souls,  so  does  it  develop  the 
baseness  of  the  worser  sort.  All  kinds  of  expedients  were 
adopted  to  enable  the  runaways  to  get  a  start  before  they 


were  missed,  or  to  avoid  pursuit  when  they  were  on  the 
road.     In  Algiers  it  was  comparatively  easy  to  make  a 
burst  for  freedom ;   for  as  that  city  is  on  the  sea-shore 
boats  could  be  seized,  and  ship  captains  found  ready  to 
run  the  risk  of  concealing  the  white  slaves  determined  to 
be  free.     But  in  Fez  or  Mequinez  or  Marrakesch  "  a  long 
journey  through  hostile  tribes  and  a  roadless  country  had 
to  be  undertaken,  and  after  the  Europeans  had  abandoned 
Tangier,   Azila,   Larache,  Mamora,   Mazagan,   Saffi,  and 
Agadir,  it  was  even  more  dangerous  for  the  captive  to  arrive 
at  the  sea  in  the  hope  of  being  able  to  make  the  European 
coast.     However,  Christian  slaves  were  numerous,  and  so 
it  occasionally  happened  that  the  runaway  managed  not  to 
attract  attention.    But  if  caught,  the  bastinado  was  about 
the    mildest   punishment   he    could    expect.      In    Muley 
Ismail's  day  he  would  most  likely  have  been  tortured,  or 
speared,  and  his  captors  been  compelled  with  cruel  irony 
to  pay  the  Sultan  for  the  loss  he  had  sustained  by  the 
death  of  so  presumptively  valuable  a  piece  of  property. 

Comparatively  few,  therefore,  had  either  a   chance   to 
undertake  the  risk  of  this  venture,  or  the  courage  to  face 
the  fate  which  would  certainly  await  them  if  they  failed. 
There  was,    however,    a  last  expedient  to 

escape    the    misery    of    daily  toil,   and    this 

many  a  faint  heart  adopted  at  an  early  stage  of  his  cap- 
tivity. They  "  turned  Moor."  In  other  words  they  became 
Apostates,  or,  as  the  Spaniards  call  them,  Eenegadoes  or 
Renegades,  by  professing,  in  name  at  least,  the  Moham- 
medan faith.  Then,  though  it  did  not  always  ensue  that 
they  were  free  to  follow  their  own  inclinations  so  long  as 
they  did  not  leave  the  country,  they  usually  received  a 
remission  of  much  of  their  toil,  since  it  was  accounted 
infamous  not  to  treat  the  "  convert  "  as  a  being  very  much 
■•'  The  Moorish  name  for  Morocco  city. 


superior  to  his  Christian  brethren.  The  number  of  these 
renegades  was  at  one  time  very  great.  In  1690,  it  was 
estimated  that  very  few  of  the  2,000  people  captured  at  the 
surrender  of  Mamora  had  not  abjured  their  faith,  and  that 
only  400  out  of  the  1,800  enslaved  at  the  fall  of  Larache 
were  "not  then  Moors." 

And  no  doubt,  to  loose-living  sailors,  there  was  an  often 
irresistible  temptation  to  take  this  course.  The  love  of  a 
swarthy  lass,  the  desire  for  an  easier  life,  the  yearning  to 
take  vengeance  on  the  task-masters  who  had  so  cruelly 
treated  them  when  protest  was  unavailing,  and  finally 
the  belief  that  by  an  outward  show  of  Mohammedanism 
their  opportunities  for  escape  would  be  greater,  were  among 
the  mixed  motives  which  instigated  this  step.  Neverthe- 
less, as  Fellow's  experience  shows,  even  the  renegade  did 
not  always  find  his  exodus  from  the  house  of  bondage  so 
easy  as  he  had  expected.  The  women  almost  invariablj' 
adopted  the  faith  of  their  captors.  Then  they  disappeared 
into  the  harems,  and  were  seen  of  christened  men  no  more. 
Their  lot,  always  a  miserable  one,  was  not  lightened  by  the 
hope  of  ransom ;  for,  as  subjects  of  the  Sultan — as  all 
renegades  were  regarded  —  they  were  excluded  from  the 
bounty  of  the  "  redemptors,'^  and  from  their  secluded 
position,  escape,  if  ever  they  had  any  care  to  return  in 
dishonour  to  their  native  land,  was  all  but  impossible. 
The  captives  were,  however,  not  usually  importuned  to 
change  their  religion,  unless  it  happened  that  they  fell  into 
the  hands  of  bigots ;  for  as  there  was  an  implied  contract 
that  they  were  to  be  free,  every  Christian  "  turned  Moor  " 
meant  simply  one  slave  less  to  his  Moslem  master.  Nor 
were  they  much  esteemed,  or  trusted  more  than  the  majority 
of  them  deserved,  for  the  sincerity  of  people  who  so  readily 
turned  their  religious  coat  at  the  bidding  of  self-interest 
was  naturally  suspected.     A  large  number  of  them  were. 


in  truth,  unmitigated  rascals  of  no  creed,  and  ready  to 
play  into  the  hands  of  the  Moors  or  of  the  Christians  alike, 
and  to  betray  both  as  seemed  to  promise  most  profit  for 
themselves.  Hence  an  "  Oodali  "  or  Christian  per\^ert  was 
— and  is  to  this  day — regarded  by  the  Moors  as  only  a  trifle 
better  than  an  "Aselami"  or  turncoat  Jew,  who  is  con- 
sidered as  having  reached  about  the  lowest  depth  to  which 
human  nature  can  descend.  Yet  Israelitish  regenades  are 
frequent,  the  motive  at  work  in  their  nominal  conver- 
sion being  almost  always  a  desire  to  escape  the  disabilities 
of  the  race,  or  a  hope  of  gaining  something  thereby.  In 
the  early  days  of  the  Arab  invasion  of  Morocco  most  of  the 
little  Atlas  tribes  of  Jews  abandoned  their  faith,  and  the 
late  Grand  Vizier,  Sid  Mohammed  Ben  Araby,  uncle  of  the 
Emperor  by  marriage,  was  the  chief  of  one  of  these 
supposed  renegade  communities,  a  rumour  to  which  his 
markedly  Hebraic  features  lent  ample  countenance. 

The  renegadoes  got  wives,  but  it  was  seldom  that  they 
were  permitted,  like  Haidee's  corsair  father,  to  wed 

"...  a  Moorish  maid  from  Fez, 
\Miere  all  is  Eden  or  a  wilderness." 

Most  frequently  they  had  to  content  themselves  with 
negresses,  women  of  low  degree,  or  the  daughters  of 
other  renegades,  and  thus  to  become  a  class  by  them- 
selves. Even  their  children  were  despised.  Muley  Ismail 
actually  ordered  an  investigation  to  be  made,  so  that  the 
offspring  of  slaves  and  renegades  might  either  be  taxed  or 
reduced  to  the  condition  of  their  forefathers.  In  Fez  and 
Mequinez  there  are  still  swarms  of  people  descended  from 
European  ancestors,  and  easily  distinguished  by  their  fair 
complexion,  and  not  infrequently  fair  hair.  Agoory,  a  town 
where  Pellow  lived  for  many  years,  is  almost  entirely  peopled 
by  them.   Muley  Ismail,  after  a  renegade  had  attempted  his 


assassination,  determined  to  have  about  him  as  few  of  the 
Mala  Casta  (to  use  the  Spanish  name  for  them)  as  possible. 
Accordingly,  he  transported  about  1,500  of  them  to  the 
distant  province  of  Draa,  which,  on  that  account,  was  long 
known  as  the  Land  of  the  Apostates — and  in  the  chief 
town  of  that  region  their  descendants  live  to  this  day, 
little,  if  anything,  distinguishable  from  the  natives  around 

Still,  one  or  two  of  greater  cunning,  ability,  or  knavery, 
managed  to  attain  considerable  positions  in  the  country. 
Thus  several  of  the  vilest,  unable  to  return  with  safety 
to  their  own  countries,  were  captains  of  pirate  vessels. 
As  late  as  1780,  "  Omar,"  a  Scotchman,  was  "  Keis  "  of  a 
"  zebek  "  of  sixteen  guns  and  124  men;  and  early  in  last 
century  a  Monsieur  Fillet,  a  former  French  merchant 
and  a  friend  of  Fellow's,  was  for  twelve  months  governor 
of  Sallee.  "  One  Carr,"  a  renegade,  was  in  1727  Kaid  of  the 
Jews,  and  had  been  governor  "  on  the  frontiers  of  Guinea," 
though  he  preferred  offices  less  apt  to  incur  malice  ;  while 
it  is  scarcely  necessary  to  recall  the  romantic  tale  of  the 
Duke  of  Eipperda,  who,  to  take  vengeance  on  Spain,  of 
which  he  had  been  Frime  Minister,  crossed  the  Straits, 
and  as  the  Grand  Vizier  of  Muley  Abdallah  did  his  best 
to  serve  his  adopted  country,  and  finally,  after  having  been 
successively  Frotestant,  Eoman  Catholic,  and  Moham- 
medan, passed  the  closing  years  of  his  life  in  trying  to 
persuade  the  Moors  of  Tetuan  that  he  was  the  last  of  the 

The  little  esteem  in  which  these  apostates  were  held 
is  shown  by  the  fact  that  Christians  who  had  made  no 
pretence  of  adopting  Islam  were  readily  employed  by  the 
Sultans.  Thus,  among  the  principal  architects  and  military 
engineers  in  the  service  of  Sidi  Mohammed  and  his  suc- 
cessors, were  Cornut,  a  Frenchman ;  Petrobelli,  a  Triestan  ; 


de  Pietrasanta,  a  Tuscan  ;  and  Chiappe,  a  Genoese.  As  a 
rule  the  renegades  were  employed  as  soldiers,  kept  at 
work  far  from  the  coast,  or  quartered  in  distant  "  kasbahs  " 
until  they  got  knocked  on  the  head  by  the  plundered 
country  people.  In  Muley  El-Jezid's  reign  Mogador  was 
garrisoned  by  250  French  turncoats — wrecked  seamen  who 
had  apostatized  to  save  their  lives — commanded  by  Bois- 
selin,  the  son  of  a  Parisian  hatter,  who  had  voluntarily 
chosen  the  faith  and  service  of  the  Sultan,  and  it  would 
appear  that  Pellow  and  others  were  raised  to  considerable 
posts  in  the  army.  These  voluntary  apostates  were,  how- 
ever, generally  scoundrels  who  had  left  their  country  for  their 
country's  good,  escaped  convicts  from  the  Spanish  fortresses 
on  the  coast,  or  individuals  who  found  in  the  license  of  a 
semi-lawless  land  a  life  more  agreeable  than  that  to  which 
they  would  have  had  to  submit  in  Europe.  They  therefore 
seldom  attempted  to  leave.  But  the  captives  generally 
cherished  secret  longings  in  that  direction. 

PeUow'8  I^  t^^y   managed  to   accomplish   this  aim, 

Narrative,  their  home-coming  was  an  event  too  rare  not 
to  excite  much  attention,  and  though  "  interviewing  "  was 
then  uninvented,  some  particulars  about  them  usually 
found  their  way  into  the  news  sheets,  and  not  infrequently 
the  manumitted  bondman  was  presented  to  the  king,  in 
the  hope  of  obtaining  through  his  Majesty's  bounty  a 
pecuniary  solace  for  the  hardships  he  had  undergone.  As 
a  means  of  **  raising  the  wind,"  the  escaped  seaman  some- 
times, with  the  aid  of  the  local  schoolmaster,  or  other 
literary  character,  tried  to  write  an  account  of  his  adven- 
tures, which  he  hawked  about  the  country,  or  disposed  of 
by  subscription.  I  have  collected  upwards  of  a  score  of 
these  quaintly  written,  badly  printed,  dog-eared,  narrow- 
margined  narratives,  and  possess  a  copy  of  one  in  Dutch 
which  is  believed  to  be  unique,  as  it  is  unknown  to  any  of 



the  bibliographers  of  Batavian  literature.  How  far  these 
narratives  were  actually  the  work  of  the  ostensible  writers, 
it  is  not  now  easy  to  ascertain.  Nor  does  it  matter.  They 
had  assistance,  no  doubt.  The  bits  of  fine  writing,  the 
ponderous  periods,  and  the  occasional  scraps  of  Latinity, 
bespeak  the  parson;  while  the  "padding"  out  of  the  slim 
volume  with  unacknowledged  extracts  from  other  authors, 
cheek-by-jowl  with  moral  reflections,  smacks  of  the  literary 
gentleman  who  lodged  at  "the  thief-catcher's  in  Lewkner's 
Lane,  and  wrote  against  the  impiety  of  Mr.  Eowe's 
plays."  For  in  those  days,  years  after  Defoe  had  penned 
his  deathless  classic,  Grub  Street  was  very  busy  with  the 
Sallee  rovers  and  Barbary  slavery,  as  Eobert  Chetwood's 
"Adventures  of  Captain  Boyle,"  and  the  "Voyages  of 
William  Owen  Gwin  Vaughan  "  abundantly  testify.  Such 
help  was  necessary,  for,  with  few  exceptions,  the  Barbary 
bondmen  were  "  no  scholars."  Even  when  they  could  write, 
many  of  them  had  almost  forgotten  their  mother  tongue, 
and  the  fact  that  Fellow  still  spoke  English  may  have  been 
due  to  his  better  early  education,  and  to  his  continually 
conversing  with  other  English  captives  either  in  the 
interior  or  in  the  coast  towns. 

Fellow's  little-known  work  is  perhaps  the  most  valuable 
of  these  personal  narratives.  For  not  only  did  he  travel 
further  than^most  of  his  fellows  in  misfortune,  but  he  lived 
longer  in  Morocco.  At  first,  I  was  a  little  suspicious  of 
its  authenticity,  mainly  from  the  fact  that  several  of  the 
pages  were  verbatim,  and  not  always  acknowledged,  extracts 
from  Windus'  "  Journey  to  Mequinez."  But  it  was  soon 
evident  that  these  interpolations  had  been  sandwiched  into 
Fellow's  account  by  the  original  editor  in  order  to  pad  out 
the  book,  for  they  were  lugged  in  without  any  regard  to  the 
sequence  by  a  person  ignorant  of  Morocco,  and  too  illiterate 
even  to  put  his  literary  loot  into  his  own  words.    Much  the 


same  extracts  appear  in  Troughton's  account  of  the  wreck 
of  the  Inspector,  and  to  some  extent  also  in  Ockley's 
work,  and  in  the  English  edition  of  Chenier's  history.  We 
may  therefore  presume  that  in  an  age  of  no  copyright, 
and  consequently  of  loose  morality,  Windus'  oft-pirated 
volume  seems  to  have  been  regarded  as  a  free  warren  for 
the  first  poacher  who  passed  that  way. 

The  essential  truthfulness  of  the  book  was  however  easily 
demonstrable.  Rivers,  towns,  and  other  localities  were 
mentioned  which  at  the  time  were  not  to  be  found  on  any 
map  and  in  no  work  ;  while  the  phonetic  spelling — though 
not  more  phonetic  than  some  by  more  scholarly  travellers 
of  a  later  period — showed  that  the  author  could  not  have 
consulted  "Authorities,"  otherwise  he  would  have  adopted 
the  usual  orthography.  Events  are  noted  and  men  men- 
tioned who,  though  now  familiar,  were  at  the  date  of  his 
writing  strangers  to  European  fame,  and  indeed  were  not 
celebrated  in  print  for  years  subsequently.  Here  and  there, 
as  I  have  shown  in  the  appended  notes,  Pellow  makes 
blunders  when,  had  he  been  inventing  a  history,  he  would 
have  insured  accuracy  by  pillaging  from  early  accessible 
books  capable  of  supplying  the  necessary  information. 

To  this  may  be  added  that  the  Pellow  family  are  still 
numerous  in  and  about  Penryn,  and  that  the  people  men- 
tioned in  the  course  of  the  narrative  have  enabled  us  to 
check  the  statements  made  by  him.  Colonel  James,  who 
wrote  a  description  of  the  Gibraltar  Straits,  saw  the  MS. 
of  the  book,  and  finally,  if  further  proof  were  necessary 
that  Thomas  Pellow  was  a  real  personage,  this  is  supplied 
in  a  manner  which  admits  of  no  possible  cavil.  In  the 
course  of  his  narrative  he  casually  notes  that  "  Captain 
Eussel"  had  arrived  in  Morocco,  but  vouchsafes  no 
other  information  regarding  him.  But  in  turning  to 
Braithwaite's  account  of  Mr  Eussel's  embassy,  we  find  a 


confirmatory  description  of  Pellow — or  Pilleau,  as  he  spells 
the  name  —  under  date  Nov.  27,  1727 :  "  To-day  were 
visited  [in  Mequinez]  by  one  Pilleau,  a  young  fellow  of 
good  family  in  Cornwal  but  now  turned  Moor.  He  was 
taken  very  young  with  Captain  Pilleau  his  Uncle,  and  being 
a  handsome  boy  he  was  given  by  Muley  Ismael  to  one  of 
his  sons.  The  Christian  captives  gave  this  young  man  a 
wonderful  character,  saying  he  endured  enough  to  have 
killed  seven  men,  before  his  master  could  make  him  turn. 
Pilleau  being  taken  very  young  spoke  the  Arabick  language 
as  well  as  the  Moors,  and  having  traversed  this  vast  country 
even  to  the  frontier  of  Guinea,  was  capable  of  giving  a  very 
good  account  of  it.  He  is  at  present  a  soldier,  as  all  the 
renegadoes  are,  who  have  no  particular  trade  or  calling ; 
but  their  allowance  of  pay  and  corn  is  so  small  that  they 
are  in  a  starving  condition,  being  obliged  to  rob  and  plun- 
der for  the  greatest  part  of  their  subsistence  ;  for  which 
they  were  often  killed  when  taken."  We  also  find  from 
other  allusions  that  he  frequently  acted  as  interpreter  for 
the  Embassy. 

Apart,  however,  from  its  interest  as  a  tale  of  strange 
adventures,  Pellow 's  narrative,  written  thirteen  years 
subsequent  to  the  date  of  this  interview,  is  valuable  as  a 
geographical  document,  though,  strangely  enough,  it  has 
been  neglected  by  Kenou  and  other  commentators  on  the 
topography  of  Morocco,  and  does  not  find  a  place  in  any  of 
the  imperfect  bibliographies  of  Moroquin  literature.  Yet 
Pellow  visited  many  parts  of  the  country  for  the  first  time, 
and  several  which  not  improbably  have  not  been  seen  by 
any  other  European  traveller.  He  was,  moreover,  a  soldier 
under  Muley  Ismail,  Muley  Dehebhi,  Muley  Abdelmalek,  and 
Muley  Abdallah,  and  was  an  eye-witness  to  most  of  the 
sanguinary  episodes  of  their  reigns.  His  tale  appears  to 
have   been   compiled  by  the  aid  of  notes  of  some  kind 


though  in  not  a  few  instances  his  memory  was  too  im- 
plicitly relied  upon  for  distances,  dates,  and  the  names 
of  places.  This  he  confesses,  when  it  would  have  been 
easy  enough  for  a  less  conscientious  author  to  have 
invented  what  he  had  forgotten.  For  as  Sir  John  Maunde- 
vile  puts  it,  "  thinges  passed  out  of  long  tyme  from  a 
Mannes  mynde  or  from  his  syght,  turnen  sone  into  for- 

The  book,  of  which  two  editions  were  ''Printed  by  R. 
Goadby,  and  sold  by  W.  Owen,  Bookseller  at  Temple  Bar, 
London,"  was  issued  without  date,  in  1740,  under  the 
following  prolix  title  : — "  The  History  of  the  Long  Cap- 
tivity and  Adventures  of  Thomas  Fellow,  in  South-Barbary. 
Giving  an  Account  of  his  being  taken  by  two  Sallee  Rovers, 
and  carry'd  a  Slave  to  Mequinez,  at  Eleven  Years  of  Age : 
His  various  Adventures  in  that  Country  for  the  Space  of 
Twenty-three  Years :  Escape,  and  Return  Home.  In  which 
is  introduced,  a  particular  Account  of  the  Manners  and 
Customs  of  the  Moors ;  the  astonishing  Tyranny  and 
Cruelty  of  their  Emperors,  and  a  Relation  of  all  those 
great  Revolutions  and  Bloody  Wars  which  happen'd  in  the 
Kingdoms  of  Fez  and  Morocco,  between  the  Years  1720  and 
1736.  Together  with  a  Description  of  the  Cities,  Towns, 
and  Public  Buildings  in  those  Kingdoms ;  Miseries  of  the 
Christian  Slaves ;  and  many  other  Curious  Particulars. 
Written  by  Himself."  This  anachronistic  periphrasis  we 
have  somewhat  abridged.  But  with  the  exception  of  the 
omission  of  some  of  the  passages  stolen  from  other  authors, 
the  body  of  this  volume  is  a  full  reprint  of  the  mariner's 
curious  tale.  Even  the  illiterate  spelling  of  the  names  has 
not  been  altered,  for  the  author  evidently  wrote  them  with- 
out much  idea  of  Arabic  orthography ;  so  that  any  attempt 
to  modernize  them  might  prevent  the  less  patent  ones 
from  being  deciphered.     The  notes,  however,  which  I  have 


appended  will  elucidate  the  more  obscure  allusions.  Alto- 
gether, the  book  may  be  treated  as  a  fairly  accurate  picture 
of  Morocco  between  1715  and  1738,  in  addition  to  being 
an  account  of  twenty-three  years'  unique  experience  in  a 
country  still  only  partially  known,  and  in  those  days  even 
less  familiar  to  Europe.  I  am  the  more  confirmed  in  this 
opinion  by  the  fact  that  my  accomplished  young  friend, 
Mr,  Budgett-Meakin,  of  Tangier,  who  printed  the  greater 
part  in  the  "  Times  of  Morocco,"  and  to  whom  I  am  in- 
debted for  some  of  the  modern  names  and  vernacular 
Arabic,  has,  in  common  with  other  English  residents, 
arrived  at  the  same  conclusion  regarding  its  authenticity, 
though  until  now  its  importance  in  the  history  of  Moroquin 
geography  has  not  been  recognized. 

The  But  of  "  all   good  things  there  cometh  an 

of^sia^ery^m  ^nd."  And  thus  in  the  fulness  of  time  a  traffic 
Morocco,  go  lucrative  as  that  of  the  capture  and  enslave- 
ment of  Christians  began  to  draw  to  a  close.  Europe  was 
getting  stronger  and  Morocco  weaker.  All  of  the  Barbary 
States  had  been  feeling  the  heavy  hand  of  the  Nazarenes, 
and  Morocco  was  not  long  to  escape.  In  1791,  England 
framed  a  treaty  confirming  one  of  a  previous  date  which 
gave  our  merchants  much  greater  liberty  than  they  had 
hitherto  enjoyed,  and  permitted  any  renegade  to  return  to 
his  old  faith  so  long  as  he  had  not  appeared  on  three 
separate  days  before  the  governor  of  a  city  or  province 
and  the  English  Consul,  declaring  each  time  his  resolution 
to  remain  a  Mussulman.  Prisoners,  were,  however,  still 
"  taken  "  and  still  ransomed  as  of  old.  But  in  1800  Muley 
Suliman  agreed  with  Spain  that  there  should  be  a  reciprocal 
interchange  of  captives,  and  similar  contracts  were  soon 
afterwards  entered  into  with  other  powers.  Then,  in  1817, 
Suliman  agreed  to  disarm  his  war  vessels,  and  formally 
put  an  end  to  the  system  which  had  so  long  prevailed,  a 


course  to  which  he  was  the  more  readily  persuaded  by  hear- 
ing of  the  trouble  which  had  befallen  Tripoli,  Tunis,  and 
Algiers,  by  the  growing  strength  of  the  British  in  the 
vicinity  of  Gibraltar,  and  lastly  by  the  difficulty  found  in 
sheltering  his  pirate  fleets  in  their  old  haunts,  owing  to  the 
shoaling  up  of  the  river  mouths. 

Still,  though  piracy  and  slavery  were  no  longer  officially 
recognized,  they  did  not  entirely  cease.  They  were  too 
profitable.  Along  the  wild  Riff  shore,  where  the  inhabitants 
scarcely  recognize  the  authority  of  the  Sultan,  it  was 
perilous  for  a  merchant  ship  to  lie  becalmed,  especially  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  village  of  Beni-boogaffer,  near  Cape 
"  Tres  Forcas "  (Eas  ed  Dir),  about  fifteen  miles  to  the 
westward  of  the  Spanish  presidio  of  Melilla.  For  suddenly 
the  natives  launched  their  "  kareebs,"  hidden  in  nooks  or 
buried  under  sand,  and  bore  down  upon  the  vessel,  firing 
volleys  to  frighten  the  doomed  crew,  who,  if  they  did  not 
escape  in  their  boats,  were  certain  to  be  enslaved  and 
their  ship  pillaged  and  burnt.  But  though  compelled  to 
labour  in  the  fields,  on  a  scanty  allowance  of  poor  food, 
they  were  not  actually  ill-treated  unless  they  offered  resist- 
ance— which  was  difficult,  as  the  "kareebs"  were  each 
manned  by  thirty  or  forty  men  all  armed  with  long  guns, 
pistols,  and  daggers. 

This  went  on  up  to  the  year  1856,  when  Sir  John 
Drummond-Hay  succeeded  in  rescuing  some  prisoners, 
and  exacting  a  promise  that  similar  conduct  should  not 
occur  again.  This  compact  was  kept ;  for  the  capture  of  a 
Spanish  vessel  in  1889  was  really  not  an  act  of  piracy,  but 
an  exercise  of  zeal  on  the  part  of  the  tribesmen  desirous  of 
punishing  a  ship's  crew  engaged  in  contraband  trade.  Along 
the  Sus  coast,  and  further  south,  every  vessel  wrecked  there 
was  looked  upon  by  the  wild  Ai-abs  as  a  lawful  prize,  and 
though   the   Sultan  used  means  to  rescue  the  crew,  he 


invariably  disclaimed  responsibility  for  these  outrages.  In 
this  way  Saugnier,  Eiley,  Adams,  Puddock,  Cochelet,  and 
other  seamen  \^■ho  wrote  narratives  of  their  adventm-es, 
were  enslaved.  A  Spanish  subject  of  British  descent — Mr. 
James  Butler,  generally  known  as  Butler-Abrines — having 
in  1868  landed  on  this  coast,  at  a  spot  only  five  days' 
journey  by  land  south  of  Mogador,  was,  with  two  friends, 
seized  by  the  Sheik  Habib  ben  Baruk,  and  held  until  the 
Spanish  Government  redeemed  them,  after  seven  years' 
captivity,  for  the  sum  of  £5,400.  Seiaor  Butler  died  only 
four  years  ago.  M.  Camille  Douls,  a  young  French  traveller, 
was  the  latest  victim  of  these  brigands,  who  treated  him 
with  the  greatest  cruelty  during  his  detention  in  1887. 
But  though  the  Sultan  affected  to  disarm  his  vessels,  he 
did  not  altogether  lay  them  up  in  ordinary.  As  late  as 
1829  he  captured  the  ships  of  Powers  with  which  he  had 
not  formed  treaties,  under  a  peculiarly  Moorish  convention 
which  took  for  granted  that  they  who  were  not  with  him 
were  against  him.  In  that  year  when  Sir  Arthur  Brooke 
was  at  Tangier,  he  noticed  the  departure  of  two  Moorish 
brigs  '•'  in  the  hope  of  pouncing  upon  some  hapless  Bremen 
or  Hamburg  merchantmen,"  and  mentions  that  Sweden 
and  other  States,  to  save  themselves  the  expense  of  main- 
taining costly  squadrons  in  the  Mediterranean,  actually 
paid  Muley  Abd-er-Eahman  good  round  sums  by  way  of 

Their  escapades  nevertheless  cost  His  Shereefian  Majesty 
rather  dearly.  For  in  1828  the  English  established  a 
blockade  of  the  Morocco  coast  in  retaliation  for  some 
damage  done  by  his  corsairs,  and  in  1829  the  capture  of 
an  Austrian  ship  led  to  the  bombardment  of  the  ports  of 
Tetuan,  Azila,  and  Piabat-Sallee,  while  there  were  constant 
bickerings  with  Spain  over  the  piratical  proceedings  of  the 
Riff  men  already  mentioned.     These  difficulties,  coupled 


with  a  variety  of  other  "  outrages "  more  or  less  well 
founded,  culminated  in  the  Spanish  war  of  1859-60,  which 
taught  the  Moors  a  well-rememhered  lesson. 

The  truth  seems  to  have  been  that  the  Sultans  of  Morocco, 
like  their  brethren  in  Tunis,  Tripoli,  and  Algiers,  yielded 
only  to  the  force  majeure ;  and  it  is  now  known  that  before 
the  French  occupation  of  the  last-named  city  demonstrated 
the  hopelessness  of  any  return  of  the  good  old  days,  secret 
embassies,  with  the  object  of  establishing  an  anti- Christian 
league,  were  passing  backwards  and  forwards  among  these 
pirate-powers  of  Islam.  But  in  time,  piracy  was  relegated 
to  the  traditions  of  Morocco,  though  the  engrained  legend 
that  the  Unbeliever  was  the  lawful  prey  of  the  Faithful  died 
hard  along  the  wilder  shores  of  Barbary.  For  apart  from 
the  long-continued  robberies  by  the  Eiffians,  and  the  plunder 
and  enslavement  of  shipwrecked  mariners  on  the  coast  of 
Sus,  and  the  eastern  littoral  of  Tunis,  which  continued 
until  a  very  late  date,*  a  spot  so  near  Tangier  as  Cape 
Spartel,  where  there  is  now  a  lighthouse,  was  a  dangerous 
locality  only  sixty  years  ago.  Indeed,  it  was  then  and  for  a 
long  time  subsequently  perilous  to  wander  far  out  of  sight 
of  the  military  escort  still — j)ro  forma — sent  with  travellers, 
in  case  some  tribesmen  should  be  lurking  in  the  vicinity. 
Sir  Arthur  Brooke,  writing  in  1831,  remarks  that  "the 
country  Moors  on  all  parts  of  the  coast  are  constantly  on 
the  look-out  for  Christians,  and  instantly  make  prisoners 
of  all  who  have  either  landed  accidentally  or  have  been 

^■'-  In  1832,  Sir  Gi'enville  Temple's  yacbt  was  twice  piu-sued  by  Greek 
and  Turkish  pirates  hovering  ofif  the  corsair-infested  shoi'es  of  Tunis. 
But  in  1889  I  wandered  unmolested  among  the  Arab  villages  in  the 
date-covered  oasis  of  Gabes,  where,  until  the  marauders  were  awed  by 
the  French  Army  of  Occupation,  any  traveller  not  well  guarded  would 
assuredly,  if  not  mm-dered,  have  been  stripped  to  the  skin.  To  pass 
from  Tripoli  along  the  shores  of  the  Lesser  Syrtis,  by  Djcrba,  "  the 
Isle  of  the  Lotos-Eaters,"  was  perilous  even  for  small  bodies  of  troops, 
the  Bedouins  being  bold  to  recklessness. 


shipwrecked.  Parties  that  are  occasionally  formed,  as 
ours  was,  to  visit  Cape  Spartel,  are  even  subject  to  this  : 
and  in  one  recent  instance  the  lady  of  the  English  Vice- 
Consul,  who  had  strolled  to  a  short  distance  out  of  sight 
of  the  guard  that  attended  her,  was  on  the  point  of  being 
made  a  prisoner  of  by  a  body  of  natives  who  surrounded  her 
and  her  party,  thinking  they  were  alone,  until  undeceived 
by  the  timely  appearance  of  the  escort."  A  boat's  crew 
who  had  landed  the  year  before,  narrowly  escaped  being 
marched  to  Fez,  and  were  finally  ransomed  by  the  British 
Consul  in  Tangier;  and  still  nearer  our  own  time,  the 
Highland  Lad  transport  having  been  becalmed  off  Cape 
Spartel,  an  officer  who  went  ashore,  and  incautiously  pro- 
ceeded a  little  way  inland,  was  surrounded  and  carried  off, 
while  his  companions  managed  to  reach  their  vessel  under 
the  fire  of  their  pursuers.  In  spite  of  all  the  efforts  of  the 
British  Consul-General  nothing  more  was  ever  heard  of 
him,  so  that  the  chances  are  he  was  murdered  by  his 
merciless  captors. 

Changes  All  this  is,   however,  very  ancient   history. 

^  Sncr*'°  ^^^^  Moors  no  longer  enslave  the  whites,  and  in 
PeUow's  time.  ^Qst  parts  of  Western  Morocco  the  Christian 
can  travel  without  any  danger  of  being  held  to  ransom,  or 
even  of  receiving  worse  treatment  than  a  little  rudeness 
from  a  boor  or  a  little  polite  insolence  from  a  Bashaw. 
Not  a  year  passes  without  Fez,  Mequinez,  Morocco,  and 
Wazan  in  the  interior  being  visited  by  Europeans  without 
the  slightest  mishap  befalling  them.  No  one  now  dreams  of 
travelling  in  disguise,  unless  indeed  he  is  anxious  to  excite 
the  suspicion  of  the  Moors  that  his  proceedings  are  under- 
hand, or  that  he  is  afraid  of  them,  when — not  improbably 
— the  traveller  will  be  taken  at  his  own  valuation.  As  for 
any  one  journeying  to  Morocco  city  "  disguised  as  a  Jew," 
this  would  be  courting  insult,  as  a  Christian  is  far  more 


esteemed  than  a  Hebrew;  while  the  story  about  seeing 
Christian  ears  nailed  to  a  post — which  a  recent  tourist  who 
went  so  "  disguised  "  had  the  effrontery  to  declare  he  did — 
is  so  absurd,  that  we  can  only  conclude  that  his  power  of 
distinguishing  the  ears  of  different  nationalities  must  have 
been  as  powerful  as  was  his  capacity  for  being  hoaxed, 
or  of  trying  to  hoax  others.  For  never  in  the  memory  of 
man  were  such  outrages  committed,  and  to-day  the  main 
fear  of  the  town  Moors  —  unless  a  half-crazy  Dervish 
cursing  the  Infidel  dog  be  excepted — is  lest  they  should  in 
the  remotest  manner  incur  the  vengeance  of  the  Christian 
envoys  at  Tangier  by  molesting  their  fellow-countrymen. 
The  Sultan  is  no  longer  aggressive,  though  as  reactionary 
and  hard  to  move  in  the  paths  of  progress  as  ever.  But 
so  far  from  wishing  to  annoy  the  Nazarene,  his  ever-present 
dread  is  lest  he  should  in  any  way  embroil  himself  with 
these  peppery  folk,  and,  as  a  consequence,  is  sadly  im- 
posed upon  by  the  host  of  petty  consular  officials  who, 
though  paid  nothing,  manage  to  make  a  lucrative  trade 
out  of  indemnities  for  injuries  which  were  never  inflicted, 
and  by  the  sale  of  "protections  "  to  knaves  who  buy  them 
only  to  oppress  others  less  fortunate. 

The  days  of  the  Sallee  Rovers  are  also  over,  and  the  sole 
representative  of  the  Moorish  navy  is  now  the  El  Ilassani, 
an  English  freight  steamer,  manned  by  a  foreign  crew — 
though,  as  there  has  been  a  difficulty  over  the  payment  for 
the  vessel,  at  the  hour  of  writing  even  this  craft  is  doubt- 
fully the  property  of  the  monarch  after  whom  it  is  named. 
The  old  pirate  town  seems  given  over  to  shoemaking  and 
fanaticism.  Europeans  are  not  permitted  to  live  either  in 
it  or  in  Azamoor,  and  an  unknown  Christian  in  exploring 
its  dirty  alleys  is  apt  to  get  stones  and  bad  language  hurled 
at  him  with  an  emphasis  which  recalls  the  period  when 
to  "  swear  like  a  Barbary  Pirate  "  was  a  proverb  among 


seamen.  A  few  rotting  bulks  recall  the  palmy  days  of 
piracy,  and "  anecdotes  of  the  good  old  times  form  the 
staple  of  that  languid  conversation  which  goes  on  as  the 
lazy  citizens  squat  on  their  heels  under  the  shade  of  the 
sea  wall.  The  old  Bashaw — who  has  now  made  his  peace 
with  Allah  —  just  remembered  seeing  as  a  boy  the  last 
gang  of  Christian  slaves  marched  through  Eabat ;  and 
Abdul  ben  Eeis — Abdul,  son  of  the  Captain — still  recalls 
some  of  the  joyous  tales  with  which  his  father,  the  rover 
chief,  entertained  the  family  circle — years  and  years  ago. 
In  these  degenerate  times  it  pays  better  to  save  the  ship- 
wrecked mariner  than  to  enslave  him,  so  that  dozens  of 
stalwart  fellows  who  when  the  century  was  young  would 
have  been  doing  a  brave  business  on  the  high  seas,  point 
with  honest  pride  to  the  medals  they  have  won  in  rescuing 
"  Eoumi  "  *  from  the  waves. 

With  Christian  slavery  departed  also  the  chief  motive  for 
renegadoism.  Very  few  European  Apostates  now  exist  in 
Morocco,  and  without  a  single  exception,  of  which  I  am 
aware,  the  hundred  or  so  who  are  scattered  over  the  country 
are  generally  of  such  seamy  antecedents  as  to  justify  the 
Scotch  characterization  of  a  worthless  scamp  as  a  ''  runni- 
gate."  Most  of  them  are  either  "  forcats  "  escaped  from 
the  Spanish  convict  stations  at  Ceuta  and  elsewhere  on 
the  Morocco  coast,  deserters  from  the  French  army,  or 
levanted  criminals  from  Algeria  and  Spain.  They  are 
usually  employed  in  various  subordinate  positions  in  the 
army,  and  the  military  band  which  discourses  curious 
versions  of  familiar  tunes  when  the  Prince  of  True 
Believers  appears  in  public  includes  numbers  of  these 
individuals.     I  know  of  no  British  renegade — the  last  and 

*  "  Roumi,"  or  Romans,  is  tlie  name  applied  to  Cluistians  by  the 
Berbers  or  aborigines  of  the  Barbarj  States.  The  Arabs  more 
generally  term  them  "  Nasrani,"  or  Nazarenes. 


the  most  respectable  of  the  order,  a  Scotchman,  who 
lived  at  Eabat,  much  esteemed  for  his  intelligence  and 
honourable  conduct,  having  died  two  years  ago.  Were 
the  history  of  these  turncoats  fully  known,  the  story  of 
their  lives  would  be  a  curious  chapter  in  the  annals  of 
human  nature.  One  of  the  most  romantic  of  these  tales 
was  that  of  an  old  white-bearded  man  who,  when  the 
French  Military  Commission  first  entered  Fez  in  1877,  was 
seen  silently  and  sad-eyed,  supported  by  two  attendants, 
contemplating  a  uniform  with  which  in  days  gone  by  he 
was  very  familiar.  This  aged  renegade  was  known  as  Abd- 
er-Rhaman ;  but  his  christened  name  was  Count  Joseph  de 
Saulty,  formerly  a  lieutenant  of  engineers  in  the  Army 
of  Algeria.  In  a  weak  moment  he  eloped  with  his  com- 
mandant's wife,  and  remained  in  Tunis  until  she  died. 
Then  becoming  painfully  conscious  of  the  grave  position  in 
which  he  was  placed  as  a  deserter  from  the  colours,  he 
passed  into  Morocco,  changed  his  faith,  and  as  a  military 
adviser  of  the  then  Sultan,  whose  name  he  took,  rose  high 
in  the  imperial  favour,  and  had  his  advice  been  listened  to 
might  have  saved  Morocco  from  the  disaster  of  Isly.  He 
died  in  1881,  and  is  buried  at  the  gates  of  Fez  in  the  ceme- 
tery of  Sidi  Bou  Bekkr  el  Arbi,  though  so  thoroughly  did  he 
put  the  past  behind  him,  that  his  son,  now  occupying  a  high 
position  in  the  Court,  is  entirely  ignorant  of  any  language 
except  Arabic.  Another  renegade  of  note  was  the  English 
oflBcer  still  remembered  as  "  Ingliz  Bashaw,"  under  whom 
Muley  El-Hassan,  the  present  Sultan,  learned  the  art 
of  war,  and  who  was  the  first  individual  to  impart  any- 
thing like  discipline  to  the  Moroquin  army.  Why  he  came 
to  Morocco  is  not  known,  and  so  jealously  was  his  identity 
— like  that  of  the  Count  de  Saulty — kept  dark,  that  iu  a 
recent  work  by  the  Viscount  de  la  Martiniere  his  real  name 
is  declared  to  be  unknown.     At  this  date  there  can  be  no 


reason  for  concealing  that  it  was  Graham ;  and  I  have  been 
told  by  those  who  have  every  reason  to  know  that,  like  so 
many  others  who  incur  the  jealousy  of  the  Moorish  digni- 
taries, he  died  of  poison. 

The  majority  of  the  Apostates  are,  however,  the  vilest  of 
rapscallions,  in  whom  no  trust  is  to  be  reposed,  and  who,  if 
despised  by  the  Moors,  quite  deserve  the  low  esteem  in 
which  they  are  held.  Yet  even  they  are  happily  getting 
fewer,  since  by  a  recent  treaty  between  Spain  and  Morocco 
all  refugees  from  justice  are  to  be  mutually  surrendered. 

Otherwise,  Morocco  is  much  as  it  always  was.  Justice 
is,  as  of  old,  bought  and  sold.  Eoads  there  are  none, 
except  the  rutty  paths  which  droves  of  mules,  and  donkeys, 
and  horses,  and  camels  have  worn  in  the  course  of  ages. 
Oppression  is  the  rule  :  fair  play  the  exception,  and  the 
dungeons  so  horrible,  that  the  first  object  of  a  governor  is 
to  immure  in  one  of  them  some  man  wealthy  enough  to 
buy  freely  the  privilege  of  getting  out  of  this  dreadful  den. 
But  though  Maghreb  Al  Aksa— the  "  Furthest  West " — 
has  been  styled  "  Un  Empire  qui  croule,"  its  stability  is  in 
its  weakness.  For  being  always  supposed  on  the  eve  of  dis- 
solution, the  jealousy  of  the  powers  who  wish  to  share  in 
the  scramble,  but  are  not  yet  prepared  for  the  war  which 
would  usher  in  that  moral  spectacle,  renders  the  ever 
tottering  throne  of  Muley  El-Hassan  rather  safer  than 
some  which  seem  firmer  "based  upon  a  people's  will." 
And  so,  we  venture  to  think,  the  Emir-al-Mumenin  will 
be  wagging  his  beard  in  the  sweet  gardens  of  Fez,  or 
Mequinez,  or  Marrakesch,  long  after  many  a  crown  has 
rolled  in  the  dust  of  the  Land  of  the  Nazarenes. 


OF    THE 





The  Author ;  youth  and  schooUng — He  goes  to  sea — Is  captured  by 
the  Sallee  rovers  and  wrecked  on  the  bar  of  the  Bouragreb  Eiver 
between  Sallee  and  Kabiit — Escapes  drowning  only  to  become  a 
slave — Is  sent  to  Mequinez  with  the  rest  of  his  shipmates — They 
are  attacked  by  the  mob — They  are  taken  before  the  Emperor 
Muley  Ismail — The  author  becomes  the  slave  of  Muley  Spha,  the 
Emperoi-'s  son — He  is  beaten  in  order  to  force  him  to  change  his 
reUgion — He  "  turns  Moor,"  and  is  made  an  officer  of  the  Emperor 
— He  has  a  perilous  adventm-e  with  the  latter — His  uncle  dies — 
The  cruelties  of  the  Emperor — The  temble  punishments  inflicted 
by  him — The  dreadful  death  of  Larbe  Shott,  whose  ghost  appeared 
unto  Muley  Ismail. 

HE  exceeding  love  and  great  compassion 
of  God  towards  mankind  in  general, 
shows  us  how  good,  gracious,  and 
merciful  He  is  to  all  who  love,  fear, 
and  steadfastly  believe  in  Him,  and 
His  Son  Jesus  Christ,  our  Lord ;  and 
how,  of  His  great  providence,  He  (contrary  to  all  human 


imagination,  and  even  our  own  expectations)  bringeth  the 
prisoner  out  oi  captivity,  as  He  hath,  of  His  infinite  mercy 
(in  His  own  appointed  time),  delivered  me,  His  poor  unworthy 
servant,  out  of  the  hands  of  cruel  and  bloodthirsty  men, 
after  a  long  and  grievous  slavery,  for  the  space  of  almost 
twenty-three  years,  in  South  Barbary,  bringing  me  by  the 
right  way  to  the  city  where  I  dwelt,  thereby  delivering  me 
from  my  prison  and  chains,  and  probably  from  ever- 
lasting death.  For  ever  and  ever  blessed  be  His  most 
holy  name.     Amen. 

In  the  eleventh  year  of  my  age,  the  second  of  the  reign  of 
our  late  Sovereign  Lord  King  George  the  First,  and  of  our 
Lord  Christ  1715, 1  being  at  the  Latin  School  in  Penryn,  in 
the  county  of  Cornwall,  and  John  Fellow,  my  uncle,  being 
about  to  proceed  on  a  voyage  from  Falmouth  to  Fowey, 
and  thence  for  Genoa  with  pilchards,  in  the  good  ship 
Francis,  Valentine  Enes  (then  of  Penryn),  merchant,  the 
owner ;  and  I  by  no  means  liking  my  so  early  rising,  and 
(as  I  then  thought)  most  severe  discipline  of  the  school,  so 
far  insinuated  myself  into  my  uncle's  favour  as  to  get  his 
promise  to  obtain  the  consent  of  my  parents  for  me  to  go 
along  with  him ;  and  which  indeed  he  did,  though  not 
without  much  difficulty,  they  urging  the  hardships  which 
probably  I  might,  in  my  so  tender  years,  undergo  thereby, 
and  their  ominous  fears  of  our  falling  into  the  hands  of  the 
Moors,  who  were  then  at  open  war  with  us,  and  had,  as 
they  saw  by  the  newspapers,  very  lately  taken  some  of  our 
ships ;  so  that  it  was  with  the  greatest  reluctance  and 
regret  that  I  obtained  their  consent,  which  at  last  I  did, 
and  was  soon  rigged  in  my  sailor's  dress  ;  and  after  taking 
(as  it  proved)  my  so  long,  long  farewell  of  my  friends,  our 
ship  sailed  from  Falmouth  to  Fowey,  where  in  a  few  days 
we  completed  our  cargo ;  and  as  soon  as  all  other  our 
necessary   business   was   dispatched,    we  set  sail   for  our 


desired  port.  Of  which  our  voyage  it  cannot  be  expected 
I  should  give  any  particular  account,  as  I  had  never  been 
at  sea  before,  and  was  entirely  unacquainted  with  the 
method  of  keeping  a  journal ;  but  I  well  remember  that 
I  soon  began  to  repent  of  my  rash  undertaking,  and 
heartily  wished  myself  back  again,  though  even  to  be 
again  sent  to  the  Latin  school,  my  uncle  keeping  me  so 
close  to  my  book  that  I  had  very  little  or  no  time  allowed 
me  for  play ;  and  which,  if  I  at  any  time  presumed  to 
borrow,  I  failed  not  of  a  most  sm-e  payment  by  the  cat 
of  nine  tails  ;  so  that  by  the  time  we  got  to  Genoa  I  thought 
I  had  enough  of  the  sea,  being  every  day,  during  our  voyage 
out,  obliged  (over  and  above  my  book-learning)  to  go  up  to 
the  main-top  mast-head,  even  in  all  weather. 

All  which  (though  very  irksome  to  me  then)  I  now  most 
gratefully  acknowledge,  and  plainly  see,  was  only  intended 
for  my  good ;  and  had  not  our  sad  misfortune  of  falling 
into  the  hands  of  the  Infidels,  and  our  long  unhappy 
slavery  prevented  it,  my  uncle  would  have  certainly  made 
me  a  complete  sailor,  as  he  himself  was,  by  those  who  knew 
him,  allowed  to  be  ;  but  what  God  thinks  proper  should  be, 
no  human  power  can  prevent. 

And  now,  indeed,  the  unhappy  part  of  my  life  draws 
near.  For  having  made  our  voyage,  our  cargoes  out  and 
in,  and  by  God's  providence  bound  home,  we  were  off  Cape 
Finisterre  very  unhappily  surprised  by  two  Sallee  rovers, 
and,  together  with  Captain  Foster,  of  Topsham  (after  such 
small  resistance  as  we  could  both  make),  taken  and  carried 
prisoners  on  board  of  the  infidels,  as  was  also  the  next  day 
Captain  Ferris  of  London,  in  a  ship  of  much  greater 
strength,  having  twenty  men,  eight  swivel  and  eight 
carriage  guns,  though  they  behaved  in  the  bravest 
manner,  fighting  ten  hours,  and  with  a  noble  resolution, 
putting  the  Moors  off,  after  boarding  them  three  times, 



and  killing  many  of  them;  but  being  overpowered  by  a 
superior  force  they  were  also  obliged  to  submit,  and  to 
become  our  comrades. 

It  is  impossible  for  me  to  describe  the  agony  I  was  then 
in,  being  separated  from  my  uncle ;  he  being,  together 
with  Briant  Clarke,  John  Crimes,  and  John  Dunnal  (three 
of  our  unhappy  men)  confined  on  board  one  of  the  Sallee- 
teens,  commanded  by  Ali  Hacam ;  and  myself,  with  Lewis 
Davies,  George  Barnicoat,  and  Thomas  Goodman,  the 
other  three  (our  whole  number  consisting  but  of  eight 
persons)  on  board  of  the  other,  commanded  by  Elhash 
Abdrahaman  Medune,*  the  Admiral  of  Sallee,  where  we 
were  closely  confined,  and  treated  after  a  barbarous 
manner  during  the  space  of  one  whole  month,  which  the 
infidels  passed  in  looking  sharp  out  after  other  prey,  and 
in  examining  into  the  value  of  our  cargoes,  according  to 
our  several  invoices  and  bills  of  lading,  the  prizes  being 
sent  to  Sallee  for  better  security,  and  to  leave  them  at  more 
liberty  to  encounter  others  during  the  time  of  their  cruize  ; 
but  seeing  no  likelihood  of  any  more  prizes,  and  their 
provision  growing  short,  they  followed  the  prizes,  and 
found  them  safe  at  anchor  on  the  outside  of  the  bar  of 
Sallee ;  when,  on  a  signal  from  the  shore  of  there  being 
water  enough  on  the  bar  to  carry  them  over,  the  prizes 
were  ordered  to  weigh,  and  got  all  well  in,  the  Salleetens 
casting  anchor  without  till  the  next  day;  when,  about 
noon,  the  infidels  being  in  their  jollity,  were  all  on  the 
sudden  in  an  extreme  hurry  on  their  discovery  of  a  sail 
standing  right  in  from  sea  upon  them,  they  crying  out,  in 
great  confusion,  "  Garnoe  !  Garnoe!"  meaning  thereby 
Captain  Delgardenoor,t  who  they  knew  then  commanded 
a  British  man  of  war  of  20  guns  on  that  station ;  and  as 
they  feared  so  it  proved,  for  it  was  Garnoe  indeed ;  but, 
*  El  Hadjj  Abd-er-Ealiman  Medune.  f  Note  1. 


alas !  too  late  for  our  assistance.  Medune  weighing  his 
anchor,  and  Ali  Hacam  slipping  his  cable,  they  ran  both 
aground  on  the  bar,  Delgardenoor  following  so  near  them 
as  in  safety  he  might,  some  of  his  shot  flying  about  them, 
and  some  of  them  far  beyond  them,  insomuch  that  they 
were  both,  through  means  thereof,  and  a  great  sea,  soon 
beat  to  pieces ;  and  almost  every  one  that  could  swim 
swimming  for  his  life  ;  but,  for  my  part,  I  could  swim  but 
very  little,  and  which,  had  I  attempted,  the  merciless  sea 
must  soon  have  overwhelmed  me ;  so  I  cried  to  Lewis 
Davies,  who  I  knew  could  swim  very  well,  for  assistance, 
though  from  him  I  could  get  none,  he  saying  (and  very 
truly)  "  that  all  his  strength  was  highly  necessary  towards 
his  own  preservation  ;  and  that  should  he  take  me  on  his 
back,  it  would  in  all  likelihood  loose  both  our  lives ;  where- 
as by  his  throwing  himself  into  the  sea  disentangled,  and 
I  getting  on  the  mast  (which  was  cut  down),  it  might  be 
a  means  of  preserving  both  of  us ;  "  and  which,  through 
the  wonderful  and  ready  help  of  Almighty  God  assisting 
(He  having  ordained  us  for  larger  and  more  grievous  trials 
and  sufferings),  accordingly  happened :  Davies  committing 
himself  to  the  waves,  and  I  myself  to  the  mast,  from 
which  I  was  taken  by  some  people  in  a  boat  from  the 
shore.  As  for  the  Moors,  they  were  under  no  appre- 
hension of  danger  from  the  sea,  leaping  into  it  and 
swimming  to  shore  like  so  many  dogs. 

It  may  easily  be  imagined  what  sad  terror  and  appre- 
hension I  was  under  in  so  dangerous  a  situation;  for 
though  I  could  see  nothing  else  by  being  delivered  from 
death  than  the  more  grievous  torments  in  my  becoming  a 
slave,  &c.,  yet  did  I  endeavour  all  in  my  power  to  avoid  it, 
and  save  myself. 

Being  now  all  safely  landed,  we  are  in  a  very  low  and 
feeble  condition  conducted  to  two  separate  prisons  ;  myself, 


Lewis  Davies,  M.  Goodman,  and  Briant  Clark,  with  divers 
others  of  Ferris's  men,  in  all  twenty-six,  to  New  Sallee,* 
and  my  uncle,  John  Dunnal,  Thomas  Cremer,  and  George 
Barnecoat,  with  seventeen  Frenchmen  taken  in  other 
ships,  and  the  rest  of  Foster's  and  Ferris's  men,  twenty- 
six  more,  to  old  Sallee,  and  for  three  days  closely  shut  up 
there,  and  our  allowance  by  the  Moors  nothing  but 
bread  and  water,  though  I  must  thankfully  own  that  we 
met  with  some  better  refreshment  through  the  goodness  of 
some  French  and  Irish  merchants  residing  there,  which 
was  to  us  in  our  so  weak  and  disconsolate  condition  of  very 
great  service. 

On  the  fourth  day  we  were  all,  in  number  j&fty-two, 
taken  out  thence  and  sent  prisoners  to  Mequinez  ;  some 
being  put  on  mules,  some  on  asses,  and  some  on  horses  ; 
on  one  of  which  my  uncle  and  I  were  mounted  together. 
We  travelled  the  first  day  to  Lorshia,  being  obliged  in  our 
way  hither  to  pass  through  the  woods  of  Sallee,  which  were 
plentifully  stored  with  most  stately  timber  trees,  of  oaks, 
and  vast  quantities  of  wild  hogs,  lions,  tigers,  and  many 
other  dangerous  creatures.  The  second  day  to  the  Kiver 
Teffifille,  though  by  some  called  Teliffla,  in  the  province 
of  Wolelsager  ;  the  third  to  Darmulsultan  ;  and  the  fourth 
about  sunrising  (it  being  about  three  miles'  travel  into 
Mequinez),  all  the  way  lodging  in  tents,  as  being  in  that 
part  of  the  country  the  only  habitations,  and  which  are  at 
the  discretion  of  the  people  removed  from  one  place  to 
another.  At  our  arrival  to  the  city,  or  rather  indeed 
a  mile  before  we  reached  it,  we  were  commanded  to  get 
off  our  beasts  and  to  take  to  our  English  shoes  (that  is  to 
say,  as  many  of  us  as  had  any),  and  to  put  on  yellow 
pumps  which  were  brought  to  ust  by  the  Moors  for  that 
purpose;  and  at  our  entrance  into  the  city  we  were  met 
-  Note  1.  t  Note  2. 


and  surrounded  by  vast  crowds  of  them,  offering  us  the 
most  vile  insults,  and  they  could  scarce  be  restrained  from 
knocking  us  on  the  head  ;  and  which  I  verily  believe  they 
would  certainly  have  done  had  not  the  Emperor's  guards 
interposed ;  though  even  they  could  not,  or  at  least  would 
not,  hinder  them  from  pulling  our  hair,  and  giving  us 
many  severe  boxes,  calling  us  "  Caffer  Billa  Oarosole,"* 
which  signified  in  English  that  wo  were  "  Hereticks,"  and 
knew  neither  God  nor  Mahomet. 

About  eight  o'clock  we  all  got  to  the  Emperor's  palace  ; 
where,  before  we  entered,  we  were  first  obliged  to  take  off 
our  pumps,  passing  barefoot  in  at  a  gate  called  "  Bednam 
Sorelelg,"  or  the  "Eenegado's  Gate,"  t  a  Eenegado  Spaniard 
being  its  keeper  ;  and  thence  through  two  other  gates,  viz. 
"  Bebliashey,  Benauma,"  or,  as  by  others  called,  "  Bebfee- 
lello "  and  "  Bebaurbashyoub,"  I  which  brought  us  into 
"  Dareb  Bastion  "  where  Muly  Smine,§  or  Ishmael,  the  old 
Emperor,  was,  who  received  us  from  the  hands  of  the  Sallee- 
teens,  giving  Ali  Hacam,  in  exchange  for  every  one  of  us, 
fifty  ducats  ;  but  out  of  this  was  paid  back  again  one-third, 
and  a  tenth  as  a  customary  tribute ;  and  Medune,  the 
Admiral,  for  not  fighting  Delgardenoor,  had  the  very 
extraordinary  favour  bestowed  upon  him  of  losing  his  head. 

And  now  are  we  ordered  to  be  separated  as  follows,  viz. 
myself,  Eichard  Ferris,  James  Waller,  Thomas  Newgent, 
and  three  other  boys  taken  in  a  French  ship,  sent  to  the 
Kubbahhiatin,||  or  place  where  the  tailors  work,  and  the 
armoury  is  kept,  and  where  we  were  directly  employed  in 
cleaning  the  arms.    All  the  fore-mast  men,  save  two,  who 

■■'  Kafir  b-Illah  tvas  rasool  iu  better  Maghrebin  Arabic. 

t  The  Apostates'  Gate,  Bab-Mancoor  el  dlj. 

\  Bab-liasbey,  Benauma,  or  Bab-seelello  and  Bab-aur-basbyoub, 
seems  the  proper  spelling. 

§  Note  27.  The  Dareb-Bastion  seems,  Mr.  Meakin  thinks,  the 
Dar  el-Bastyoon.  ||  Note  2. 


were  wounded,  were  put  to  hard  labour  ;  and  the  captains, 
with  the  two  wounded  men,  to  the  Spanish  convent; 
whence,  after  some  short  exemption,  they  were  put  to  hard 
labour  also ;  and,  after  some  little  time,  again  exempted, 
and  sent  to  the  house  of  one  Mr.  Ben  Hattar,*  a  Jew,  in 
a  place  called  the  Judaiary  [or  Mella],  he  having  procured 
this  of  the  Emperor ;  and,  as  everything  relating  to  our 
affairs  passed  through  the  hands  of  him  and  his  agents, 
it  was,  no  doubt,  very  much  to  his  advantage. 

After  some  time,  I  was  taken  out  of  the  armoury,  and 
given  by  the  Emperor  to  Muley  Spha,  one  of  his  favourite 
sons  (a  sad  villain),  born  of  his  wife  AUoabenabiz,!  by 
whom  he  had  in  all  ten  children,  viz.,  seven  sons  and  three 
daughters.  My  business  now,  for  some  time,  was  to  run 
from  morning  to  night  after  his  horse's  heels;  during 
which  he  often  prompted  me  to  turn  Moor,  and  told  me,  if 
I  would,  I  should  have  a  very  j&ne  horse  to  ride  on,  and  I 
should  live  like  one  of  his  best  esteemed  friends.  To  which 
I  used  to  reply,  that  as  that  was  the  only  command  wherein 
I  could  not  readily  gratify  him,  I  humbly  hoped  that  he 
would  be  pleased,  of  his  great  goodness,  to  suspend  all 
future  thoughts  that  way,  for  that  I  was  thoroughly 
resolved  not  to  renounce  my  Christian  faith,  be  the  conse- 
quence what  it  would.  Then  said  he,  in  a  most  furious  and 
haughty  manner,  "  Prepare  yourself  for  such  torture  as 
shall  be  inflicted  on  you,  and  the  nature  of  your  obstinacy 
deserves."  When  I  humbly  entreating  him,  on  my  knees, 
not  to  let  loose  his  rage  on  a  poor,  helpless,  innocent 
creature ;  he,  without  making  any  further  reply,  committed 
me  prisoner  to  one  of  his  own  rooms,  keeping  me  there 
several  months  in  irons,  and  every  day  most  severely 
bastinading  me,  and  furiously  screaming  in  the  Moorish 
language,    "  Shehed,    Shehed !    Cunmoora,   Cunmoora  !  " 

'•'  Hyatn.  f  Lalla  ben  Abiz. 


in  English,  "  Turn  Moor !  turn  Moor !  "  *  by  holding  up 
your  finger.  Of  which  cruelty  my  uncle  hearing,  he  came 
one  day,  and  with  him  one  John  Phillips,  to  see  if  it  might 
be  in  their  power  to  give  me  any  relief ;  and  which  indeed 
was  not,  although  they  very  heartily  endeavoured  it, 
gaining  nothing  by  their  so  very  kind  and  Christian-like 
intention,  but  many  severe  blows  on  themselves,  and  on 
me  a  more  frequent  repetition  of  them  than  before. 

And  now  is  my  accursed  master  still  more  and  more 
enraged,  and  my  tortures  daily  increasing ;  insomuch, 
that  had  not  my  uncle,  and  some  other  good  Christians 
through  his  means,  notwithstanding  his  so  late  ill  usage 
and  repulse  (even  to  the  extreme  hazard  of  their  lives), 
privately  conveyed  me  some  few  refreshments,  I  must  have 
inevitably  perished,  my  prison  allowance  being  nothing 
but  bread  and  water  ;  so  that  I  was,  through  my  severe 
scourging,  and  such  hard  fare,  every  day  in  expectation  of 
its  being  my  last ;  and  happy,  no  doubt,  had  I  been,  had 
it  so  happened  ;  I  should  certainly  then  have  dy'd  a  martjr, 
and  probably  thereby  gained  a  glorious  crown  in  the 
kingdom  of  heaven ;  but  the  Almighty  did  not  then  see  it 
fit.  My  tortures  were  now  exceedingly  increased,  burning 
my  flesh  off  my  bones  by  fire ;  which  the  tyrant  did,  by 
frequent  repetitions,  after  a  most  cruel  manner  ;  insomuch, 
that  through  my  so  very  acute  pains,  I  was  at  last  con- 
strained to  submit,  calling  upon  God  to  forgive  me,  who 
knows  that  I  never  gave  the  consent  of  the  hearty  though 
I  seemingly  yielded,  by  holding  up  my  finger ;  and  that  I 
always  abominated  them,  and  their  accursed  principle  of 
Mahometism,  my  only  trust  and  confidence  being  firmly 
fixed  on  Him,  and  in  the  all-suJBficient  merits  of  His  only 
Son  Jesus  Christ,  my  Saviour. 

*  "  Testify!  Testify  !  "     This  is  in  the  Lingua  franca,  not  in  pure 


I  was  kejDt  forty  days  longer  in  prison,  on  my  refusing 
to  put  on  the  Moorish  habit ;  but  I  at  length  reflected, 
that  to  refuse  this  any  longer  was  a  very  foolish  obstinacy, 
since  it  was  a  thing  indifferent  in  its  own  nature,  seeing 
I  had  already  been  compelled  to  give  my  assent  to  Ma- 
hometism.  Therefore,  rather  than  undergo  fresh  torments, 
I  also  complied  with  it,  appearing  like  a  Mahometan ;  and 
I  make  no  doubt  but  some  ill-natured  people  think  me  so 
even  to  this  day.  I  pray  God  to  forgive  them,  and  that  it 
may  never  be  their  mishap  to  undergo  the  like  trials ; 
and  which,  if  it  should,  that  they  may  maintain  their 
Christian  faith  no  worse  than  I  did  mine. 

I  was  now  delivered  once  more  from  my  prison  and 
chains  ;  and,  at  the  command  of  the  Emperor,  put  to 
school,  to  learn  the  Moorish  language,  and  to  write 
Arabick  ;  and  in  the  latter  I  should  have  certainly  been  a 
tolerable  proficient,  had  not  my  master's  insolence,  and 
violent  death  by  the  Emperor's  orders,  prevented  it ;  for 
after  being  with  him  about  three  months,  during  which 
he  had  often  called  me  Christian  dog,  and  most  severely 
beat  me,  it  coming  to  the  Emperor's  ears,  he  was  by  his 
order  instantly  despatched,  by  tossing  him  up,  and  so 
breaking  his  neck. 

After  this,  I  was  put  no  more  to  school  to  learn  the 
language,  but  immediately  into  the  hands  of  Emhamenet 
Sageer,  whose  business  was  to  train  up  and  instruct  youth 
how  they  should  speak  and  behave  before  the  Emperor, 
and  in  the  war ;  he  having  for  such  purposes  under  his 
care  about  six  hundred  boys ;  and  with  whom  I  had  not 
been  above  a  fortnight,  before  I  had  the  charge  of  eighty 
of  them  committed  to  me,  I  being  made  their  Alcayde,* 
or  captain,  to  see  they  kept  clean  the  walks  (during  all 
intervals  from  exercise)  in  the  Emperor's  garden,  where 

*  Al  Kaid. 


he  and  his  favourite  Queen  Hellema  Hazzezas  (in  English 
the  beloved)  were  used  to  walk.     In  this  station  I  had 
not  been  but  a  very  little  time,  when  the  Queen  coming 
one  day  into  the  walks,  before  I.  had  the  power  to  hide 
myself  in  a  little  house  set  there  for  that  purpose   (and 
which,  at  her  approach,  we  were  commanded  always  to 
do),  happened  to  see  me,  and  the  next  day  begged  me  of 
the  Emperor,  which  he  readily  granting,  ordered  us  imme- 
diately out  one  by  one,  till  she  should  see  the  same  person  ; 
and  after  the  first,  second,  and  third  were  presented,  and 
turned  back  again,  he  ordered  their  captain  to  appear, 
when  I  instantly  appeared,  and  the  Queen'saying  I  was  the 
same  she  would  have,  I  was  forthwith  given  her,  and  by 
her  again  to  her  favourite  son  Muly  Zidan,  a  youth  of 
about  eight  years  of  age,  and  then  resident  with  his  mother 
in  the  palace  of  Sherrers ;  where  she,  with  thirty-eight  of 
the    Emperor's   concubines,  and   several    eunuchs,   were 
closely  shut  up,  and  to  which  I  was  made  chief  porter  of 
the  innermost  door,  that  is  to  say,  of  the  door  next  without 
that  of  the  entrance  into  the  galleries  leading  to  the  several 
apartments,  and  where  none  could  gain  admittance,  but 
through   me;  as   indeed  none  were   to  be  admitted,  the 
Emperor  only  excepted,  nor  him  neither,  in  case  he  should 
offer  to  come,  without  giving  notice,  at  an  unseasonable 
hour ;  as  once  indeed  he  did,  and  though  he  had  gained 
admittance  in  at  the  several  outer  doors,  yet  was  he  by 
me  denied  ;  for  how  could  I  tell  it  was  him,  when  he  was 
on  the  one  side,  and  I  on  the  other,  of  a  thick  door  close 
shut ;  and  allowing,  as  by  his  being  let  in  at  the  several 
outer  doors,  and  his  usual  way  of  knocking,  I  might  have 
very  little  reason  to  doubt  it,  and  which  might  likewise 
have  induced  me  to  open  it,  yet,  what  did  that  signify  to 
me,  when  I  had  positive  orders  before  (as  no  doubt  had 
all  the  rest)  to  admit  none  after  such  an  hour,  without 


being  before  advised  of  it,  and  of  some  certain  signs  to  be 
given  accordingly  on  the  outside  of  the  door  ;  and  further, 
my  orders  were,  that  in  case  any  one  should  attempt  to 
enter  at  such  an  unseasonable  hour,  and  not  immediately 
depart  after  his  first  and  second  knocking,  and  denials  of 
entrance,  but  should  presume  to  knock  a  third  time  without 
giving  the  signs  as  aforesaid,  I  should  then  fire  through 
the  door — as  indeed  I  had  now  an  occasion  to  do. 

The  Emperor  being  admitted,  as  aforementioned,  in 
at  the  several  outer  doors,  and  knocking  at  mine,  I  de- 
manded aloud,  "Who  was  there?"  to  which  I  was 
answered,  "  Muly  Smine "  ;  and  which,  indeed,  by  his 
voice  and  usual  way  of  knocking,  I  was  pretty  well  assured 
it  was.  However,  I  told  him  that  I  very  much  doubted 
it ;  for  that  I  had  never  known  His  Excellency  to  come  at 
such  an  unseasonable  hour,  without  my  being  pre-advised 
thereof;  and  which,  as  I  then  was  not,  he  should  at  his 
peril  be  gone,  or  I  would  present  him  with  half  a  dozen 
bullets  through  the  door,  which  he  prayed  me  not  to  do, 
for  that  it  was  actually  himself,  and  that  if  I  would  not 
let  him  in,  he  would  certainly  chop  off  my  head  the  next 
day,  knocking  again  louder  than  before ;  but,  on  the 
contrary,  if  I  would  admit  him,  he  would  give  me  such  a 
fine  horse  (calling  him  by  his  name),  with  all  the  rich 
furniture  belonging  to  him,  and  would  make  me  a  great 
man.  I  told  him  I  would  not  do  it  if  he  would  give  me  all 
the  horses  and  furniture  in  the  empire  ;  for  that  as  I  was 
entrusted  and  commanded  by  the  renowned  Muly  Smine  or 
Ishmael,  the  most  glorious  Emperor  in  the  world,  to  keep 
that  post  inviolable  against  all  impostors  and  intruders 
whomsoever,  and  as  I  had  but  too  much  reason  to  believe 
him  such,  I  would  not  on  any  terms  open  the  door,  be  the 
consequence  what  it  would,  being  thoroughly  resolved  not 
to  betray  my  trust ;  therefore  it  was  in  vain  for  him  any 


longer  to  persist.  When  he  changing  his  note  from  rewards 
to  threats,  and  knocking  again,  I  fired  all  the  bullets  which 
I  had  ready  by  me  in  a  blunderbuss,  quite  through  the 
door,  which  indeed  (he  keeping  himself  close  on  one  side, 
as  I  before  imagined)  could  in  nowise  hurt  him ;  and  on 
his  seeing  my  so  resolute  resistance,  and  no  likelihood  of 
his  admittance,  he  returned  as  he  came,  highly  threaten- 
ing me  for  keeping  him  out,  and  as  much  commending 
those  at  the  several  outer  doors  for  their  so  readily  letting 
him  in,  assuring  us  that  we  should  on  neither  side  lose  our 
reward ;  and  indeed  we  did  not,  being  very  early  in  the 
morning  all  ordered  out,  and  all  those  who  gave  him  ad- 
mittance had  some  their  heads  cut  off,  others  cruelly  used ; 
and  myself,  after  being  highly  commended  for  my  fidelity, 
rewarded  with  a  much  finer  horse  than  that  he  offered  to 
give  me  in  case  I  would  betray  my  trust. 

This  palace  of  Sherrers  is  a  very  large  spacious  building 
(as  indeed  are  all  the  Emperor's  houses),  and  certainly 
prodigious  strong,  the  walls  twelve  feet  thick,  and  five 
stories  high,  built  only  of  fine  earth  and  hot  lime,  mixed 
and  well  incorporated  by  a  vast  number  of  slaves  kept 
for  that  pm'pose ;  for  it  is  thrown,  as  I  may  say, 
into  a  mould,  being  first  boarded  up  on  each  side,  so 
that  being  very  well  rammed  together,  it  becomes,  in  a 
very  little  time,  harder  and  more  durable  than  stone.*  It 
is  covered  on  the  top  with  blue  tiles,  ceiled  in  the  inside, 
and  finely  painted,  and  hath  in  it  several  hundred  separate 
apartments  for  his  concubines  and  eunuchs,  besides  those 
set  apart  for  his  favourite  queen  and  her  retinue.  All  his 
other  wives  (in  number  no  less  than  four  thousand)  being 
closely  shut  up  in  several  other  sumptuous  houses  allotted 
for  them  ;  though  all,  as  I  may  say  adjacent,  and  all 
■within  the  same  enclosure.! 

-  Tabia.  i  Note  3. 


My  lodging  was  between  the  inner  door  before  mentioned 
and  that  of  the  entrance  into  the  galleries,  leading  to  the 
several  apartments ;  my  companions  six  boys,  and  two 
young  lions  about  half  grown,  being  reared  up  there  from 
whelps ;  but  becoming  unruly,  their  removal  was  desired, 
and  complied  with. 

Now  am  I,  after  my  hard  keeping,  again  become  in  pretty 
good  plight,  being  allowed  very  good  eatables,  as  beef, 
mutton,  and  cuscassoo  (of  the  nature  of  which  I  shall 
speak  by  and  by),  I  having  in  a  manner  now  nothing  else 
to  do  than  to  eat  my  meat,  and  be  careful  of  my  young 
master's  and  the  Queen's  motions,  and  especially  those  of 
the  latter,  who  I  found  was  about  to  cut  me  out  some  new 
work ;  so  that  I  was  obliged  to  walk  like  one  walking  on 
the  brink  of  a  dangerous  precipice,  whence,  should  he 
happen  to  make  but  the  least  wry  step,  he  is  sure  to 
tumble  down  and  break  his  neck.  The  Queen,  in  short, 
being  extremely  amorous,  and  the  Emperor  no  less  jealous 
of  her,  which  really  made  my  condition  very  dangerous, 
and  might  through  some  unforeseen  accident  (let  my 
behaviour  be  never  so  innocent),  happen  to  prove  of  very 
bad  consequence  to  me,  therefore  I  thought  it  highly 
prudent  to  keep  a  very  strict  guard  upon  all  my  actions. 

I  now  was  strictly  charged  by  the  Emperor,  on  pain  of 
losing  my  life,  to  visit  my  uncle  every  day,  he  saying  to 
me,  in  a  loud  and  vehement  tone,  **  Cossam  billa  illamattim 
Shea  Culsbah  Occulashea  bus  ede  Ameck  Woolastan  cut- 
tarossick,"  *  that  is,  **  If  you  don't  go  every  day,  morning 
and  evening,  to  kiss  your  uncle's  hand,  by  Allah  I'll  cut 
your  head  off.  For  if  he  were  a  brute,"  says  he,  "you  are 
by  nature  obliged  so  to  do." 

This,  any  one  may  suppose,  as  being  the  only  command 

*  Properly,  Ela  matimsliisld  hal  cliali  wa  hal  as  Jiiya  amah 
thoosla  ydu  nnquatdlih  rasek. 


my  present  inclinations  could  be  best  gratified  with,  did 
not  at  all  terrify  me,  and  therefore  I  forthwith  most 
cheerfully  put  it  in  practice ;  but,  alas !  that  pleasure 
was  of  a  very  short  duration,  he  being,  poor  man,  in  a 
few  weeks  after  taken  off  by  a  violent  flux,  as  were  a  little 
before  him  Briant  Clark,  Thomas  Crimes,  and  John 
Dunnal,  three  of  our  unhappy  men;  and  I  shall  never 
forget  my  uncle's  tender  behaviour  at  the  interment  of 
the  latter,  where  I  and  a  great  many  other  Englishmen 
happened  to  be.  The  corpse  being  brought  to  the  grave, 
and  no  particular  person  appointed  to  read  the  Christian 
ceremony  of  burial,  my  uncle  took  it  upon  him,  but 
indeed  he  was  not  able  (through  the  abundance  of  tears 
flowing)  to  go  through  it,  his  speech  being  thereby  to 
that  degree  obstructed,  that  he  could  only  now  and  then 
utter  a  word  imperfectly ;  insomuch,  that  he  was  obliged 
to  deliver  over  the  book  to  another ;  and  never  did  I  see 
such  a  mournful  meeting,  every  one  catching  the  con- 
tagion, and  all  standing  for  a  considerable  time  in  a  dead 
silence,  quite  overwhelmed  with  grief. 

I  am  now  to  expect  no  further  comfort  by  way  of  my 
poor  uncle ;  and  though,  indeed,  I  might  not  probably 
stand  in  so  much  need  of  him  as  formerly  I  had  done,  yet 
was  it  the  sorest  affliction  I  ever  met  with,  and  I  could 
never  put  the  remembrance  of  him  out  of  my  thoughts. 

Now  it  is  my  chief  business  and  greatest  concern  to 
study  how  to  oblige  the  Emperor,  his  dear  HeUema,  and 
my  young  master ;  but  the  latter  I  confess  I  did  not 
mind,  though  he  was  by  nature  cruel  enough,  and  I  had 
seen  him,  even  in  the  seventeenth  year  of  his  age,  kill  his 
favourite  black  with  his  own  hand,  by  stabbing  him  into 
the  belly  with  a  knife,  and  only  for  coming  very  acci- 
dentally where  he  was  feeding  a  pair  of  pigeons,  and 
their  flying  away  for  a  few  minutes.     Yet,  I  say,  I  did  not 


much  mind  him,  as  having  much  higher  objects  to  observe, 
the  Queen  being  in  a  particular  manner  kind,  and  often 
recommending  me  to  the  Emperor's  good  liking  as  a 
careful  and  diligent  servant,  as  indeed  I  really  was,  so 
far  as  I  thought  might  be  consistent  with  my  advantage 
and  safety.  But  I  thinking  this  service  very  precarious, 
and  that  I  was  every  moment  exposed,  and  in  danger  of 
her  poison,  or  his  sword,  I  humbly  intreated  her  to  desire 
the  Emperor  to  find  out  for  me  some  other  employment, 
wherein  I  might  be  less  suspected,  and  not  altogether  out 
of  the  way  of  obliging  her;  which  she  readily  complied 
with,  I  being  directly  ordered  by  the  Emperor  to  quit  this 
dangerous  office,  and  to  wait  on  him  at  his  palace  for  such 
future  commands  as  should  be  by  him  enjoined  me.  A 
sudden  and  pleasing  alteration  indeed ;  and  though  my 
new  business  might  be  attended  with  more  masculine 
exercises,  yet  was  I  well  satisfied  that  it  could  not  be  with 
more  danger  and  uneasiness,  of  which  I  was  very  soon 
confirmed,  I  being  strictly  charged  to  be  observant  of  the 
Emperor's  commands  only,  and  to  wait  on  him  on  all 
occasions ;  and  when  he  pleased  to  ride  out,  I  was 
generally  mounted  on  the  fine  horse  he  gave  me  for  my 
fidelity  in  maintaining  my  post  at  the  door,  always 
carrying  at  my  girdle  a  club  of  about  three  feet  long,  of 
Brazil  wood,  with  which  he  used,  on  any  slight  occasion, 
to  knock  his  people  on  the  head,  as  I  had  several  times 
the  pleasure  of  beholding.  For,  in  short  (although  I  did 
not  know  how  soon  it  might  have  been  my  own  fate),  I  did 
not  care  how  soon  they  were  all  dead ;  and  indeed  he 
was  of  so  fickle,  cruel,  and  sanguine  a  nature,  that  none 
could  be  even  for  one  hour  secure  of  life.  He  had  many 
despatched,  by  having  their  heads  cut  off,  or  by  being 
strangled,  others  by  tossing,  for  which  he  had  several  very 
dexterous  executioners  always  ready  at  hand ;  but  scarce 


would  he  on  those  occasions  afford  a  verbal  command,  he 
thinking  that  too  mean,  and  his  words  of  more  value  than 
the  life  of  the  best  of  them,  generally  giving  it  by  signs  or 
motions  of  his  head  and  hand ;  as,  for  instance,  when 
he  would  have  any  person's  head  cut  off,  by  drawing  or 
shrinking  his  own  as  close  as  he  could  to  his  shoulders, 
and  then  with  a  very  quick  or  sudden  motion  extending 
it ;  and  when  he  would  have  any  strangled,  by  the  quick 
turn  of  his  arm-wrist,  his  eye  being  fixed  on  the  victims. 
The  punishment  of  "  tossing  "  is  a  very  particular  one, 
and  pecuHar  to  the  Moors. 

The  person  whom  the  Emperor  orders  to  be  thus 
punished,  is  seized  upon  by  three  or  four  strong  negroes, 
who,  taking  hold  of  his  hams,  throw  him  up  with  all  their 
strength,  and  at  the  same  time  turning  him  round,  pitch 
him  down  head  foremost ;  at  which  they  are  so  dexterous 
by  long  use,  that  they  can  either  break  his  neck  the  first 
toss,  dislocate  his  shoulder,  or  let  him  fall  with  less  hurt. 
They  continue  doing  this  as  often  as  the  Emperor  has 
ordered,  so  that  many  times  they  are  killed  upon  the 
spot;  sometimes  they  come  off  with  only  being  severely 
bruised ;  and  the  person  that  is  tossed  must  not  stir  a 
limb,  if  he  is  able,  while  the  Emperor  is  in  sight,  under 
penalty  of  being  tossed  again,  but  is  forced  to  lie  as  if  he 
was  dead;  which,  if  he  should  really  be,  nobody  dares 
bury  the  body  till  the  Emperor  has  given  orders  for  it.* 

The  Emperor's  wrath  is  terrible,  which  the  Christians 
have  often  felt.  One  day  passing  by  a  high  wall  on  which 
they  were  at  work,  and  being  affronted  that  they  did  not 
keep  time  in  their  strokes,  as  he  expects  they  should,  he 
made  his  guards  go  up  and  throw  them  all  off  the  wall, 
breaking  their  legs  and  arms,  knocking  them  on  the  head 
in  a  miserable  manner.     Another  time  he  ordered  them 

*  Note  4. 

64  adventuhes  of  thomas  fellow. 

to  bury  a  man  alive,  and  beat  him  down  along  with  the 
mortar  in  the  wall. 

Nor  is  the  Emperor  less  cruel  to  the  Moors,  whem  he'll 
frequently  command  to  be  burnt,  crucified,  sawed  in  two, 
or  dragged  at  a  mule's  tail  through  the  streets,  till  they 
are  torn  all  to  pieces. 

The  most  favourable  death  to  die  is  by  his  hand,  for 
then  they  only  lose  their  heads,  have  their  brains  knocked 
out,  or  are  run  through  the  body,  for  which  purpose  he 
always  has  his  lances  ready,  and  is  very  dexterous  at 
using  them,  seldom  letting  his  hand  go  out  for  want  of 

In  the  year  1721,  during  the  time  that  Commodore 
Stewart  was  in  Morocco  as  ambassador  from  England, 
the  Emperor  despatched,  in  the  most  cruel  manner,  Larbe 
Shott,*  a  man  of  one  of  the  best  families  in  Barbary,  being 
descended  from  the  old  Andalusian  Moors,  and  deserved  the 
esteem  both  of  his  own  countrymen  and  of  us,  with  whom 
he  had  lived  till  the  time  of  his  imprisonment ;  for  he  had 
been  a  considerable  time  in  Gibraltar,  as  a  pledge  from 
the  Bashaw  to  an  English  merchant,  for  the  payment  of 
money  due  for  goods  he  had  supplied  the  Bashaw  with. 
Part  of  the  crime  laid  to  his  charge  was  for  going  out  of 
his  country,  and  living  in  Christendom  a  considerable  time, 
without  the  Emperor's  knowledge,  and  having  been 
friendly  himself  with  Christian  women,  and  often  been  in 
liquor.  He  was  also  accused  of  being  an  unbeliever,  and 
one  of  those  who  have  invited  the  Spaniards  to  invade 

These   things  being  insinuated  to  the  Emperor,  after 

the  usual  manner  of  that  court  (where  everybody  has  it 

in  their  power  to  do  harm,  but  few  to  do  good),  brought 

this  poor  man  to  his  end ;  for  early  one  morning  he  was 

*  El  Arbi  Shat. 


carried  before  the  Emperor,  who  (not  allowing  him  any 
other  trial,  but  giving  way  to  his  accusers,  who  said,  "He 
was  an  unbeliever,  and  not  fit  to  live  ")  commanded  him 
to  be  sawed  in  two ;  upon  which  he  was  immediately 
carried  to  the  place  of  execution,  which  is  at  one  of  the 
gates  of  the  town,  and  there  tied  between  two  boards  and 
sawed  in  two,  beginning  at  the  head  and  going  downwards, 
till  his  body  fell  asunder,  which  must  have  remained  to 
have  been  eaten  by  the  dogs,  if  the  Emperor  had  not 
pardoned  him ; — an  extravagant  custom,  to  pardon  a  man 
after  he  is  dead  ;  but  unless  he  does  so,  nobody  dares  bury 
the  body. 

It  was  reported  the  next  day  after,  that  the  Emperor 
dreamt  Shott  had  appeared  to  him,  and  asked  him,  **  What 
he  had  done  to  deserve  such  usage  ?  "  telling  him,  "  There 
would  be  a  time  when  God  would  judge  between  them 
both;"  which  gave  the  Emperor  so  much  concern,  that 
he  sent  to  the  place  of  his  execution  for  some  of  the  dust 
his  blood  was  spilt  on,  with  which  he  rubbed  himself  all 
over  as  an  atonement  for  his  crime.* 

^:=  Note  5. 


Mr.  Pellow  is  better  housed  and  higher  in  favour — He  dines  more 
frequently  off  cuscassoo — How  this  dish  is  prepared — The  misery 
of  the  slaves — The  arrival  of  Commodore  Stewart  to  ransom  the 
English  captives — The  author,  being  excluded  from  the  provisions 
of  the  treaty,  is  left  behind — Cruelties  of  the  Emperor — His 
character  and  the  subservience  paid  him — The  danger  of  antici- 
pating a  remark — The  drilling  of  marksmen — He  gets  married — 
How  weddings  are  conducted  in  Morocco — He  sets  out  on  a 
military  expedition — Curious  advice  from  a  Moslem — The  march 
— At  Sharroot — Kill  hundreds  of  wild  boars — He  takes  command 
of  the  castle  (or  Kasbah)  of  Tannonah — His  lazy  life  during 
six  years — He  marches  to  Morocco  city — Expedition  into  the 

MY  lodging  was  now  on  the  inside  of  the  entrance  into 
the  palace  yard,  where  were  several  sheds  set  up 
against  the  walls  like  pent-houses,  though  closer  and  well 
tiled  overhead,  very  long  and  only  just  wide  enough  for 
one  man  to  lie  at  length;  and  here,  I  say,  I  lodged,  together 
with  the  Emperor's  guards,  so  that  I  was  always  ready  at 
hand  even  at  a  minute's  warning,  and  whence  I  dared 
not  to  stir  but  at  his  approach  or  command,  we  having  at 
the  appointed  times  our  meat  brought  us ;  and  for  our 
dinner  we  seldom  failed  of  the  Moors'  favourite  dish,  cus- 
cassoo, of  which  I  just  now  promised  to  give  a  further 
account,  I  being  really  so  far  of  the  Moors'  opinion  as  that 
I  cannot  but  in  every  respect  allow  it  truly  deserving  of 
their  so  very  high  esteem  and  commendation,  for  it  is 
actually  very  good,  grateful  and  nourishing,  and  is  prepared 


after  the  following  manner  :  first,  they  put  fine  flour  into 
a  large  wooden  bowl,  then  they  pour  thereon  a  small 
quantity  of  water,  and  keep  continually  shaking  the  bowl, 
till  the  water  is  drank  up ;  then  they  pour  on  more,  and 
so  continue  to  shake  the  bowl,  till  all  the  flour  is  come 
into  small  pellets  of  about  the  bigness  of  Nutmegs ;  then 
they  are  put  out  of  the  bowl  into  another  utensil  like  a 
cullender,  which  is  made  use  of  for  straining  the  water  off 
pease,  beans,  or  anything  else  of  the  like  nature,  which, 
being  put  over  the  steam  of  a  boiling  pot  or  furnace, 
wherein  are  fowls  and  other  meat  boiling,  in  the  nature  of 
a  cover,  and  another  cover  on  the  top  of  that.  By  the 
time  the  meat  is  well  boiled,  so  are  the  shot  or  pellets 
(though  indeed  they  call  it  baking),  when  they  pour  them 
out  into  a  dish,  adding  thereto  good  store  of  butter,  some 
salt,  spices,  and  saffron,  and  then  serve  up  the  meat  upon 
it.  This,  I  say,  is  excellent  eating,  and  is  no  doubt  used 
by  some  in  England  and  other  countries  as  a  regalio  ;  and 
was  I  of  ability  sufficient,  I  should  often  regale  myself 
with  it.  At  their  meals  they  never  made  use  of  knives, 
forks,  or  spoons,  every  one  putting  in  his  right  hand 
instead  of  a  fork,  and  his  first  two  fingers  thereof  extended 
instead  of  a  spoon,  all  seating  themselves  in  a  ring  on  the 
floor,  and  the  meat  in  the  middle ;  and  in  case  any  one, 
though  unconcerned  in  this  mess,fpassed  by  whilst  they 
were  at  it,  and  did  not  put  in  his  fingers  and  eat  with 
them,  he  was  accounted  a  very  unmannerly  fellow,  all  the 
company  calling  him  "  Caultsnab,"  which  was  as  much  as 
to  say,  without  breeding  or  manners,  though  indeed  they 
were  not  often  guilty  of  this  ill-manners.  For  my  part,  I 
could  readily  have  excused  them  if  they  had. 

This  cuscassoo  of  the  Emperor's,  as  being  to  feed  about 
nine  hundred  men,  was  brought  out  into  the  court  in  a 
cart  upon  wheels ;   when,  dividing  ourselves  into  several 


companies  of  about  seventy  or  eighty  in  a  company,  we 
had  all  our  messes  served  out  from  the  cart  in  large  bowls, 
and  set  in  the  middle  of  us  on  the  floor  as  before  men- 
tioned, sitting  as  close  round  it  as  possible  we  could. 
Though  I  cannot  say  we  had  fowls,  yet  we  did  not  want, 
in  lieu  thereof,  for  good  store  of  beef  and  mutton,  and 
which,  instead  of  decently  cutting,  we  with  our  hands 
hauled  to  pieces,  two  pulling  one  against  another ;  and 
any  one  first  taking  hold  on  a  piece  of  meat,  and  another, 
his  next  neighbour,  not  taking  speedy  hold  also  on  the 
same  piece,  it  was  accounted  brutish.  For  as  they  are 
allowed  at  their  meals  the  use  only  of  their  right  hands, 
therefore  if  a  man  is  not  so  assisted  by  his  neighbour, 
whereby  he  may  the  easier  separate  it,  it  is  reckoned  the 
greatest  injury  that  can  be  offered  them ;  and  it  is  really  a 
very  dangerous  way  of  eating,  especially  when  people  are  very 
hungry,  therefore  they  are  generally  attended,  during  that 
time,  by  several  persons  with  clubs  in  their  hands,  in  case 
any  should  by  chance  swallow  a  piece  too  large  for  their 
gullets,  and  it  should  stick  therein — which,  through  their 
greediness,  often  happened — and  then  one  of  those  atten- 
dants gave  the  party  a  very  hearty  blow  with  his  cudgel  in 
the  neck,  by  which  means  it  was  generally  discharged  either 
up  or  down,  and,  in  case  it  was  not,  then  they  repeated 
the  blow  till  it  was.  This  did  I  often  see,  and  have  been 
as  often  diverted  with  it. 

About  this  time  came  Commodore  Stewart,  ambassador 
to  Mequinez,  with  full  powers  from  his  royal  master  to 
treat  with  the  Emperor  for  the  so  long  desired  redemption 
of  the  poor  English  captives. 

Here  it  will  not  be  amiss  to  describe  the  exceeding 
weight  of  misery  which  our  fellow-countrymen  undergo 
who  are  so  unhappy  as  to  be  made  slaves  in  Morocco. 

The  severest  labour  and  hardships  inflicted  on  male- 


factors  in  Europe  are  lenity  and  indulgence,  compared  to 
what  many  worthy  persons  undergo  in  this  modern  Egypt; 
even  slavery  at  Tunis  or  Algiers  is  a  state  of  repose  and 
felicity  to  that  in  the  Morocco  dominions.  At  daybreak 
the  guardians  of  the  several  dungeons,  where  the  Christian 
slaves  are  shut  up  at  night,  rouse  them  with  curses  and 
blows  to  their  work,  which  here  is  not  repairing  or  rigging 
of  ships,  but  more  laborious,  as  it  consists  in  providing 
materials  for  the  Emperor's  extravagant  buildings, 
stamping  earth  mixed  with  lime  and  water,  in  a  wooden 
box  near  three  yards  long  and  three  feet  deep,  and  of  the 
intended  breadth  of  the  wall.  Their  instrument  for  this 
is  a  heavy  wooden  stamper.  Others  prepare  and  mix  the 
earth,  or  dig  in  quarries  for  lime  stones ;  others  burn 
them.  Some  are  employed  to  carry  large  baskets  of  earth ; 
some  drive  waggons  drawn  by  six  bulls  and  two  horses ; 
and,  after  the  toil  of  the  day,  these  miserable  carters 
watch  their  cattle  in  the  field  at  night,  and  in  all  weathers, 
as  their  life  must  answer  for  any  accident.  The  task  of 
many  is  to  saw,  cut,  cement,  and  erect  marble  pillars,  and 
of  such  who  are  found  qualified,  to  make  gunpowder  and 
small  arms ;  yet  does  not  their  skill  procure  them  any 
better  treatment  than  those  who,  having  only  the  use  of 
their  limbs  without  any  ingenuity,  are  set  to  the  coarsest 
works,  as  tending  horses,  sweeping  stables,  carrying 
burthens,  grinding  with  hand-mills.  Some  have  also  in 
charge  to  manage  the  water-works,  and  inspect  the  aque- 
ducts. In  all  these  so  different  departments  the  ignorant 
and  artist  are  upon  a  level,  very  few  instances  excepted. 
They  have  all  their  respective  guardians,  taskmasters,  and 
drivers,  who  immediately  punish  the  least  stop  or  inad- 
vertency, and  often  will  fiot  allow  the  poor  creatures  time 
to  eat  their  bread,  but,  like  Nehemiah's  men,  they  must 
work  with  one  hand,  whilst  they  put  their  coarse  morsel 


of  bread  into  their  mouths  -with  the  other.  After  such  a 
wearisome  day,  it  frequently  happens  they  are  hurried 
away  to  some  filthy  work  in  the  night-time,  with  this  call 
in  Spanish,  "  Vamos  a  travacho  cornutos,"  i.e.,  "  Out  to 
work,  you  cuckolds,"  an  appellation  of  the  bitterest  reproach 
among  the  Moors,  except  "  Thou  son  of  a  Christian."  But 
a  circumstance  more  affecting  than  all  these  rigours  is 
that  men,  created  in  the  image  of  God,  have  been 
harnessed  in  carts  with  mules  and  asses.  Their  lodgings 
in  the  night  are  subterraneous  dungeons,  round,  and  about 
five  fathoms  diameter,  and  three  deep,  going  down  by  a 
ladder  of  ropes,  which  is  afterwards  drawn  up,  and  an  iron 
grate  fastened  in  the  mouth ;  and  here  they  lay  upon  mats. 
Neither  has  their  fare  anything  more  comfortable  in  it, 
consisting  only  of  a  small  platter  of  black  barleymeal, 
with  a  pittance  of  oil  per  day.  This  scantiness  has  put 
several  upon  hazarding  a  leap  from  very  high  walls  only 
to  get  a  few  wild  onions  that  grow  in  the  Moors'  burying- 
place.  The  slaves  usual  habit  is  a  long  coarse  woollen 
coat  with  a  hood,  which  serves  for  a  cap,  shirt,  coat,  and 
breeches,  and  four  pair  of  pumps  for  a  year  and  a  half, 
though  lime  and  mortar,  and  their  daily  hard  work,  wears 
them  off  their  feet  in  half  the  time.  It  is  moderately 
computed  that  many  Christian  slaves  have  been  suddenly 
killed  by  Muley  Ishmael  and  other  emperors  merely  out 
of  wantonness,  and  sometimes  finding  fault  with  their 
dispatch,  or  manner  of  working,  of  which  they  could  have 
no  competent  idea.  If  it  be  accounted  an  honour  to  be 
the  sovereign's  slave,  like  some  others,  it  is  very  burthen- 
some,  for  they  are  not  only  harder  worked  when  in  health 
than  those  of  private  persons,  but  much  more  neglected  in 
sickness — though  of  the  care  bestowed  on  the  latter,  it  may 
with  great  propriety  be  said  that  the  remedy*  is  worse  than 

*  Note  6. 


the  disease.  The  only  alleviation  is,  that  the  slaves  are 
allowed  to  make  brandy,  and  the  Jews  are  taxed  with  the 
materials.  This  is  owing  to  a  notion  infused  into  the 
emperors,  that  the  Europeans  would  lose  all  their  in- 
genuity and  vigour  without  now  and  then  a  draught  of 
that  inspiring  liquor.  May  that  notion  ever  obtain  there  ! 
But  experience  shows  us  that  the  frequent  use  of  spirituous 
liquors  both  enervates  and  stupefies.  The  Moors  are  ex- 
tremely cautious  and  artful  in  purchasing  slaves,  and, 
besides  inveigling  questions  and  cajolings,  have  many 
methods  and  tokens  to  judge  what  ransom  a  slave  will 
yield,  and  accordingly  will  readily  give  some  hundred 
pounds  where  all  promising  appearances  occur ;  but  where 
the  greater  ransom  is  expected  the  usage  is  the  worst. 
These  exasperating  sufferings  have  often  prompted  the 
slaves  to  make  some  efforts  for  liberty,  but  they  have 
mostly  terminated  in  miscarriages.  Once  a  large  dungeon 
was  undermined,  and  great  numbers  in  a  fair  way  to 
escape,  but  a  Dutchman,  breaking  his  leg  by  a  fall,  and 
crying  out  with  the  anguish,  they  were  retaken,  and  put 
to  a  torturing  death  for  an  example. 

Commodore  Stewart  was  conducted  to  Mequinez  from 
Tetuan  by  Hamet  Ben  Ally,*  one  of  the  Emperor's 
Bashaws ;  in  which  embassy,  the  Commodore  being  a 
very  able,  well-accomplished,  courteous,  and  indefatigable 
gentleman,  notwithstanding  his  often  meeting  with  very 
great  insults  and  manifest  dangers,  managed  his  point 
so  well,  that  in  six  weeks,  or  thereabouts,  he  procured  the 
enlargement  of  all  the  English  slaves  (those  under  my 
unhappy  circumstances  only  excepted),  in  number  three 
hundred  and  one,t  releasing  them  from  their  long  servitude 

*  Hamet  ben  Ali  ben  Abdallah. 

f  The  actual  number  freed  was  29G.  Of  the  1,100  European  slaves 
at  Meqninez,  300  were  English,  "  not  including  nineteen  who  had 
turned  Moor.'' 


and  chains,  and  conducting  them  to  Tetuan,  where  he 
found  shipping  ready  to  transport  them  to  their  so  long 
desired  homes,  there  being  then  more  than  six  years 
expired  since  they  were  first  made  prisoners,  that  is  to 
say,  those  taken  with  poor  unhappy  me,  who  you  may 
imagine  could  not  be  allowed  to  go  with  them,  though  I 
most  humbly  intreated  it  by  all  the  means  I  could  devise, 
all  my  solicitations  being  in  vain,  so  that  I  was  obliged 
to  content  myself  to  effect  my  deliverance  by  private 
escape  when  opportunity  offered ;  to  which  end  the 
ambassador  gave  me  very  friendly  advice,  together  with 
many  other  marks  of  his  favour. 

I  might  here  fill  up  a  great  deal  by  way  of  the  several 
occurrences  relating  to  the  ambassador's  entrance,  be- 
haviour, usage,  and  return  to  Teutan,  and,*  in  short,  many 
other  passages  of  moment,  and  which  I  very  particularly 
remember;  but  as  I  am  informed  there  is  a  book  of  it 
already  printed,  I  shall  not  go  about  in  anywise  to  inter- 
fere with  it;  Commodore  Stewart  being  a  gentleman  of 
so  much  good  observance,  that  mine  might  only  prove  to 
be  a  recital  of  it,  or  at  least  a  dull  tautology  of  the  same 
things ;  though  I  cannot  again  help  saying,  and  which,  no 
doubt,  in  that  report  is  omitted,  that  he  in  every  point 
behaved  in  so  polite,  most  Christian-like,  and  majestic  a 
manner,  as  not  to  derogate  from,  or  lessen  the  trust 
reposed  in  him  by  his  royal  master,  whose  person  and 
dignity  he  was  to  represent,  and  which  I  heartily  wish 
had  been  so  well  performed  by  a  certain  gentleman!  sent 
to  Mequinez  on  the  same  errand  about  four  years  before 
him  ;  then  had  it  in  all  likelihood  prevented  many  aching 
hearts,  and  my  poor  uncle,  with  many  other  poor  Christian 
slaves  (who  during  that  interval  died  there),  had  probably 
been  still  alive. 

*  Note  5.  f  Admiral  Delaval. 


I  being  now  become,  as  I  have  already  said,  one  of  the 
Emperor's  attendants,  and  always  ready  in  obedience  to 
his  commands,  in  receiving  him  bare-headed  and  bare- 
footed at  his  entrance  in,  or  at  his  going  out  of  the  palace, 
I  having  my  head  shaved  every  eighth  day  for  that  purpose  ; 
and  not  only  his  guards  treat  him  with  this  submissive 
respect,  but  his  whole  court,  consisting  of  his  great  officers 
and  alcaydes,  assemble  every  morning  about  eight  or  nine 
o'clock,  all  barefooted,  to  know  if  the  Emperor  has  been 
abroad  (for  if  he  keeps  within  doors,  there's  no  seeing 
him,  unless  sent  for),  or  if  he's  returned  in  a  good  humour, 
which  is  well  known  by  his  very  looks  and  motions,  and 
sometimes  by  the  colour  of  the  habit  he  wears,  yellow 
being  observed  to  be  his  killing  colour ;  from  all  which 
they  calculate  whether  they  may  hope  to  live  twenty-four 
hours  longer. 

If  the  Emperor  comes  out,  their  necks  are  all  held  out, 
their  eyes  fixed  on  the  ground  ;  and  after  this  manner  the 
crouching  creatures  pay  their  homage,  and  when  they 
approach  him,  fall  down  and  kiss  the  ground  at  his 
horse's  feet.  If  he  speaks,  some  swear  by  their  god  what 
he  says  is  true  ;  others,  at  every  pause  he  makes,  cry  out, 
**  God  lengthen  thy  days,  my  lord ;  God  bless  thy  life ;  " 
which  once  occasioned  an  accidental  jest,  for  he  was 
saying,  "  May  I  be  called  the  greatest  of  liars,  if  I  have 
not  always  conceived  a  great  esteem  for  the  English;"  and 
making  a  little  stop  at  the  word  "liars,"  his  officious  court 
cried  out,  "  Yes,  by  G — d  it's  true,  my  lord  !  " 

If  he  comes  not  out,  he  sometimes  sends  for  some  of 
them ;  at  other  times  he  has  the  door  opened,  and  orders 
them  all  to  pass  muster,  and  they  go  one  by  one  cringing 
by  the  door.  If  he  only  goes  a  little  way  out  of  the  gate 
of  his  palace,  they  follow  him  on  foot  through  the  dirt ; 
and  he  is  a  great  man,  and  esteemed  a  great  favomite, 


•who  advances  as  far  as  his  stuTup ;  and  if  he  has  occasion 
to  send  a  message,  though  never  so  trivial,  the  best  of 
them  are  ready  to  run,  without  respect  to  age,  rank,  or 
favour  (even  his  favourite  Hameda  used  to  make  his 
court  this  way),  and  return  bespattered  up  to  their  eyes,  at 
least  all  over  their  white  drawers,  and  other  garments 
which  are  white;  nay,  I  have  heard  that  Hamet  Ben 
Haddu  Attar  (who  was  ambassador  in  England  in  King 
Charles  the  Second's  time)  was  once  surprised  without  his 
shoes,  walking  barefoot  in  a  great  deal  of  dirt  by  his 
horse  ;  and  without  regard  to  his  age,  or  the  pretence  he 
had  to  his  favour,  was  sent  to  the  furthest  part  of  the 
town  in  that  condition. 

During  all  intervals  from  such  my  attendance,  I  was, 
together  with  the  rest  of  the  guards,  generally  exercised 
in  shooting  with  a  single  ball  at  a  mark,  which  was 
generally  a  red  cap  set  on  the  top  of  a  high  piece  of 
ground,  distant  about  two  hundred  paces ;  at  which  we  all, 
to  the  number  of  nine  hundred,  and  something  more,  fired 
together  at  the  word  of  command,  the  Emperor  so  ordering 
it,  thereby  to  make  us  the  more  expert,  ready  and  dex- 
terous, in  case  of  any  warlike  action,  whereto  we  might 
happen  to  be  suddenly  called ;  though  for  my  part,  I 
could  never  see  who  that  person  was  that  hit  the  mark, 
if  hit  at  all.  It  was,  I  think,  impossible  for  any  to 
determine,  though  I  must  acknowledge  it  to  be  a  very 
good  way  in  training  up  soldiers  to  their  making  of  close 
vollies  ;  yet,  indeed,  I  saw  at  other  places  these  firings 
single,  and  where  the  party  was  so  lucky  to  hit  it,  he  did 
not  fail  of  a  suitable  reward. 

You  may  now  perhaps  imagine,  that  as  I  was  altogether 
at  the  Emperor's  command,  I  was  quite  excluded  the 
sight  and  favour  of  the  Queen  ;  which  I  was  not,  often 
receiving    very  valuable   acknowledgments   thereof,   even 


from  her  own  hands,  and  certainly  through  her  means  I 
hitherto  fared  the  better  with  the  Emperor.  For,  in  short, 
she  thought  she  could  not  oblige  me  enough,  and  therefore 
was  over  solicitous  in  an  affair  which  I  had  much  rather 
should  have  been  let  alone,  and  such  as  I  thought  she 
would  never  have  urged  or  consented  with  herself  to  have 
put  upon  me,  it  being  quite  the  reverse  of  my  inclinations  ; 
yet  did  she  urge  it,  and  obtain  it,  and  was,  no  doubt,  some 
time  in  bringing  it  about  with  the  Emperor. 

One  day,  the  Emperor  being  on  the  merry  pin,  ordered 
to  be  brought  before  him  eight  hundred  young  men,  and 
soon  after  as  many  young  women,  who  also  instantly 
appearing  (as  being,  no  doubt,  before  ordered  to  be  ready 
at  hand),  he  told  the  men,  that  as  he  had  on  several 
occasions  observed  their  readiness  and  dexterity  in  obeying 
him,  he  would  therefore,  as  in  some  part  of  recompense, 
give  every  one  of  them  a  wife ;  and  which,  indeed,  he 
soon  did,  by  giving  some  by  his  own  hand  (a  very  great 
condescension),  and  to  others  by  the  beckoning  of  his  head, 
and  the  cast  of  his  eye,  where  they  should  fix.  After 
they  were  all  coupled  and  departed,  I  was  also  called  forth, 
and  bid  to  look  at  eight  black  women  standing  there,  and 
to  take  one  of  them  for  a  wife.  At  which  sudden  command, 
I  (being  not  a  little  confounded,  as  not  at  all  liking  their 
colour)  immediately  bowing  twice,  falling  to  the  ground 
and  kissing  it,  and  after  that  the  Emperor's  foot  (which 
is  the  custom  of  those  who  desire  to  be  heard,  as  well 
as  a  very  great  favour  and  condescension  to  be  permitted 
to  do),  humbly  in  treated  him,  if,  in  case  I  must  have  a 
wife,  that  he  would  be  graciously  pleased  to  give  me  one 
of  my  own  colour.  Then,  forthwith  sending  them  off,  he 
ordered  to  be  brought  forth  seven  others,  who  all  proved 
to  be  Mulattoes  ;  at  which  I  again  bowed  to  the  ground, 
still  entreating  him  to  give  me  one  of  my  own  colour ;  and 


then  he  ordered  them  also  to  depart,  and  sent  for  a  single 
woman,  full  dressed,  and  who  in  a  very  little  time  appeared, 
with  two  young  blacks  attending  her,  she  being,  no  doubt, 
the  same  he  and  the  Queen  had  before  particularly 
designed  for  me.  I  being  forthwith  ordered  to  take  her 
by  the  hand  and  lead  her  off,  which  she  holding  out  to  me, 
I  perceived  it  to  be  black  also,  as  soon  after  I  did  her  feet ; 
at  which  I  started  back,  like  one  in  a  very  great  surprise, 
and  being  asked  what  was  the  matter,  I  answered  him  as 
before ;  when  he  smiling,  ordered  me  to  lift  up  her  veil 
(it  being  the  custom  of  the  country  for  women  to  go  veiled) 
and  look  at  her  face  ;  which  I  readily  obeying,  found  her 
to  be  of  a  very  agreeable  complexion,  the  old  rascal  crying 
out,  in  a  very  pleasing  way,  in  the  Spanish  language, 
*'  Bono  !  Bono  !  "  which  signifies,  "  Good  !  Good  !  "  order- 
ing me  a  second  time  to  take  her  by  the  hand,  lead  her 
off,  and  keep  her  safe. 

This  artificial  blackness  of  her  hands  and  feet  was  laid 
on  by  a  certain  grass,  first  made  into  powder  and  mixed 
with  water,  alum,  and  the  juice  of  lemons,  and  is  called 
el  bhenna,  being  brought  from  the  river  Draugh,  about 
ten  days'  journey  from  Mequinez,  and  still  further  from 
TafQlet,  and  several  other  places.* 

At  our  coming  out  of  the  palace,  we  found  her  father, 
mother,  sister,  and  sister's  husband,  ready  to  receive  us 
(the  latter  being  a  man  of  very  considerable  authority,  as 
having  under  his  command  one  thousand  five  hundred 
youug  men,  who  go  under  the  name  of  "  Kiadrossams," 
being  all  the  Emperor's  brothers-in-law,  and  are  gener- 
ally at  his  call  in  the  palace),  and  received  us  very 
courteously  indeed,  desiring  me,  as  it  was  the  Em- 
peror's pleasure  to  give  me  his  sister,  that  I  would 
always  behave  to  her  as  a  loving  husband,  so  far  as  she 

*  Note  7. 


deserved,  and  at  the  same  time  exhorting  her  no  less  in 
her  duty  to  me.  This  we  both  readily  promised  to  each 
other,  and  which  was  indeed  by  both  of  us  as  faithfully 
performed.  Their  next  request  being  our  acceptance  of  an 
apartment  (as  having  none  of  our  own)  in  this  our 
brother-in-law's  house,  till  such  time  as  we  were  provided 
with  one  of  our  own  which  we  as  readily  came  into,  and 
together  with  the  old  gentry  went  with  them,  though  we 
were  for  the  first  night  lodged  in  separate  lodgings, 
as  I  suppose  were  the  rest,  being  all  first  obliged  to 
appear  again  the  next  day  at  the  palace,  there  to  receive  a 
certificate  from  the  secretary  as  a  ratification  or  finishing 
stroke,  and  each  couple  fifteen  ducats,  each  ducat  6s.  8d., 
making  in  all  just  £5  in  English  money,  two  thirds  for  the 
man  and  one  for  the  woman,  as  the  Emperor's  bounty  on 
such-like  occasions,  before  our  marriage  could  be  com- 
pleted. Which  being  paid,  and  our  certificates  delivered, 
each  man  paying  for  them  (as  the  secretary's  fee)  sixteen 
blankeels  (pieces  of  money  of  about  twopence  in  value  each), 
we  were  all  dismissed  to  make  merry  with  our  friends,  and 
celebrate  our  nuptials.  As  I  and  my  spouse  were  well 
accounted  of  amongst  the  better  sort,  we  did  not  want  for 
plenty  of  wedding  guests,  nor  they  for  plenty  of  good 
eatables,  I  having  pro\Tided,  at  my  own  charge  (over  and 
above  that  of  my  brother-in-law's)  a  fat  bullock,  four 
sheep,  two  dozen  of  large  fowls,  twelve  dozen  of  young 
pigeons,  1501b.  weight  of  fine  flour,  and  501b.  of  butter, 
with  a  suflficient  store  of  honey,  spices,  &c.  All  which,  our 
wedding  holding  three  days,  was  clearly  despatched  with 
a  great  deal  of  mirth,  and  friendly  satisfaction.  Yet  was 
it  the  soberest  wedding  you  ever  saw,  for  we  had  not, 
among  all  this  great  company,  one  intoxicated  person, 
though  they  had  all  as  much  liquor  as  they  would  drink  ; 
but  such,  indeed,  as  might  sooner  break  their  bellies  than 


operate  in  their  noddles,  being  only  water  ;  wine  being  by 
their  grand  impostor,  and  great  prophet,  Mahomet,  alto- 
gether forbidden.  And  though  it  is  death  by  his  law  for 
any  person  discovered  in  drinking  it,  yet  it  is  by  some 
privately  drunk,  even  to  excess,  there  being  great  store, 
and  very  good  in  Barbary,  besides  what  they  catch  from 
other  countries. 

This  short  way  of  marrying  his  guards  the  Emperor 
frequently  put  in  practice,  by  often  ordering  great  numbers 
of  people  before  him,  whom  he  marries  without  any  more 
ceremony  than  pointing  to  the  man  and  woman  and 
saying,  "  Hadi  yi  houd  Hadi,"  that  is  to  say,  "  That  take 
That; "  upon  which  the  loving  pair  join  together,  and  march 
off  as  firmly  noosed  as  if  they  had  been  married  by  a  Pope. 
He  always  yokes  his  best  complexioned  subjects  to  a  black 
helpmate,  and  the  fair  lady  must  take  up  with  a  negro. 
But  the  Moors  in  general,  who  are  not  married  by  the 
Emperor's  command,  use  a  great  deal  of  ceremony  about  it. 

When  a  man  wants  a  wife,  either  his  mother  or  some  of 
his  female  relations  must  go  a-courting  for  him  (custom 
not  permitting  the  man  to  visit  the  woman  beforehand), 
and  when  the  bargain  is  made,  which  is  done  before  the 
Cady,  or  justice,  the  bride  is  to  keep  within  for  eight  days, 
her  friends  coming  to  rejoice  with  her  every  day,  and  a 
Talb,  or  priest,  also  visiting  her,  and  discoursing  on  that 
holy  state  ;  they  pin  the  basket  with  a  religious  hymn 
appointed  for  that  purpose.  The  husband,  with  his 
friends,  repeats  the  same  ceremonies  for  five  days  before 
the  consummation  in  a  house  which  he  has,  or  must  take 
to  bring  his  wife  to.  The  last  day  the  bride  is  put  into  a 
cage,  covered  with  a  fine  linen  cloth,  and  carried  on  men  s 
shoulders  to  the  house  of  her  intended  husband ;  her 
friends,  relations,  and  music  going  before.  Her  brother 
(if  she  has  one)  leads  her  into  the  house,  where  a  room  is 


appointed  for  her  and  the  women ;  the  man  remains  also 
in  his  room  with  his  friends.  When  the  evening  ap- 
proaches they  are  let  loose  by  the  company,  and  the 
bridegroom  goes  to  his  wife's  apartment,  where  he  finds 
her  alone,  sitting  on  a  cushion  of  silk,  velvet,  or  such  fine 
things  as  they  can  borrow  (if  they  have  them  not  of  their 
own)  :  underneath  there's  a  silk  quilt ;  before  her  stands  a 
little  table,  about  a  foot  high,  with  two  wax  candles  upon 
it.  Upon  her  head  she  has  a  black  silk  scarf,  tied  in  a 
knot,  the  ends  hanging  on  the  ground  behind  her ;  her 
shift  is  made  with  large  sleeves  like  the  men's,  and  long 
enough  to  hang  behind  her  like  a  train.  Her  vest  is  of  silk, 
or  velvet,  buttoned  close  to  her  hands,  and  reaches  to  the 
middle  of  her  leg,  adorned  with  lace  at  the  hands,  and  all 
over  the  breast.  She  has  the  same  linen  drawers  described 
in  the  women's  dress,  and  collars  of  pearl  or  fine  stones, 
and  (if  she  can  get  them)  of  lions'  or  eagles'  claws  tipt  with 
silver ;  in  her  ears  she  has  great  rings  of  gold  or  silver, 
and  the  same  about  her  wrists  and  ankles,  sometimes  set 
with  stones.  Her  slippers  have  thick  soles  made  of  cork, 
covered  with  gilt  leather,  and  edged  with  the  same,  which 
is  a  mark  of  greatness  among  them,  the  Emperor  and  some 
few  more  wearing  them.  Her  cheeks  are  painted  with 
cochineal,  which  colours  yellow  at  first,  but  being  rubbed 
presently  turns  red  ;  with  this  they  make  one  great  round 
spot  on  each  cheek.  Their  eyebrows  are  painted  black, 
and  continued  quite  round  their  temples,  like  a  pair  of 
whiskers.  They  also  make  some  small  black  spots,  in 
imitation  of  patches,  near  their  nose  and  lips,  a  black  snip 
on  the  end  of  their  nose,  and  a  black  stroke,  the  breadth  of 
a  straw  from  their  chin,  reaching  down  below  the  pit  of 
their  stomach,  and  how  much  lower  I  can't  tell,  for  there 
they  begin  to  be  covered  ;  they  paint  their  eyelids  and  the 
sides  of  them  with  a  black  powder  called  Alchol  [or  anti- 


mony],  putting  some  of  the  same  into  their  eyes  with  a  little 
stick ;  the  palms  of  their  hands  are  all  blacked,  and  from 
the  top  of  their  thumbs  round  the  fleshy  part  is  a  black 
stroke,  and  one  from  the  end  of  each  finger  to  the  palm ; 
their  nails  are  dyed  yellow ;  they  also  have  many  fine 
scrawls  of  black  on  the  top  of  their  feet,  and  their  toe-nails 
are  likewise  dyed  yellow. 

Thus  beautified,  the  bride  sits  behind  the  table  mentioned 
before,  with  two  wax  candles  upon  it,  holding  her  hands  up 
the  height  of  her  face,  with  the  palms  turned  towards  her, 
about  a  foot  distance  from  each  other,  and  as  much  from 
her  face,  upon  which  she  is  to  look,  and  not  on  her  hus- 
band. After  this  follows  some  other  customs  such  as  are 
still  practised  to  a  certain  extent  in  Spain,  though  they 
do  not  call  for  minute  description  here.  It  need  only  be 
remarked  that  the  bridegroom  is  obliged  to  stay  at  home 
for  seven  days,  and  the  bride  a  whole  year,  who  is  kept  ever 
after  so  close  from  the  rest  of  mankind,  that  not  even  her 
father  or  brother  can  have  the  privilege  of  a  visit  unless 
her  husband  is  present. 

All  the  women  paint  after  the  manner  before  mentioned 
at  their  public  meetings ;  they  are  extremely  handsome, 
and  bred  up  with  the  greatest  care  imaginable  in  relation  to 
their  modesty ;  the  fattest  and  biggest  are  most  admired, 
for  which  reason  they  cram  themselves  against  marriage 
with  a  food  called  Zummith ;  it  is  a  compound  of  flour, 
honey,  and  spices,  made  into  little  loaves  for  that  purpose. 

And  now  I  am  soon  about  to  enter  from  the  sports  of 
Venus  into  the  field  of  Mars,  though  indeed  I  had  the  com- 
pany of  my  wife  by  intervals  for  some  years  after ;  for  our 
wedding  being  ended,  I  was  on  the  fourth  day,  or  day 
after,  ordered  to  prepare  myself  for  my  departure  to  a 
garrison  in  the  province  of  Tamnsnah,*  about  six  days' 

•  Temsna. 


journey  from  Mequinez,  whence  (after  taking  leave  of  our 
friends)  I  and  my  wife  set  out  the  same  day,  accompanied 
by  six  hundred  of  those  who  were  so  lately  married  with 
us,  three  hundred  of  them  being  put  under  my  command, 
and  the  other  three  hundred  under  the  command  of  Musa, 
or  Moses  Belearge,  a  Spaniard,  they  likewise  taking  with 
them  their  wives.     These  six  hundred  men  were  of  different 
nations,  French,  Spaniards,  Portuguese,  and  Italians,  but 
not  an  Englishman  amongst  them,  except  myself.   Bashaw 
Hammo  Triflfoe  (half  Spaniard  and  half  Moor),  Commander 
in  Chief  of  that  province,  with  two  thousand  men,  went 
also  with  us,  and  being  obliged  to  take  with  us  a  priest, 
the  Emperor  commanded  me  to  find  one,  if  possible,  who 
was  both  blind  and  deaf,  that  if  in  case  any  of  us  should 
happen  to  take  a  cup  of  wine  (as  being  used  thereto  in  our 
own  respective  countries,  and  therefore  might  the  sooner 
do  80  in  his)  he  might  not  be  capable  of  taking  notice  of 
it ;  for,  added  he,  "  though  I  will  by  no  means  encourage 
it,  yet  should  I  much  rather  be  excused  from  receiving  any 
complaints  of  that   nature,  whereby  to   give   them   any 
uneasiness."     Though  I  made  the  best  inquiry  I  could,  yet 
I  could  by  no  means  meet  with  such  a  one ;  therefore  I 
recommended  to  him  my  wife's  uncle,  a  seeming  honest 
man,  and  one  who  was  approved  of  by  the  Emperor,  and 
by  us  as  joyfully  received.   Then  after  being  strictly  charged 
to  reside  the  first  month  at  the  castle  of  Tamnsnoe,*  and 
the  next  at  Stant,  so  as  each  garrison  might  have  him  by 
turns  every  other  month,  he  cheerfully  travelled  on  with  us ; 
and  though  he  could  both  see  and  hear  very  well,  yet  was 
I  under  no  apprehension  of  his  giving  the  Emperor  any 
uneasiness  on  our  account,  I  having  before  seen  him  to 
drink  wine  in  a  plentiful  manner. 

We  are  now  (women  included)  3,206  on  the  road,  all 

*  Tanisna. 


well  mounted,  the  men  on  fine  horses,  which,  as  they  are 
so  famous  for  goodness,  it  will  not  be  improper  to   say 
something  of  the  Moors'  method  of  managing  them.     The 
Moors  take  a  great  deal  of  pride  in  their  horses,  and  order 
them  after  a  very  different  manner  from  us  ;  they  back 
them  generally  at  two  years  old,  and  shear  their  manes 
and  tails  till  they  come  to  six,  thinking  that  makes  them 
strong.     At  grass  they  tie   sometimes  the  two   fore  feet 
together,  at  other  times  a  fore  foot  and  a  hinder  one.     In 
their  stables  they  have  two  iron  pins  drove  into  the  ground, 
one  before,  and  the  other  behind  them,  at  the  distance 
of  about  three  feet   from  their   legs,  which   are  fastened 
together  with  ropes,  like  our  traves,  with  which  we  teach 
horses   to   pace,   but   being   short,   they  draw  their  legs 
together  under  their  bellies,  and  two  ropes  come  from  their 
hind  and  fore  feet,  which  are  so  tied  to  these  pins  that  they 
cannot  stir  above  one  foot  backwards  or  forwards.     Their 
collar  is  also  made  fast  to  the  pin  before  them,  which  has 
a  ring  for  that  purpose  ;  under  them  is  a  hole  covered  with 
pieces  of  timber  to  receive  their  water,  and  a  little  on  one 
side  a  bed  of  sand,  or  sawdust,  for  them  to  lie  upon.     They 
have  no  mangers,  but  eat  their  straw  or  grass  off  the  ground. 
All  their  horses  eat  grass  in  April  and  May,  and,  if  it  be 
a  good  year,  great  part  of  March  ;  at  other  times  they  eat 
straw  instead  of  hay ;    their  barley  is  given  them  in  a 
woollen  bag,  put  over  their  heads.   They  are  never  dressed, 
nor  their  manes   or  tails   combed,   but   when   dirty  are 
carried  to  the  next  running  water  and  washed,  and  if  they 
design  to  have  them  look  fine,  they  use  a  little  soap.    Some 
will  take  it  amiss  that  you  touch  a  horse  with  the  palm  of 
your  hand  to  stroke  him,  and  say  there  is  venom  in  that 
part  which  is  hurtful  to  horses.     They  never  crop  their 
tails  or  ears,  nor  geld  them,  for  they  like  no   maimed 
creatures  but  eunuchs  for  other  reasons. 


They  have  one  sort  which  they  call  **  Noble  Horses," 
who  bow  their  heads  about  at  the  approach  of  a  man. 
Their  love  is  so  great  for  horses,  that  not  only  they  are  one 
of  the  three  things  for  which  the  Moors  have  a  proverb,  as 
most  esteemed,  viz.,  !*  A  horse,  a  woman,  and  a  book,"  but 
they  keep  even  the  genealogies  of  them  for  two  or  three 
hundred  years,  and  are  nice  in  distinguishing  the  true  from 
the  mixed  generations.  They  have  a  base  way  of  shoeing 
them,  cutting  off  the  fore  part  of  the  hoof,  and  forming  the 
shoe  into  a  triangular  shape,  with  the  two  points  almost 
meeting  at  the  heel,  which  points  are  made  very  thin,  and 
after  the  shoe  is  fastened  with  three  nails  on  each  side  are 
beaten  as  flat  to  the  hoof  as  possible ;  but  some  time  ago 
the  Emperor  issued  out  an  order  that  upon  pain  of  death 
all  horses  should  be  shoed  with  round  shoes,  a  certain  Turk 
having  persuaded  him  that  was  the  best  way. 

Thej'  are  not  subject  to  distempers,  and  the  Moors  (as 
Windus  puts  it)  know  not  what  you  mean  by  a  farsey 
or  glander,  nor  have  I  ever  seen  a  spavin  or  mullender. 
As  for  the  Berebbers  in  the  mountains,  they  never  shoe 
their  horses ;  and  their  feet  are  certainly  firmer  than  ours, 
for  a  horse  went  to  Tetuan  from  the  camp,  and  came  back 
the  next  day,  without  a  shoe,  which  is  fifty  miles,  and  not- 
withstanding he  was  forced  to  cross  a  mountain  full  of 
rocks  going  and  coming,  not  being  able  to  pass  the  low  way 
for  a  river,  it  was  not  perceived  he  had  the  least  crack  in 
his  hoof,  or  made  any  complaint  of  his  feet.  Their  horses 
live  to  a  great  age,  and  are  very  fresh  at  fourteen  or  fifteen, 
the  reason  of  which  seems  to  be  their  going  so  gently  on 
the  road,  where  they  seldom  are  put  out  of  a  foot-pace,  but 
when  they  exercise  the  lance  they  make  them  bestir  them- 
selve  to  some  purpose.  * 

Our  women  rode  on  mules,  and  we  got  that  day  to  the 
=<=  Note  8. 


river  Bate,*  about  five  leagues,  the  second  day  to  the 
castle  Cassabjibbadjt  the  third  to  an  old  ruined  castle 
called  Phinseera,  I  and  the  fourth  to  the  walls  of  Sallee, 
Hammo  Triffe  and  his  people  encamping  and  remaining 
without  three  days,  during  which  us  new-married  people 
had  the  liberty  to  go  into  the  town,  were  lodged  there,  and 
most  sumptuously  feasted  by  the  Emperor's  order,  as 
indeed  were  the  Bashaw's  men  in  their  tents,  there  being 
great  quantities  of  provision  of  all  sorts  carried  out  for  that 

The  next  day  we  again  set  forward,  and  got  to  Sharrot, 
all  the  way  being  very  wood}-,  and  plentifully  stored  with 
wild  hogs,  and  of  them  we  killed  some  hundreds,  which, 
perhaps  (as  their  flesh  is  by  the  Mahometan  law  forbidden), 
may  be  imagined  was  either  for  pastime  or  antipathy,  yet 
had  we  another  reason,  viz.,  by  way  of  revenge  on  a  very 
large  boar  assaulting  the  Bashaw,  and  killing  his  horse 
under  him,  though  the  beast  instantly  lost  his  own  life  by 
it.  These  boars,  and  especially  those  of  a  middle  age,  are 
very  dangerous  creatures,  having  very  long  tusks  as  keen 
as  knives,  and  which,  with  the  very  great  force  and  fury  they 
execute  their  intention  with,  will  rip  up  anything  as  soon. 
The  tusks  of  the  old  ones  generally  turn  up  like  a  ram's 
horn,  so  that  they  cannot  so  well  bring  them  to  do  mischief 
suitable  to  their  rage.  Here  are  also  great  plenty  of  lions, 
tigers,  wolves,  &c.  However,  we  saw  none  of  them  that 

Sharrot  is  a  river  discharging  itself  into  the  sea  about 
seven  leagues  to  the  southward  of  Sallee,  and  plentifully 
stored  with  many  sorts  of  very  excellent  fish ;  and  fording 
it  the  next  morning  we  got  that  day  to  Gaebedad,||  where 
are  laid  up  for  that  part  of  the  country  the  Emperor's 

*  Beth.  f  Kasbah  Jbad.  J  Fnsira. 

§  Note  9.  il  Gabdad. 


stores  of  corn,  which  the  Moors  have  a  way  of  preserving 
without  damage  for  a  hundred  years  together  by  putting  it 
into  pits,  plastered  within  and  over  the  mouth  when  they 
are  full.  The  next  day,  at  ten  in  the  forenoon,  we  got  to 
the  castle  of  Tamnsnah,  where  I,  by  the  Bashaw's  order, 
immediately  entered  with  two  hundred  of  my  men  and  our 
wives,  the  old  garrison  marching  out  to  make  room  for  us ; 
and  my  other  hundred  men  were  sent  with  their  wives  to 
Bevash,'''  another  castle  about  three  days'  march  from 
thence,  to  be  commanded  by  a  deputy  of  my  own  appoint- 

At  my  entrance  into  the  castle,  I  found  all  things  pretty 
much  in  disorder,  there  being  almost  a  general  want  of 
everything,  for  what  the  old  people  had  they  carried  (or 
at  least  most  of  it)  with  them.  However,  these  wants 
were,  by  the  Bashaw's  diligence  (he  remaining  encamped 
without  sixteen  days),  very  plentifully  supplied  by  sending 
us  in  provisions  and  stores  enough  for  our  subsistence  for 
six  months.  This  being  done,  he  rose  with  his  small 
army  and  departed,  as  I  was  informed,  for  Stant,  a  garri- 
son distant  from  thence  about  twelve  leagues  ;  where  after 
staying  also  about  sixteen  days,  and  settling  Belearge 
and  his  men  therein  for  the  better  security  of  the 
Emperor's  stores  of  grain  laid  up  there,  he  departed  for 
the  City  of  Morocco,  of  which  he  was  the  governor. 

Now  have  I  and  my  comrades  for  some  time  nothing  to 
do  but  to  contrive  ways  and  means  how  to  divert  ourselves, 
which  we  did  after  the  best  manner  we  could  devise,  living 
in  an  amicable  manner  and  passing  our  time  very 
pleasantly,  here  being  to  be  our  station  for  about  six 
years,  though  I  was  several  times,  with  some  part  of  my 
men,  ordered  thence  for  the  space  of  six  or  seven  months, 
and  thither  again,  and  once  of  almost  two  years  at  a  time. 

^'  B abash. 


My  first  absence  was  about  three  months  after  my  first 
arrival,  when  I  received  a  peremptory  command  from  the 
Bashaw  to  attend  him  with  two  hundred  of  my  men  as 
soon  as  possible  I  could,  and  to  leave  my  other  hundred  to 
secure  my  several  garrisons ;  in  pursuance  of  which  order 
I  drew  out  one  hundred  and  fifty  of  my  men,  leaving  the 
other  fifty  to  take  care  of  the  garrison  and  the  women, 
and  immediately  departed,  and  got  that  day  to  the  castle 
of  Stant,  where  I  found  my  old  friend  Belearge  was  with 
a  like  number  gone  before  me.  The  second  day  I  marched 
to  Geefaar,  an  old  ruined  castle,  though  well  stored  with 
water  and  many  other  necessary  refreshments,  both  for 
man  and  horse ;  and  the  third  day,  about  noon,  to  my 
other  castle  of  Broash,  where  I  directly  entered,  and 
found  my  other  hundred  men  and  their  wives  very  well, 
who  received  us  very  courteously ;  and  I  forthwith  drawing 
out  fifty  of  them,  which  made  my  number  complete, 
proceeded,  and  got  that  evening  to  Cedeboazzo,  in  the 
province  of  Talgror,*  and  the  next  to  the  river  Tensift, 
whence  very  early  the  next  morning,  the  Bashaw  meeting 
us  with  good  store  of  provision  on  the  road,  we  were  by 
him  conducted,  with  fine  music  playing  before  us,  in  great 
pomp  to  the  walls  of  Morocco,  where  I  found  my  old 
friend  Belearge  with  the  rest  of  the  Bashaw's  army, 
encamped  without  the  walls  of  the  city,  though  as  we 
had  before,  by  the  Emperor's  orders,  liberty  to  go  into 
the  town  of  Sallee,  so  were  we  now  ordered  to  march 
together  into  Morocco,  and  there  treated  after  like  manner, 
with  this  difference  only,  the  former  being  at  the  charge  of 
the  Emperor  and  this  at  that  of  the  inhabitants,  as  indeed 
was  also  that  of  the  whole  camp. 

The  city  of  Morocco  is  very  well  situated,  and  reckoned 
to   be  twelve  miles  in  compass.     It  is  said  to  have  had 

*  Note  10. 


formerly  a  hundred  thousand  houses  in  it,  but  since  the 
kings  of  Morocco  have  removed  their  court  from  thence 
to  Mequinez,  it  is  greatly  decreased,  but  its  palace  or 
castle  is  the  stateliest  of  any  in  Africa,  it  being  of  a 
prodigious  extent,  some  of  the  rooms  of  which  have  large 
fish-ponds  in  them,  and  the  fishes  may  be  seen  swimming 
in  the  looking-glasses,  with  which  the  ceilings  are  covered. 
There  are  likewise  in  this  city  very  fine  gardens,  and  many 
ancient  and  well-built  mosques.  The  famous  aqueducts, 
which  bring  water  to  it  from  above  forty  miles,  are  a 
stupendous  work. 

We  rested  seven  days  at  Morocco,  being  ordered  on  the 
eighth  early  to  march  out  and  join  the  army ;  when  we  all 
rose,  and  marched  that  day  to  the  river  of  Wadden 
Enfeech,  distance  seven  leagues,  where  we  rested  that 
night,  and  the  next  day  to  Mesmeath,*  at  the  foot  of  a 
very  high  mountain,  and  where  (on  account  of  the  inhabi- 
tants there  and  thereabout  not  having  for  some  time  back 
performed  the  payments  of  their  wonted  tribute)  we 
settled  our  camp  and  rested  fifteen  days,  during  which, 
notwithstanding  they  had  before  our  coming  refused  to 
pay  it,  yet  did  many  of  them  at  our  approach,  and 
especially  Tolbtrammet  Mesmeasoy,t  the  head  and  chief 
of  that  province,  come  to  meet  us ;  and  declaring  to  the 
Bashaw,  after  the  most  solemn  manner,  that  he  had  no 
hand  in  the  rebellion,  as  he  understood  had  been  basely 
and  maliciously  rumoured  of  him,  the  rebels  having  made 
use  of  his  name  for  the  better  carrying  on  their  wicked 
designs,  he  entreated  that  he  would  believe  him  innocent, 
as  in  reality  he  said  he  was,  having  never  made  the  least 
advance  that  way,  but,  on  the  contrary,  had  done  all  in 
his  power  to  prevent  it,  even  to  the  extreme  hazard  of  his 
life  ;  therefore  desired  he  would  not  look  upon  him  as  an 
*  Amezmiz.  f  Taleb  Hamed  Amezmizi. 


enemy  to  his  country,  but  accept  of  the  few  presents  he 
had  brought  him  with  as  good  a  grace  as  they  were  offered 
by  him  with  good  will,  and  in  all  due  obedience,  being  in 
truth  those  of  one  of  the  most  loyal,  most  dutiful  and 
obedient  of  his  Majesty's  subjects.  These  presents  being 
somewhat  considerable,  as  four  very  fine  horses  and 
furnitures,  several  Zurbees,*  or  Turbants,  with  a  handsome 
purse  of  gold  to  usher  them  in,  the  Bashaw  had  not  the 
heart  to  refuse.  He  likewise  entreated  the  Bashaw  to 
suffer  him  to  send  in  provision  for  the  army,  which  was 
also  complied  with,  and  plentifully  performed  during  our 
stay  there,  with  everything  else  in  conformity  to  our 
demands.  After  a  few  days  we  rose  and  marched  thence 
seven  leagues  further,  along  the  foot  of  the  mountain,  and 
pitched  our  tents  in  the  evening  at  Emsoeda,!  keeping 
ourselves  under  arms  for  the  first  part  of  the  night  in 
great  silence,  and  about  midnight  (drawing  out  six  thou- 
sand men,  our  whole  number  being  eight  thousand,  leaving 
the  other  two  thousand  to  feed  and  keep  safe  our  horses) 
we  marched  on  foot  up  the  mountain,  where  we  had  an 
account  many  of  the  malcontents  had  sheltered  them- 
selves ;  which  being  very  woody,  steep,  and  craggy,  our 
horses  could  have  been  of  no  service  to  us,  but  rather  a 
hinderance,  and  would  have  been  a  means  of  exposing  us 
to  be  taken  off  separate  from  each  other  by  the  enemy  in 
their  lurking  places  before  we  could  discover  them. 

*  Mr.  Meakin  suggests  •'  Erzez  "  (?).  f  'Msida. 


The  Emperor's  troops  sui-prise  the  castle  of  Ehiah  EmbeUde,  and 
take  vengeance  upon  the  rebels — The  march  is  continued  and 
the  revolted  towns  reduced  to  submission  —Touching  divers  little 
places — A  new  mode  of  defence — A  city  is  taken  by  storm — Fire 
and  sword — The  return  to  Morocco  with  hostages  and  booty — 
The  Fast  of  Ramadan — The  punishment  of  a  Queen  who  failed  to 
"  nick  the  time  " — Her  expiation  in  the  way  of  bridges  and 
golden  balls — Mr.  Fellow  attempts  the  madcap  freak  of  trying  to 
steal  the  latter  —  The  palace  gardens  and  the  death  of  Muley 
Ar'scid  (Rescind) — The  march  to  Mequinez,  and  a  description  of 
the  intervening  country — The  amount  of  plunder  brought  back 
from  the  Expedition  —  Treatment  of  prisoners  —  An  English 
executioner — The  soldiers  meet  with  their  wives — Shooting  and 
fishing — Feasts  regardless  of  the  law — Wild  beasts  and  their  ways. 

THIS  being  the  month  of  February,  wet,  very  cold, 
and  the  nights  pretty  long,  the  Bashaw  marching  at 
our  head,  we  got  under  the  walls  of  a  castle  called  the 
castle  of  Ehiah  Embelide,  where  we  lay  close,  with  strict 
silence  and  undiscovered,  till  sunrising.  Then  we  saw 
several  herdsmen  and  shepherds  coming  forth  with  their 
cattle,  they  being  always  at  night  secured  within  from  the 
frequent  incursions  of  the  mountaineer  Moors,  and  for 
fear  of  lions,  tigers,  wolves,  and  jackals,  the  sheep 
standing  in  as  much  danger  from  the  latter  as  they  do 
from  the  wolves,  who  are,  in  their  voracious  nature, 
sufficiently  imitated  by  the  jackals,  of  which  there  are 
vast  numbers  in  Barbary.  I  had  heard  by  several 
people    in    England    that    they    were    innocent    though 


subtle  creatures,  and  served  only  for  procuring  prey  for 
the  lion,  by  hunting  before  him,  thereby  to  keep  them- 
selves in  his  favour  and  from  his  paws,  yet  have  I  often 
seen  them  lay  hold  of  an  innocent  sheep,  and  in  a  moment 
tear  him  in  pieces,  and  have  very  often  shot  them  for  their 
pains  and  eat  of  them  into  the  bargain. 

On  these  herdsmen's  discovering  us  they  instantly 
alarmed  the  castle,  and  no  doubt  to  the  great  surprise  of 
those  -within,  more  especially  when  they  saw  us  so  near 
their  walls,  surrounding  them  so  as  they  might  not  in  any 
probability  hope  for  escape ;  yet  did  they  prepare  for 
defence,  and  fired  upon  us  with  small  arms  very  briskly, 
but  cannon  they  had  none,  no  more  than  ourselves,  killing 
in  all  but  three  of  our  men,  we  having  got  ourselves  so 
close  under  their  walls  that  they  could  not  bring  their  shot 
to  bear  on  us,  we  calling  to  them,  "  That  in  case  they  any 
longer  resisted,  and  did  not  directly  deliver  up  the  garrison 
into  our  hands,  we  would  put  every  one  of  them  to  the 
sword."  To  which  we  not  receiving  such  satisfactory 
answer  as  we  had  expected,  and  having  by  that  time 
almost  finished  three  several  mines  at  the  foot  of  the 
castle  wall,  and  of  which  those  within  were  not  the  least 
apprised,  we  fired  them  all  about  one  and  the  same  time, 
making  such  breaches  as  were  wide  enough  for  twenty 
men  to  enter  in  a  breast  at  each,  and  immediately  began 
to  pour  them  in.  Upon  which  the  rebels,  being  in  a  terrible 
fright,  submitted  to  mercy,  crying  out  for  quarter,  and 
humbly  on  their  knees  imploring  pardon  for  themselves 
and  families,  assuring  us  that,  on  receiving  clemency,  they 
would  make  their  future  behaviour  appear  to  be  no  less 
deserving  of  the  Emperor's  favour  than  those  of  the  most 
observant  of  his  subjects,  alleging  that  they  had  been  led 
astray  by  those  higher  up  in  the  mountain,  and  whom, 
had  they  not  come  into  seeming  measures  with,  would 


then  have  destroyed  them  to  a  man  ;  therefore,  said  they, 
"  revenge  yourselves  on  them,  and  you  shall  soon  see  that 
we  will  not  be  backward  with  our  assistance  to  subdue 
them."  Notwithstanding  this  submission  we  killed  eighteen 
of  them,  and  amongst  them  the  governor's  brother  and 
his  brother's  son,  whose  heads  were  cut  off  by  the 
Bashaw's  own  hand,  the  latter  being  first  obliged  to 
drag  that  of  his  father's  round  the  army  by  a  rope  fixed 
about  his  neck  and  to  suffer  a  most  cruel  scourging  from 
most  of  them,  and  then  both  their  heads,  with  the  edge 
of  the  Bashaw's  sword,  were  set  upon  the  castle  gate  ; 
at  which  the  governor,  as  having  five  sons  of  his  own, 
was  no  doubt  in  a  most  grievous  agony,  and  kept  still 
on  his  knees,  desiring  the  Bashaw  to  believe  him  innocent, 
and  by  horrid  and  repeated  imprecations  of  it  declaring 
that  he  had  no  hand  in  that  rebellion,  and  that  his  being 
there  was  more  by  compulsion  than  inclination,  and  that 
he  hoped  that  he  could  not  be  accounted  so  stupid  as  not 
to  suppose  the  Emperor  would  soon  make  reprisals  on 
them,  and  that  notwithstanding  he  had  been  so  unhappy 
to  father  the  fictitious  name  of  governor,  &c.  Yet  he  most 
humbly  hoped  that  the  Bashaw  would  believe  him  and 
permit  him  to  use  his  utmost  efforts  by  way  of  reducing 
the  remainder  of  the  rebels  who  had  compelled  him  to  so 
undutiful  a  behaviour,  and  whereby  he  might  not  only  in 
some  measure  make  his  royal  master  compensation,  but 
our  future  proceedings  by  far  less  hazardous,  for  that  he 
would  directly  send  his  messengers  to  acquaint  them  with 
his  own  present  condition  ;  and  in  case  they  any  longer 
persisted  in  their  rebellion  and  did  not  directly  come  in, 
and  with  them  bring  in  to  him  their  respective  tributes,  he 
was  ready  to  spend  the  last  drop  of  his  blood  in  subduing 
them.  Then  the  Bashaw  ordered  him  off  his  knees,  and 
after   some   short  private   conference   their   countenances 


seemed  to  be  on  both  sides  more  calm  and  serene  ;  and  a 
general  pardon  was,  to  the  general  joy,  proclaimed.  On 
which  many  came  in  soon  after  with  their  presents  and 
arrears,  as  indeed  did  all  in  those  parts,  saving  only  four 
little  towns,  which  might  contain  in  them  about  four 
thousand  men  that  bore  arms,  lying  on  or  very  nigh  the 
top  of  the  mountain,  then  covered  with  snow  and  very 
difficult  to  get  up,  which  retarded  our  march  sixteen  days ; 
when  there  falling  a  very  great  flood  of  rain,  which 
washing  the  snow  down  the  mountain,  so  that  there 
appeared  some  likelihood  of  our  being  able  to  get  up  it^ 
though  with  great  difficulty,  we  departed  from  the  castle 
of  Ehiah  Embelide,  taking  with  us  the  governor,  and 
marched  (or  rather  indeed  climbed)  up  as  fast  as  we  could, 
and  got  to  the  first  of  the  towns  that  evening,  very 
sufficiently  tired.  However,  we  soon  entered,  but  found  it 
quite  desolate,  the  inhabitants  having  all  retired  into  the 
next  town,  at  about  half  a  mile's  distance;  which,  as 
their  neighbours  were  joined  with  them,  was  no  doubt  of 
more  strength  and  security ;  but  the  darkness  of  the 
night  coming  on  apace,  the  Bashaw  was  determined  not 
to  attack  them  till  the  next  morning.  However,  we 
carried  off  all  we  could  find  here,  set  the  village  on  fire,, 
and  retired  to  some  distance,  where  we  settled  for  the 
night  in  an  open  camp.  About  sunrising  we  took  one  of 
their  spies,  who  had  that  night  been  out  upon  the  scout,. 
and  brought  him  before  the  Bashaw,  who,  after  threaten- 
ing to  cut  off  his  head,  told  him  that  in  case  he  would  go 
directly  into  the  town,  and  on  his  honour  immediately 
return  to  him  with  their  answer  if  they  intended  to  deliver 
up  the  town  without  resistance  or  not,  he  would  give  him 
his  life.  On  which,  and  the  late  governor  of  Ehiah 
Embelide's  also  vouching  for  the  Bashaw's  performance 
of  his  promise,  he  went  in  and   soon  returned  with  an 


answer   to   his   message,   and   to   challenge    his    pardon, 
telling  them  that  the  inhabitants  would  not  on  any  terms 
surrender,  but  were  resolved  to  fight  it  out,  even  to  the 
last  man.    Which  (said  he)  they  told  me  they  had  before 
signified  to  the  governor  of  Ehiah  Embelide,  by  way  of 
answer  to  his  message  relating  to  their  coming  in  with 
their  arrears ;  that  he  was  a  dastardly  fellow,  and  if  he 
should  happen  to  fall  into  their  hands  he  should  be  the 
first  sacrifice  to  their  rage.     The  Bashaw  finding  what  he 
had  to  trust  to,  ordered  us  directly  to  cut  down  and  bind 
up  a  great  quantity  of  large  faggots  or  bavins,  which,  as 
I  was  then  altogether  a  novice  in  affairs  of  that  nature, 
I  really  thought   were   for   no   other   use  than  burning. 
However,  I  soon  saw  my  ignorance  therein,  and  thought 
them  to  be  a  tolerable  safeguard   from  the  shot  of  the 
enemy,  every  other  man  taking  one  of  them,  and  carrying 
it  lengthways  before  him  and  his  comrade,  who  was  close 
at  his  back.     Advancing   after   this   manner  till  we  got 
within  half  musket  shot  of  their  walls,  and  notwithstand- 
ing they  kept  a  continual  firing  from  the  walls  of  the 
town  upon  us,  yet  did  we  not  receive  any  damage  thereby, 
but  intrenched  ourselves  breast  high  in  a  very  little  time. 
About    a    dozen    of    our    best   miners   and   an  engineer 
advanced  with  their  pick-axes  and  other  necessary  im- 
plements even  close  under  their  walls,  and  immediately 
fell  to  work  to  undermine  them.     When  they  were  to  be 
relieved  they  retired  going  backward,  carrying  their  bavins 
next  their  faces ;  and  a  fresh  set,  on  the  contrary,  advanc- 
ing, took  their  post.     In  the  meantime  the  rest  of  us  kept 
a  continual  fire,  so  that  the  enemy  did  not  so  much  as 
dare  to  peep  at  those  places  of  the  walls  where  our  people 
were  carrying  on  their  mines  at  the  bottom.     And  though 
we  were  three  days  before  we  had  finished  them  to  our 
engineers'  minds  (there  being  in  all  three),  yet  did  they 


never  attempt  once  to  sail}'  forth,  but  suffered  us  to  blow 
them  up  to  our  satisfaction,  making  such  breaches  as  we 
entered  all  our  men  at  in  a  very  little  time ;  and  in  three 
hours  (during  which  there  was  on  both  sides  very  bloody 
work)  we  put  all  of  them  (the  women  and  children  under 
ten  years  of  age,  and  the  man  that  carried  in  the  Bashaw's 
message  only  excepted)  to  the  sword.  Then,  after  plundering 
and  demolishing  the  houses  and  walls,  and  setting  all  we 
could  not  carry  away  on  fire,  we  sat  down  before  one  of  the 
other  two,  which  we  found  to  be  also  joined  by  their 
neighbours,  and  offering  the  like  resistance,  but  they  did 
not  resist  longer  than  three  hours.  Notwithstanding,  we 
did  not  spare  them,  but  cut  them  off  also  to  a  man ;  and 
after  plundering,  demolishing,  and  burning  this  and  their 
other  deserted  town,  which  was  the  last  of  the  four,  we, 
with  our  plunder  of  all  kinds,  as  money,  corn,  butter, 
honey,  raisins,  almonds,  and  everything  else  of  value, 
got  to  our  trenches,  where  we  soon  found  our  error  in  so 
hastily  destroying  their  houses ;  for  notwithstanding  the 
weather  was  extreme  cold,  yet  we  were  obliged,  on  account 
of  our  wounded  men,  to  remain  there  for  three  days,  and 
then  marched  down  to  the  castle  of  Ehiah  Embelide, 
having  with  us  all  their  cattle,  and  our  wounded  men 
carried  in  hand  barrows.  We  rested  there  three  days, 
looking  over  our  booty  and  receiving  several  others  of  the 
rebels  who  came  in  there.  We  then  fell  down  into  our 
camp,  which  we  found  unmolested,  having  still  with  us 
all  the  wounded  and  several  surgeons  to  attend  them ; 
and  here  we  rested  eighteen  days,  during  which  many 
others  came  in  to  us  with  their  respective  presents  and 
arrears.  We  rose  hence  with  our  whole  army,  and 
marched  along  the  foot  of  the  mountain  for  about  seven 
leagues,  to  Foumalcarroe,*  a  very  large  house  in  nature 
*  Fum  al  Karoo. 


of  a  castle,  situate  on  a  river  commanded  by  Kiadmonsor 
Boalroaeh,*  who  was  at  our  approach  ready  with  his 
presents  and  arrears,  and  received  us  in  a  most  friendly 
manner,  declaring  he  had  no  hand  in  the  rebellion,  main- 
taining our  army  three  days,  and  bringing  us  in  every 
day  twice  as  much  provision  as  we  could  all  eat,  and  such 
part  of  the  flesh  as  we  could  not  then  dispense  with,  was, 
after  cutting  it  into  small  long  pieces  of  about  two  fingers 
length,  salted  and  laid  on  our  camels  as  we  travelled, 
exposed  to  the  wind  and  sun,  till  it  was  thereby  sufficiently 
hardened,  which  would  remain  good  for  a  whole  year. 
We  having  some  reasons  to  believe  him  innocent,  over  and 
above  this  his  so  bountiful  hospitality,  on  promise  of  his 
future  obedience  and  admittance  the  Bashaw  pardoned 
him,  and  marched  on  to  Eminstanud,t  a  castle  about  two 
leagues  distant  from  thence ;  where  having  received  a 
like  satisfaction,  he  went  on  to  Mentugoe,t  seven  leagues 
farther,  where  they  also  came  in  to  him  with  their 
presents  and  arrears ;  and  here  we  again  pitched  our 
tents  and  settled  our  camp  for  six  weeks,  during  which 
time  all  that  province,  some  by  foul  and  others  by  fair 
means,  came  in  also,  and  followed  the  example  of  their 
neighbours.  From  Montugoe  we  marched  to  Itawaddeel,§ 
one  day's  journey ;  and  thence  the  next  day  to  Sesag088ulee,|| 
a  very  high  mountain ;  the  next  to  Tammanert,  subduing 
all  as  we  went :  settling  our  camp  here  till  all  were  like- 
wise brought  under  obedience,  we  having  first  killed  vast 
numbers  of  them,  and  before  our  departure  thence  hung 
up  at  least  six  hundred  heads  as  a  future  terror.  Here 
turning  back,  we,  after  three  days'  march  of  about  seven 
leagues  a  day,  got  to  Shadamah,  a  very  large  plentiful 
province,  where  we  continued  till  all  were  in  like  manner, 

•  Kaid  Mancoor  bu  al-Rooab.  f  Ymin  Tanoo(i. 

\  Mtooga.  Ait  Wadyl.  i|  Sherf-al-gusool'. 


through  like  means,  brought  under  the  Emperor's  subjec- 
tion ;  which  was  the  last  and  finishing  stroke  of  this  our 
so  long  and  dangerous  expedition,  in  which  we  lost  at  the 
least  fifteen  hundred  of  our  men,  and  amongst  them  sixty 
of  my  small  number ;  myself,  I  thank  God  (though  I  had  my 
clothes  shot  through  in  several  places),  escaping  un wounded. 

We  now  began  our  march  for  Morocco,  where  we  safely 
arrived  at  the  end  of  four  days,  having  with  us  all  our 
baggage,  the  greatest  part  of  our  booty,  and  three  of  the 
chief  men  out  of  every  province  to  be  carried  with  us  to 
Mequinez,  to  give  an  account  to  the  Emperor  of  their 
behaviour  in  the  late  rebellion,  the  Bashaw  and  the 
remains  of  his  people  encamping  again  without  the  walls 
of  the  city,  Belearge  and  myself,  with  the  remains  of 
ours,  being  again  ordered  to  march  in ;  and  we  were  by 
the  citizens  most  courteously  entertained,  selling  our 
shares  of  the  booty,  viz.  bullocks  and  sheep  in  vast 
numbers,  for  what  any  would  give  us ;  I  having  myself, 
with  several  others  in  partnership,  sold  there  and  at 
several  other  places  before  on  the  road,  four  hundred 
sheep  for  so  small  a  price  as  a  blankeel  each  (which  is 
twopence),  and  thought  ourselves  well  off;  for  what  could 
we  have  done  with  them,  being  obliged  to  take  that  or 
nothing  ;  besides,  we  were  glad  at  any  rate  to  get  rid  of 
the  very  great  trouble  of  driving  them. 

Now  am  I  again  in  the  city  of  Morocco,  of  which  I  do 
not  doubt  but  it  may  be  expected  that  I  should  give  a 
particular  description  and  an  account  of  all  its  curiosities  ; 
which  I  could  readily,  and  would  as  willingly  do,  did  I  not 
think  it  altogether  inconsistent  with  my  main  point,  and 
would  enlarge  my  history  to  very  little  purpose,  by  only 
repeating  what  has  been,  without  doubt,  before  made 
public.  Therefore  I  shall,  by  way  of  digression,  mention 
only  two  of  the  most  agreeable  curiosities  which  my  own 


fancy  was  struck  with,  the  one  within  and  the  other 
without  the  walls,  and  refer  my  readers  for  the  rest  to  the 
several  books  already  printed  ;  and  first  of  that  within  the 
walls,  which  was  four  golden  globes  of  a  large  size  and 
value,  fixed  on  the  top  of  the  tower  of  the  Emperor's  palace, 
and  which,  according  to  common  fame,  were  set  up  many 
hundred  years  ago  on  the  following  occasion. 

LuUa  Oudah,*  daughter  and  widow  to  two  of  their 
ancient  Emperors,  happened  one  day  to  see  in  a  woman's 
basket  some  very  tempting  peaches,  and  being  at  the  same 
time  with  child,  she  took  one  of  them,  and  after  biting  off 
a  small  part  of  it,  and  putting  the  remainder  into  the 
basket  again,  she  went  away,  saying,  **  She  had  but  just 
nicked  the  time  ;  "  of  which  some  of  the  bystanders  taking 
notice  and  pondering  thereon,  it  soon  came  into  their 
minds  that  it  must  be  very  near  the  time  of  the  commence- 
ment of  their  Ramadam,  which  is  a  very  strict  fast  they 
observe  every  twelfth  moon  ;  and  during  which,  if  any  are 
known  to  eat  or  drink  from  an  hour  before  the  breaking 
of  the  day  till  the  appearance  of  the  stars,  it  is  death  by 
their  law ;  and  they  are  not  only  obliged  to  abstain  from 
all  manner  of  food,  but  likewise  from  smoking,  washing 
their  mouths,  taking  snuff,  smelling  perfumes,  or  con- 
versing with  women. 

Those  who  are  obliged  to  travel  may  drink  a  little  water  ; 
and  such  as  are  sick  may  borrow  a  few  days  of  their 
prophet ;  but  they  must  and  do  repay  punctually,  when 
they  recover  strength.  In  the  towns  they  run  about  the 
streets  and  wake  all  those  people  they  think  are  asleep, 
that  they  may  eat  and  so  be  the  better  able  to  support 
themselves  in  the  day ;  they  rise  three  or  four  times  in  the 
night,  and  sleep  again.  Such  as  are  libertine,  and  used 
to  drink  wine,  abstain  from  it  at  this  time. 

*  'Aoodya. 



It  is  usual  in  the  towns  every  evening,  when  the  fast 
of  that  day  is  ended,  for  a  trumpet  to  be  sounded  from  the 
castle,  to  give  notice  of  it ;  before  which  time  it  is  pleasant 
to  see  the  posture  of  the  Moors,  one  holding  a  pipe  ready 
filled,  while  he  impatiently  expects  the  sound  of  the 
trumpet ;  another  with  a  dish  of  Cuscassoo  before  him, 
ready  to  run  his  hand  in  ;  some  got  close  to  the  fountains, 
to  be  the  first  that  shall  drink.  On  the  eve  of  their  Lent 
they  make  great  rejoicing,  shouting  and  repeating  the 
name  of  God,  and  watch  for  the  appearance  of  the  moon, 
at  which  they  fire  their  muskets,  then  fall  to  saying  their 
prayers,  the  Emperor  himself  sometimes  at  their  head  ; 
who,  to  persuade  the  people  of  his  great  regard  for  religion, 
keeps  this  fast  four  months  every  year  ;  but  they  are 
obliged  to  observe  it  only  during  that  one  moon. 

The  poor  longing  queen  was,  by  a  due  inquiry  into  the 
moon's  age,  found  to  have  transgressed  in  it  by  three  hours, 
and  immediate  sentence  was  passed  upon  her,  which  put 
her  under  a  grievous  agony,  as  not  knowing  (though  she 
was  exceeding  rich)  how  to  get  off ;  though  at  the  last  (on 
her  promising  to  set  up  those  balls,  and  to  build  four 
several  bridges  over  two  very  rapid  rivers,  viz.,  three  on 
Murbia,*  and  one  on  Wadlabbid,f  wherein  abundance  of 
people  had  been  before  drowned,  in  their  attempting  to 
cross  over)  she  obtained  a  pardon  ;  and  these  promises 
were  in  her  lifetime  accordingly  performed,  together  with 
several  large  buildings,  and  donations  for  schools,  alms- 
houses, &c.,  over  and  above  her  very  extraordinary  and 
chargeable  obligation. 

These  four  globes  are,  by  computation,  seven  hundred 
pounds,  Barbary  weight,  each  pound  consisting  of  twenty- 
four  ounces,  which  make  in  all  1,050  pounds  English  ;  and 
frequent  attempts  had  been  made  to  take  them  away,  but 
*  Om-er-Ebia.  f  Wad-el-'Abid. 


without  success  ;  for,  as  the  notion  ran,  any  attempting  it 
were  soon  glad  to  desist  from  it,  they  being  affrightened, 
and  especially  at  their  near  approach  to  them,  in  a  very 
strange  and  surprising  manner,  and  seized  with  an  extra- 
ordinary faintness  and  trembling,  hearing  at  the  same 
time  a  great  rumbling  noise,  like  as  if  the  whole  fabric 
was  tumbling  down  about  their  ears,  so  that,  in  great 
confusion,  they  all  returned  faster  than  they  advanced. 

This  did  I  often  hear,  yet  had  I  a  very  strong  itching 
to  try  the  truth  of  it ;  and  to  gratify  my  curiosity,  I  one 
night  (having  before  communicated  my  intentions  to  two 
of  my  men,  and  persuaded  them  to  go  with  me,  and 
provided  myself  with  candles,  flint,  steel,  and  tinder) 
entered  the  foot  of  the  tower,  lighted  my  candles,  and 
advanced  with  my  comrades  close  at  my  heels  till  I  had 
gained  at  least  two-thirds  of  the  height,  I  still  going  on. 
Then  really,  to  my  seeming,  I  both  felt  and  heard  such  a 
dismal  rumbling  noise  and  shaking  of  the  tower  (my  lights 
at  that  very  instant  quite  going  out),  as  I  thought  far 
surpassed  that  of  common  fame.  Yet  was  I  resolved  to 
proceed,  and  called  to  my  comrades  to  be  of  good  courage, 
but  having  no  answer  from  them,  I  soon  found  they  had 
left  me  in  the  lurch  ;  upon  which,  falling  into  a  very  great 
sweat,  I  went  back  also,  and  found  them  at  the  bottom  in 
a  terrible  condition.  And  so  ended  my  mad  project,  and 
which  was,  I  think,  a  very  mad  one  indeed,  for  had  I 
obtained  the  globes,  in  what,  could  it  have  bettered 
my  deplorable  condition,  being  always  obliged  to  follow 
the  Emperor's  pleasure,  and  with  whom  it  was  a  most 
sufficient  crime  to  be  rich.  And  so  much  for  my  foolish 
attempt  on  the  golden  globes.* 

"What  I  was  most  delighted  with,  without  the  walls  of 
Morocco,  was  a  most  curious  and  spacious  garden  for  the 

*  Note  11. 


king's  pleasure,  when  he  came  to  that  city,  it  being  by  far 
the  finest  of  all  I  had  ever  seen  before,  being  kept  in  the 
most  exquisite  manner,  as  to  its  curious  and  regular  walks 
and  arbours,  and  laid  out  with  large  collections  of  most 
kinds  of  fruits  and  flowers,  the  fruit  trees  being  very  large, 
and  dressed  and  pruned  in  a  very  elegant  manner;  so 
that  their  wood,  and  especially  that  of  the  orange  trees, 
was  always  in  a  prosperous  condition,  almost  ever  green, 
blooming  and  bearing  fruit.  In  this  garden  I  saw  the 
trunk  of  an  old  tree  (which  I  was  told  was  that  of  a  very 
large  orange  tree),  with  great  spreading  branches,  which, 
when  in  its  prosperity,  was  the  death  of  Muley  Archid, 
the  Emperor's  brother  (who,  about  seven  years  before, 
killed  Muley  Em  Hamet,  his  elder  brother,  with  his  own 
band,  to  make  way  for  himself  to  the  Empire).  He  being 
one  day  in  his  garden  on  horseback,  and  his  horse  running 
suddenly  out  with  him,  so  that  he  could  by  no  means  stop 
him,  carried  him  under  this  tree,  in  a  moment  appearing 
on  the  other  side  without  his  rider ;  and  notwithstanding 
the  quick  approach  of  his  attendants,  they  found  him 
quite  dead,  hanging  by  his  head  in  a  forked  limb.  On 
which  account  there  was,  no  doubt,  no  little  hurry  all  over 
the  empire,  he  being  reckoned  one  of  the  most  famous 
conquerors  in  those  parts,  having  made  himself  master,  by 
the  sword,  of  the  kingdoms  of  Tafilet,  Fez,  Morocco,  and 
Sus,  and  by  this  means  the  old  tyrant  (whom  I  was 
obliged  to  serve)  came  to  the  throne.  However,  this 
accident  was  by  all  reckoned  a  just  judgment. 

And  now  being  obliged  to  proceed  immediately  for 
Mequinez,  I  shall,  after  so  long  a  digression,  which  is 
chiefly  indeed  from  hearsay,  return  to  my  own  story,  and 
be  upon  the  spur  with  the  tribute  taken  upon  our  late 
expedition,  together  with  that  for  one  year,  for  the  city  of 
Morocco ;    and  which  being  somewhat  extraordinary,   I 


think  it  may  not  be  amiss  to  mention  the  particulars  of  it, 
■whereby  the  reader  may  in  some  measure  guess  at  the 
richness  of  the  inhabitants. 

It  consisted  first  of  140  quintals,  or  Barbary  hundreds 
of  silver  coin ;  secondly,  204  fine  horses,  the  latter  four 
being  (over  and  above  their  wonted  and  required  number) 
a  voluntary  present  to  the  Emperor,  were  the  finest  that 
could  be  got,  with  saddles,  bridles,  &c.,  altogether  as  finely 
set  off,  and  especially  that  for  his  own  riding,  the  saddle 
being  behind  and  before  well  strengthened  with  plates  of 
gold,  and  curiously  inlaid  with  many  very  valuable  jewels, 
the  stirrips  of  beaten  gold,  and  the  bridle  and  other 
accoutrements  in  every  point  suitable,  with  a  fine  scimitar 
and  crooked  knife,  the  hilts,  scabbard,  and  sheath  also  very 
rich,  hanged  to  the  saddle  by  gold  chains  ;  thirdly,  200 
mules  with  pads  on  their  backs,  completely  fitted  vnth 
stirrups,  and  their  bodies  covered  all  over  with  scarlet 
cloth ;  fourthly,  200  blacks,  males  and  females,  a  like 
number  ;  fifthly,  800  quintals  of  gunpowder ;  sixthly,  4,000 
gun  stocks  ;  seventhly,  800  turrahs  of  fine  dressed  goat 
skins,  each  turrah  consisting  of  six  skins ;  eighthly,  400 
quintals  of  butter ;  ninthly,  400  ditto  of  honey ;  tenth, 
400  ditto  of  oil ;  eleventh,  2,000  gun  locks ;  twelfth, 
2,000  sword  blades ;  thirteenth,  2,000  powder  horns ; 
fourteenth,  60  quintals  of  elhennah  or  black  grass,  the 
same  sort  of  that  my  duchess's  hands  and  feet  were  dis- 
coloured with  at  the  time  of  our  precipitate  marriage  ;  and 
fifteenth,  400  quintals  of  dates.  All  which  being  packed 
up,  the  muleteers  proceeded  with  the  caravan,  and  we 
with  the  army  as  a  convoy,  and  got  the  first  day  to  the 
river  Tensift,  about  five  leagues ;  the  second  day  to 
Ceedearhal,*  seven  leagues  ;  the  third  to  the  river  Tessent, 
fourth  to  Boahgobah,  fifth  to  the  river  Demoe,  sixth  to 
*  SidiRahal. 


Tedlah,  seventh  to  Ceedelle  Feellelle,*  eighth  to  Tendrah, 
a  very  fertile  and  large  plain,  surrounded  by  vast  moun- 
tainous woods, — and  here  many  of  the  Emperor's  cows 
(though  no  doubt  it  is  a  very  dangerous  place  for  cattle, 
on  account  of  the  very  great  number  of  savage  beasts 
lurking  hereabouts)  are  generally  kept  ;  the  ninth  to  the 
river  Gregrah,  the  country  also  very  woody,  and  plentifully 
stored  with  lions,  and  I  think  the  boldest  I  ever  saw, 
coming  that  night  even  into  our  camp,  making  a  hideous 
and  terrible  noise,  killing  two  of  our  horses  and  eating 
them  all  up  before  daybreak ;  the  tenth  to  the  castle  of 
Agoory  t  short  of  Mequinez  about  six  leagues,  travelling 
at  the  rate  of  about  seven  leagues  a  day  ;  and  the  eleventh 
we  came  into  Mequinez  in  good  season,  and  secured  all 
the  effects  of  the  caravan  within  the  walls  of  the  Emperor's 
palace;  and  after  the  Bashaw  had  acquainted  the  Em- 
peror with  our  proceedings,  and  given  him  a  particular 
account  of  the  behaviour  of  the  several  prisoners,  we  were 
all  (after  making  a  plentiful  supper)  ordered  for  that  night 
to  rest. 

The  next  morning,  about  eight  o'clock,  the  Emperor 
ordered  the  Bashaw  to  bring  the  several  prisoners  into  the 
yard  before  him,  when  myself  and  Belearge,  by  command 
of  the  Bashaw,  immediately  guarded  them  in.  The  old 
tyrant  looking  at  them  very  furiously  (after  asking  them 
a  few  questions),  told  them  in  an  angry  tone  "  that  they 
were  insolent  traitors,  and  they  should  soon  reap  the 
fruits  of  their  late  rebellion."  Then  he  ordered  three  of  the 
most  notorious  of  them  to  stand  with  their  backs  pretty 
nigh  the  wall.  The  victims  obeying,  the  executioner 
was  ordered,  on  the  Emperor's  signal,  to  cut  off  their 
heads,  which  (the  signal  being  given)  he  instantly  did  at 
two  strokes,  two  of  them  being  cleanly  severed  at  one. 
*  Sidi  el  FUeli.  f  Note  14. 


Then  the  Emperor  ordered  the  rest  of  thera  to  be  removed 
to  some  further  distance ;  and  though,  no  doubt,  they  were 
every  moment  expecting  to  share  in  the  same  fate  with 
their  neighbours,  yet  did  the  Emperor,  on  their  promising 
him  to  behave  better  for  the  future  (contrary  to  their  own 
and  every  other  body's  expectation  then  present),  pardon 
them,  though  with  this  restriction,  "  Never  more  to  return 
to  their  old  respective  places  of  abode,  but  to  reside  at 
those  which  should  be  by  him  allotted  for  them."  Then 
Belearge  and  myself  receiving  twenty-five  ducats  each, 
and  our  men  six,  were  ordered  to  depart  and  carry  off 
with  us  the  prisoners ;  who  after  being  stigmatized  or 
branded  with  a  hot  iron  in  their  foreheads,  were  like 
vagrants  put  the  next  day  out  of  the  city,  every  one  to 
inquire  after  the  place  of  his  allotment.  What  became 
of  them  after  I  never  heard . 

The  execution  of  these  three  captives  was  performed  by 
the  hands  of  an  Exeter  man,  whose  surname  I  have  forgot, 
though  I  very  well  remember  his  Christian  one  was 
Absalom,*  and  that  he  often  told  me  he  was  by  trade  a 
butcher ;  and  he  was,  no  doubt,  a  very  bold  man,  for 
before  the  execution  the  Bashaw  offering  him  his  sword, 
he  smiling  told  him,  that  he  thought  his  own  to  be  alto- 
gether as  good,  which  he  should  soon  see ;  and  which, 
indeed,  was  as  soon  made  appear ;  he  further  adding, 
that  had  it  not  been  of  very  excellent  temper  it  could  not 
have  performed  what  he  had  hitherto  done  with  it. 

Now  are  Belearge  and  myself  again  ordered  into  the 
palace,  and  by  the  Emperor  commanded  to  lay  open  several 
of  the  presents  to  his  view.  After  taking  particular 
notice  of  them,  and  ordering  also  for  the  fine  horses,  &c., 
to  be  brought  forward,  he  said,  "  These  dogs  are  certainly 
very  rich ;  but  what  was  this  in  comparison  of  what  they 
*  Abd-es-Selam. 


had  yet  behind,  and  that  this  was  no  more  than  their 
giving  him  a  small  part  of  what  was  before  his  own  ; 
therefore,  if  they  did  not  mend  their  manners  by  sending 
him  more  for  the  future,  he  would  send  his  messengers  to 
fetch  it,  with  their  heads  into  the  bargain."  Here  we 
may  see  the  dangerous  consequence  of  arbitrary  power, 
and  thank  God  that  we  are  governed  by  such  wholesome 
laws  as  are  those  of  this  happy  nation.  Here  every  one 
is  allowed  fair  trial  in  matters  of  life  and  death,  as  well 
as  like  equity  in  the  recovery  and  keeping  their  own ; 
whereas,  those  unhappy  people  who  are  subject  to  arbitrary 
tyrants,  are  to-day  rich  and  great,  to-morrow  beggars, 
often  losing  their  lives  with  their  estates,  all  without  being 
heard,  or  any  daring  to  inquire  for  why  or  wherefore. 

If  a  poor  man  in  Barbary  gets  but  a  pair  of  oxen  to 
plough,  he  would  not  only  be  liable  to  be  robbed  of  them 
by  the  next  little  mercenary  governor,  but  forced  to  sell 
his  corn  to  pay  an  arbitrary  tribute.  For  which  reason 
the  land  has  no  proprietor  above  two  or  three  leagues 
round  a  town ;  and  if  you  chance  to  spy  two  or  three  small 
cottages,  you  may  be  sure  they  belong  to  some  Alcayde, 
and  the  poor  people  that  live  in  them  to  till  the  ground 
are  his  servants,  and,  like  the  cattle,  receive  no  other 
recompense  for  their  labour  but  the  wretched  provender 
they  eat. 

The  Emperor  and  his  Alcaydes  confound  all  trade  in 
the  country,  by  robbing  such  as  have  any  reputation  for 
riches.  For  which  reason  the  Moors  take  it  for  a  token 
that  you  design  them  harm  if  you  say  they  are  rich ;  and 
it  is  believed  that  there  are  abundance  of  Arabians  who 
have  concealed  estates  (for  this  country,  fifty  or  sixty  years 
ago,  was  extraordinary  rich),  and  yet  appear  so  miserable, 
that  they  have  nothing  but  an  Alhague*  to  cover  them, 

*  Haik. 


which  serves  for  shirt,  drawers,  coat,  cloak,  bed,  and 
everything.  But  those  who  lived  in  towns  were  presently 
ruined.  I  have  heard  that  the  people  of  Tetuan  were  very 
considerable  traders,  and  some  of  them  left  off  business 
when  the  Emperor  came  to  the  throne,  thinking  by  that 
means  to  go  off  with  what  they  had  got  and  be  quiet.  But 
on  the  contrary,  being  once  taxed  for  people  of  substance, 
the  same  continued  till  the  fortunes  they  had  got  were 
exhausted,  and  nothing  coming  in,  they  are  at  present 
reduced  to  extreme  want,  and  several  of  them  have  been 
shown  without  a  bit  of  bread ;  for  all  those  who  are  in  any 
condition  are  such  as  continued  to  trade,  because  they 
had  at  that  time  no  other  means  of  subsistence. 

In  1699,  the  Governor  of  Fez  sent  to  a  merchant  to  give 
him  a  hundred  ducats  for  the  tribute.  He  having  before 
got  off  for  a  great  deal  less  went  to  excuse  himself ;  upon 
which  he  sent  for  four  or  five  negroes,  and  ordered  them 
to  torment  that  man  till  he  gave  them  a  thousand.  This 
he  paid,  after  being  stripped  and  left  all  day  in  the  sun, 
hung  up  by  the  thumbs,  and  some  other  artful  cruelties ; 
and  the  condition  of  all  the  country  is  such,  that  any 
pretence  whatsoever  will  serve  the  Alcaydes  to  rob  and 
plunder  their  people.* — Thrice  and  four  times  happy  the 
inhabitants  of  the  British  Isles.  Here  every  man  enjoys 
what  is  his  own  with  the  most  undisturbed  security,  and 
without  any  fear  of  having  it  ravished  from  him  by  the 
hand  of  power.  Here  no  haughty  king  dares  to  lay  his 
hand,  without  the  leave  of  the  laws,  on  the  meanest  of 
his  subjects ;  much  less  doom  them  to  unjust  and  cruel 
deaths.  Thankful,  daily  thankful  ought  we  to  be  to 
Heaven  for  placing  us  where  the  inestimable  blessing  of 
liberty  still  exists  ;  and  how  jealous  ought  we  to  be  of  it, 
and  how  careful   that   we  never   in  the  least   contribute 

*  Note  12. 


to  overthrow  the  noble  fabric  of  British  hberty,  by  any 
imprudent  or  mercenary  actions  of  our  own. 

And  now  for  our  departure  for  our  respective  garrisons 
again  ;  for  which,  after  refreshing  ourselves  and  recruiting 
our  men,  Belearge  and  myself  departed,  leaving  Mequinez 
with  our  full  numbers,  and  arrived  at  Tamnsnah — by  the 
same  road,  and  halting  at  the  same  places  as  we  did  at 
our  first  going  thither — after  the  absence  of  seven  months, 
without  anything  particular  happening  on  the  road  worthy 
my  notice.  On  our  approach  to  the  walls  of  the  castle,  all 
the  women,  and  several  of  the  men,  came  forth  to  meet  us, 
which  you  may  imagine  to  be  a  meeting  both  of  a  great 
deal  of  joy  and  lamentation  amongst  the  fair  sex — those 
who  met  their,  husbands  rejoicing,  and  those  who  did  not 
behaving  like  other  widows  on  suchlike  occasions.  How- 
ever, I  remember  that  I  entered  very  merrily  with  my  girl, 
insomuch  that  I  had  forgot,  as  knowing  her  to  be  with 
child  before  our  departure,  to  ask  her  if  it  was  a  boy  or  a 
girl,  though,  indeed,  being  settled  within,  this  was  my 
first  question ;  to  which  she,  smiling,  answered  me  that  she 
had  had,  about  six  weeks  before,  a  daughter,  but  that  a 
certain  woman  had  taken  it  from  her.  At  which — as  not 
so  soon  seeing  through  the  cunning  of  the  wench — I  was 
very  much  enraged,  when  the  cunning  gipsy  ordered  the 
child  to  be  brought  forth,  declaring  the  thief  to  be  the 
midwife ;  at  which  I  was  again  pacified,  and  not  a  little 
pleased  with  the  joke,  laughing  and  embracing  the  child 
very  heartily. 

Now  are  some  merry,  and  some  seemingly  sad,  for  a  day 
or  two ;  after  which  we  lived  again  very  comfortably 
together,  Belearge  and  his  people,  with  sixty  of  mine, 
being  departed  for  their  respective  garrisons,  where,  no 
doubt,  they  were  received  with  the  like  joy,  mixed  with 


Now  are  we  again  at  liberty  to  divert  ourselves,  spending 
the  best  part  of  our  time  in  shooting  and  hunting  in  the 
woods,  as  indeed  we  spent  a  great  deal  of  it  that  way 
before  our  setting  forth  on  our  late  expedition,  but  I  being 
in  such  a  hurry  to  join  the  Bashaw  at  Morocco,  I  did  not 
then  stay  to  mention  anything  of  it ;  though  here  I  shall 
not  forget  to  tell  you  that  we  used  to  spend  then,  as  well 
as  now,  usually  four  days  in  the  week  at  that  employ- 
ment, here  being  vast  plenty  of  game,  as  partridges, 
hares,  and  jackals.  And  though  our  sport  was  attended 
with  great  danger  on  account  of  the  vast  numbers  of  wild 
beasts,  even  to  the  extreme  hazard  of  our  lives.  On  which 
account  some  may  think  the  game  we  got  too  dearly 
bought.  Yet  did  not  we  so,  as  still  thinking  the  profit 
to  sufficiently  compensate  the  danger,  generally,  I  say, 
passing  therein  four  days  in  every  week,  and  with  very 
good  success,  killing  vast  numbers  of  all  kinds,  coming 
home  at  nights  laden,  and  seldom  or  never  failing  to 
refresh  ourselves  by  a  good  supper  of  such  as  we  liked 
best,  and  to  wash  them  down  with  a  cup  of  good  wine,  for 
which  we  never  wanted,  the  inhabitants  of  the  country 
round  bringing  us  in  several  skins  a  week,  together  with 
many  other  presents,  on  account  of  our  destroying  the 
wild  beasts,  for  which  purpose  we  set  every  Saturday  apart, 
the  inhabitants  joining  us  with  their  dogs,  arms,  &c.,  and 
amongst  us  all  we  made  a  notable  slaughter.  At  our 
return  home  at  night  we  never  failed  of  three  or  four  wild 
porkers  roasted  whole,  nor  of  a  fresh  supply  of  wine, 
which,  though  two  very  presumptuous  breaches  of  their 
law  at  Mequinez,  yet  did  we — as  being  of  other  nations, 
and  the  Emperor  winking  at  it— continue  in  it,  stopping 
the  mouth  of  the  priest  with  a  flowing  bowl,  though  I 
could  never  bring  him  to  eat  pork. 

Being  now  surrounded,  as  it  were,  with  wild  beasts,  and 


time  upon  my  hands,  I  shall,  by  a  short  digression,  acquaint 
you  by  what  means  any  going  the  road  about  their  lawful 
occasions  may  best  escape  them.  And  first  for  the  tiger, 
which  I  take  to  be  by  far  the  most  dangerous  creature, 
though  not  so  terrible  as  the  lion,  he  generally  lying  near 
the  roadside  on  his  belly,  with  his  legs  under  him  in  a 
proper  posture  for  leaping,  so  that  he  is  on  his  prey  before 
it  can  well  avoid  him,  and  which  cannot  be  done  at  all,  but 
by  a  due  observance  of  what  I  am  about  to  tell  you ;  and, 
in  the  first  place,  I  hope  you  will  allow  it  highly  necessary 
for  travellers  in  such  countries  to  carry  their  eyes  before 
their  feet,  whereby  they  may,  before  too  nigh  approach, 
the  better  discover  the  enemy,  and  which,  if  they  do  not, 
they  may  repent  it  when  too  late ;  and  having  so  discovered 
him,  to  take  their  eyes  instantly  off  him  and  continue  to 
walk  on  their  road,  and  if  he  is  not  hungry  they  are  quite 
safe.  Whereas,  on  the  contrary,  should  they  happen  to 
make  the  least  stand,  and  stare  him  in  the  face,  he  leaps 
directly  at  them,  and  it  is  a  hundred  to  one  if  they  escape 
with  life.  The  lion,  on  the  other  hand,  shows  himself 
boldly  sitting  on  his  breech  with  a  very  sour  look  in  the 
road,  about  twenty  or  thirty  paces  before  travellers.  In 
this  case,  instead  of  walking  on  and  keeping  their  eyes  off 
him,  they  must  stand  still  and  stare  him  full  in  the  face, 
hollowing  at  him  and  abusing  him  all  they  can ;  and  for 
fear  he  may  not  understand  English,  in  the  language — if 
they  can — of  the  country.  Upon  this  hollowing  and  staring 
at  him,  he  gets  him  on  his  legs,  and,  severely  lashing  his 
loins  with  his  tail,  walks  from  them,  roaring  after  a  terrible 
manner,  and  sits  himself  down  again  in  the  road,  about 
the  distance  of  a  mile  or  two,  when  both  traveller  and  lion 
behave  again  in  the  same  manner  ;  and  after  proving  them 
thus  a  third  time,  the  lion  generally  leaves  them  without 
iuterruption.     This  I  know  to  be  true,  having  been  obliged 


several  times  in  my  travels  through  the  country  to  make 

the  experiment,  and  which  I  shall  hereafter  have  occasion 

more  particularly  to  mention.*     But  to  return  to  my 


*  Note  13. 


Mr.  Pellow  goes  with  tlie  troops  to  Guzlan,  and  shares  in  the  siege  of 
that  town — He  is  wounded — The  place  surrenders  and  a  number 
of  the  inhabitants  are  beheaded — Our  author  is  advanced  in  the 
Moorish  service  and  returns  to  Tamnsnah — He  is  now  inured  to 
the  cruel  wars  of  the  Emperor,  and  takes  part  in  most  of  his 
attacks  on  rebellious  tribes  and  towns — He  goes  across  the  Atlas 
to  Tafilet,  and  enters  the  desert — How  the  Eoyal  children  are 
disposed  of — The  wild  Arabs  or  Bedouins  and  their  ways  of  life — 
Bashmagh  the  negro  and  his  extraordinary  adventures — He  is  sold 
and  sold  again  by  his  own  request,  and  always  returns  with  a 
good  horse  and  weapons — The  return  to  Tafilet — The  march  to 
the  borders  of  Algeria — The  author  often  visits  his  countrymen  at 
Bailee,  and  begins  to  meditate  his  escape — The  death  of  Muley 

ABOUT  this  time,  that  is  to  say,  after  about  four 
months  enjoying  ourselves  at  Tamnsnah,  there  came 
repeated  accounts  to  the  Emperor  of  the  revolt  of  a  con- 
siderable number  of  his  subjects  in  and  about  Guzlan,  a 
strong  town  near  the  deserts,  distant  from  Mequinez  about 
twenty-three  days'  march,  after  the  rate  of  twelve  leagues 
a  day,  they  having  made  very  bold  incursions  into  several 
parts  of  that  neighbourhood,  plundering  all  who  refused  to 
come  into  like  measures  with  them,  destroying  the  caravan 
of  the  Laurbs,*  a  wild  sort  of  people,  coming  thither  from 
the  coast  of  the  deserts  for  dates,  killing  sixteen  of  the 
Emperor's  blacks  sent  there  with  his  credentials  to  receive 

*  Arabs. 


and  bring  to  Mequinez  their  accustomed  tribute ;  and,  in 
short,  having  thrown  off  all  obedience,  stood  upon  their 
guard,  fortifying  the  town  with  strong  walls,  and  putting 
into  it  great  quantities  of  warlike  stores  and  provisions. 
On  which  so  frequent  alarms,  the  Emperor,  being  not  a 
little  enraged,  immediately  ordered  an  army  to  be  in  readi- 
ness to  march  against  them,  and  myself  and  Belearge, 
with  four  hundred  of  our  men,  to  hasten  directly  to 
Mequinez  to  join  them.  There  we  found  the  rest  of  the 
army,  making  with  us  eighteen  thousand  horse  and  eight 
thousand  foot  ready  to  march,  sending  before  us  four  pieces 
of  hea\'y  cannon  and  two  mortars,  to  be  forwarded  over  the 
mountains  at  the  expense  of  the  several  inhabitants,  and 
guarded  with  all  the  foot.  Early  on  the  fifth  day  after 
we  followed  them  with  all  the  horse,  lodging  the  first  night 
at  Agoory,  the  castle  at  the  foot  of  the  mountain,  where 
we  before  finished  our  rout  at  in  our  march  from  Morocco  ; 
the  second  at  the  River  Gregrah  *  ;  the  third  at  Tendrah ; 
the  fourth  at  Ceedeellee  Feelellee  ;  the  fifth  to  Tedlah, 
where  we  rested  two  days;  the  sixth  at  the  River  Dernor ;  f 
seventh  at  Inesergoe ;  eighth  at  Goahgobah ;  ninth  at 
Ceedeaummorroh ;  I  tenth  to  Ceedearhall ;  eleventh  to 
Soakdegirgah,§  on  a  mountain  about  six  leagues  over; 
twelfth  at  Tinneough  Gollowey,  the  foot  of  that  mountain 
on  the  other  side,  and  where  we  were  most  courteously 
entertained  by  Alcayde  Abdestadick  Elgolowey,-:  a  very 
good  man  of  the  sort,  and  then  Governor  of  that  part 
of  the  country,  he  being  in  very  high  esteem  with  the 
Emperor,  on  account  of  his  keeping  his  people  under  very 
strict  order  and  good  decorum;  thirteenth  at. "W add  el 
Mella,  a  very  noted  river,  on  account  of  its  winding  itself  in 
a  very  intricate  manner  between  the  mountains,  we  being 

*  Gerygra.  f  Denooa.  J  Sidi  'Amara. 

§  Sok  el  Gergah.  ||  Al  Kaid  Abd-es-Sadok-el-Gallowey. 


obliged  to  cross  it  in  one  hundred  and  one  several  places, 
all  in  one  and  the  same  day;  the  fourteenth  at  Wours- 
zessez,  two  or  three  small  villages  also  between  the 
mountains,  commanded  by  Alcayde  Bauhessey  Elverzessey, 
who  also  behaved  very  friendly  to  us  ;  fifteenth  at  a  small 
river  called  Zouyet  et  Handore  ;  sixteenth  at  Agadis, 
which  is  the  head  of  the  Eiver  Draugh,  and  where  we 
found  prodigious  quantities  of  palm  trees,  with  dates  in 
perfection  ;  seventeenth  at  Zooyet  Burnoose  ;  *  eighteenth 
at  the  castle  of  Tanzulin ;  nineteenth  at  the  castle  of 
Tarhatter,  commanded  by  Muley  es  Sherriff,  one  of  the 
Emperor's  sons,  who  was  there  waiting  for  our  coming,  he 
being  ordered  by  his  father  to  join  us  with  sixteen  thousand 
foot ;  and  after  refreshing  ourselves  there  two  days,  he 
accordingly  marched  with  them  at  our  head,  our  whole 
army  being  now  forty-two  thousand ;  the  twentieth  we 
lodged  at  Taugahmadurt,  in  the  province  of  Swagtah  ;  the 
twenty -first  at  Fumulbungh  ;  f  the  twenty  -  second  at 
Binney  Zibbah ;  I  and  the  twenty-third,  about  two  of  the 
clock  in  the  afternoon,  we  got  to  Guzlan.§  Here  the  mal- 
contents bidding  us  welcome  twice  that  night,  we  soon 
found  we  had  work  enough  to  do.  For  we  had  but  just 
time  to  view  the  situation  of  their  garrison,  and  by  our 
engineers'  orders  began  to  work  on  our  trenches,  before 
the  rebels  sallied  forth  in  number  about  twelve  thousand, 
and  began  directly  to  fire  upon  us  with  small  arms  very 
briskly ;  which  we  as  briskly  answering,  drove  them  back, 
and  fell  to  work  upon  our  trenches  again.  Then,  about  ten 
at  night,  they  having  trenches  without  very  near  ours 
which  we  were  ignorant  of,  they  gave  us  on  a  sudden  such 
a  smart  volley  as  in  a  very  little  time  killed  six  hundred 
of  our  men,  and  amongst  them  were  eighty-seven  of  mine 

*  Bdnus.  f  Fum-el-bungh. 

X  Beni  Zibbah.  §  Note  14. 


and  Belearge's.  However,  we  gave  them  as  smart  a  re- 
ception, killing  many  of  them,  and  driving  the  rest  quite 
home  in  at  their  gates,  and  Belearge  and  myself,  with  the 
remains  of  our  people,  followed  them  as  far  as  we  could, 
sheltering  ourselves  as  close  as  possible  at  the  foot  of  their 
outer  wall,  and  keeping  ourselves  there  in  great  silence  till 
daybreak  ;  when  our  General,  seeing  us  there,  and  that 
none  of  the  rest  of  the  troops  had  followed  us,  he  seemed 
to  be  highly  enraged  with  them,  calling  them  cowards,  and 
earnestly  entreated  our  engineers  to  think  of  some  safe 
and  speedy  way  for  our  retreat,  for  that,  should  we  attempt 
an  open  one,  we  must  in  all  likelihood  be  taken  off  all  to  a 
man  by  the  shot  of  the  rebels  from  their  walls.  Therefore 
they,  for  the  better  and  safer  facilitating  our  retreat, 
ordered  to  be  directly  cut  down  a  great  number  of  palm 
and  date  trees,  with  which  was  thrown  up  a  barricade 
before  a  body  of  men,  who  carried  on  a  trench  of  about 
six  feet  deep  towards  us,  through  the  sand,  still  covering 
behind  them  with  trees,  and  sand  on  the  top ;  so  that  they 
got  close  to  us,  and  we  all  safely  retired  through  this 
trench  by  eleven  o'clock  that  forenoon. 

This  town  of  Guzlan  lay  in  a  flat  and  sandy  country, 
environed  with  three  several  walls  and  two  ditches,  one 
within  another,  and  without  "by  millions  of  date  trees, 
spreading  many  leagues ;  so  that  we  are  now  obliged  to 
cut  down  many  thousand  of  them  with  the  fruit  thereon, 
and  to  carry  matters  on  more  discreetly  and  with  less  risk, 
we  having  an  undoubted  account  by  several  prisoners  of 
the  enemy's  strength  and  resolute  defence,  being  at  the 
least  eighteen  thousand  strong,  and  well  provided  with 
provision,  small  arms,  and  ammunition.  Therefore  the 
engineers  said  it  was  in  vain  for  our  men  to  expose  them- 
selves to  the  shot  of  the  rebels,  which  they  could  fire  upon 
us  all  at  once  from  their  three  several  walls,  and  therefore 



it  would  be  mere  madness  in  us  to  act  any  otherwise  than 
upon  the  defensive,  till  we  had  raised  a  battery,  in  order 
for  the  better  bringing  our  cannon  to  play  upon  them. 
But  the  sand  sliding  so  fast  from  underneath  us,  it  was  a 
good  while  before  it  could  be  perfected  to  their  minds,  we 
being  first  obliged,  to  prevent  the  sand  from  running,  to 
secure  it  by  driving  strong  piles,  and  close  buttresses 
thrown  between  the  piles  and  it.  By  this  means  it  was 
completed,  our  cannon  mounted,  and  all  that  night  we 
kept  a  continual  firing  from  them,  throwing  many  balls 
on  their  walls,  though  all  without  making  the  least  breach, 
they  being  built  of  sand,  strengthened  with  great  limbs  of 
trees  in  such  a  manner  that  we  had  only  our  labour  for 
our  pains ;  and  the  rebels,  who  knew  they  could  not  receive 
any  damage  from  our  firing,  flouted  at  us  after  a  very 
joking  manner.  Our  engineers,  perceiving  their  mirth  and 
jokes,  told  the  General  that  they  would,  in  case  his  Ex- 
cellency was  so  pleased,  make  them  laugh  the  wrong  side 
of  their  mouths  ;  which  he  consenting  to,  they  threw  in  a 
couple  of  bombs,  which  we  soon  found  to  take  off  the  edge 
of  their  laughter,  and  to  terrify  them  very  much,  they 
being  followed  by  a  great  many  more.  And  which,  no 
doubt,  did  them  a  great  deal  of  damage,  they  being  thereat 
so  highly  provoked,  that  they  made  several  sallies,  though 
still  driven  back  again  with  great  loss  of  men  on  both 
sides  ;  and  though  I  was  generally  in  the  thickest  of  them, 
yet  I  escaped,  thank  God,  hitherto  unwounded,  though 
indeed  I  could  not,  by  the  next  day  at  noon,  say  I  was 
invulnerable ;  at  which  time  a  Moor  being  brought  by 
some  of  our  men,  who  had  been  out  a-foraging,  in  our 
camp  with  a  mule  laden  with  bread.  The  rebels  seeing 
this  from  their  walls,  and  knowing  him  to  be  one  of 
their  party,  were  so  highly  exasperated  at,  that  they  made 
a  sudden  sally ;  and  notwithstanding  they  were  as  warmly 


received  by  us,  yet  did  they  kill  of  us  fifteen  hundred  men, 
and  wounded  me  by  a  musket  shot  lodging  in  my  right 
thigh ;  and  which,  though  it  was  soon  taken  out  by  a 
German  surgeon,*  a  man  of  great  skill  and  diligence,  and 
I  was  most  carefully  attended  by  him.  Yet  was  it  full  forty 
days  before  I  was  again  fit  for  action,  and  then  I  was  again 
exposed  to  those  hasty  messengers,  scarce  a  day  passing 
without  some  of  them  coming  even  so  near  me  as  my  skin, 
and  carrying  my  clothes  off  in  many  places,  and  still  the 
danger  increasing,  as  was  every  day  sufficiently  manifest, 
and  still  the  far  more  bloody  part  to  come- 

And  now  our  General,  on  his  seeing  the  malcontents  so 
resolute,  ordered  our  engineers  to  consider  on  ways  and 
means  for  carrying  on  a  mine  under  their  several  walls  and 
ditches,  which  they  instantly  undertook  to  do  from  the 
trench  already  brought  home  for  our  deliverance,  and  as 
quickly  set  about  it.  However,  it  was  a  long  time  before  it 
could  be  performed,  the  country  being  so  very  loose,  that 
we  were  obliged  to  bind  it  every  inch  as  we  went  on  by  firm 
timber  and  planks  on  the  top,  to  support  it,  by  which  means 
it  was  at  last  perfected,  and  carried  successfully  on  under 
their  several  walls  and  ditches,  and  at  last  blown  up  with 
that  success  as  to  make  so  wide  a  breach  as  we  all,  in  a 
very  little  time,  entered  sword  in  hand.  And  now  there 
was,  between  us  and  the  rebels,  for  the  space  of  two  hours, 
bloody  work,  when  the  remnant  of  them  retired  to  one  end 
of  the  town,  which  they  had  so  well  fortified  against  our 
fury,  that  we  were  in  a  manner  glad  to  give  out  for  eight 
days,  though  during  this  time  we  often  saluted  them  with 
our  cannon  and  bombs,  and  they  us  by  frequent  sallies ; 
and  which,  I  think,  was  by  far  more  bold  and  noble.  But 
they  being  reduced  to  a  very  great  degree,  and  seeing  their 
longer  resistance  would  be  in  vain,  their  provisions  being 

*  Note  16. 


quite  spent,  and  ammunition  very  short,  they  having  un- 
advisedly left  the  greatest  part  of  it  without,  and  which  was 
now  in  our  hands :  so  that  they  began,  for  want  of  it,  to 
grow  very  faint,  and  many  of  them  dying  of  hunger,  the 
remnant  beat  a  parley,  humbly  imploring  the  General  that 
they  might  be  spared  with  their  lives,  and  promising,  on 
such  terms,  to  surrender  and  behave  to  the  Emperor  for 
the  future  with  the  most  dutiful  obedience.  To  which  they 
were  very  reasonably  answered,  that  rebels  reduced  to  such 
a  condition,  after  so  long  and  bloody  a  resistance  against  an 
army  of  their  sovereign  prince,  and  from  whom  they  had 
thrown  off  all  allegiance,  and  in  a  most  insolent  and  con- 
temptuous manner  bidden  him  defiance,  were  not  in  any 
wise  to  be  allowed  to  become  their  own  choosers.  Therefore 
they  should  submit  to  the  will  of  the  General,  who  would, 
no  doubt,  soon  order  such  punishments  to  be  inflicted  upon 
them  as  he  was  before  ordered  by  his  father  to  do,  accord- 
ing to  the  merits  of  the  case. 

And  which,  poor  wretches,  they,  being  almost  all  starved 
and  miserably  wounded,  were  obliged  to  submit  to,  and  had 
all  their  heads  instantly  cut  off  on  the  spot ;  by  which,  I 
think,  rather  than  to  continue  longer  in  such  misery  (as 
being  thereby  at  once  freed  from  all  their  calamity),  they 
were  by  far  the  better  off.  Thus  ended  this  long  and 
bloody  rebellion,  which  took  us  up  about  seventeen  months, 
and  with  the  loss,  on  our  side,  of  fifteen  thousand  of  our 

And  now  our  General,  as  not  having  thought,  in  the  heat 
of  blood,  to  preserve  some  few  of  them  alive  for  triumph, 
orders  vast  numbers  of  heads,  already  cut  off,  to  be  carried 
in  lieu  thereof  to  his  father,  as  a  present ;  though  at  last 
they  became  stinking  to  that  degree  that  he  was  obliged  to 
be  contented  with  their  ears,  which  were  all  cut  off  from 
their  heads,  and  put  up  with  salt  into  barrels.    For  we  had 


carried  so  many  stinking  heads  so  long  a  way,  it  must 
certainly  have  very  much  annoyed  the  whole  army,  and 
probably  have  bred  an  infection  in  it. 

Now  are  we  obliged,  on  account  of  our  wounded  men,  to 
remain  here  six  weeks  longer ;  when  we  struck  our  tents, 
and,  after  burning  the  town  and  demolishing  the  walls, 
departed  with  some  of  them  on  handbarrows  for  Mequinez, 
resting  at  Tarnatter  six  days.  After  which  we  proceeded, 
leaving  Muley  Sherriff  there  with  his  people,  marching  back 
so  fast  as  we  could,  all  the  way  diverting  ourselves  by  shoot- 
ing and  killing  many  lions,  tigers,  and  other  very  dangerous 
wild  beasts,  the  inhabitants  all  the  way  striving  to  outdo 
one  another  in  all  good  offices,  bringing  us  in  every  day 
sufficient  of  all  kinds  of  provisions,  both  for  ourselves  and 
horses.  So  that  we  fared  very  well,  enjoying  ourselves 
with  the  produce  of  this  plentiful  country,  having  every 
day  fresh  supplies  of  bread,  butter,  and  honey,  with  abun- 
dance of  very  good  beef  and  mutton,  corn,  &c.,  and  all 
without  plunder  or  rapine. 

The  Emperor  received  us,  at  our  arrival,  very  coui'teously, 
and  gave  every  soldier  twenty  ducats,  he  being  highly 
pleased  with  the  conduct  of  Muley  Sherriff,  who  he  said 
had  sent  him  his  reasons  in  writing,  for  not  sending  him 
so  many  heads  so  long  a  way,  and  therefore  he  was  highly 
contented  with  the  ears ;  though  not,  as  he  said,  but  that 
the  sight  of  the  heads  would  have  given  him  a  great  deal 
of  pleasure  ;  yet,  as  they  were  stinking,  and  might  possibly 
prove  of  ill  consequence  to  the  army,  he  thought  them  to 
be  by  far  better  left  behind.  He  then  ordered  the  barrels 
to  be  opened,  and  the  ears  to  be  turned  out  before  him ; 
and  after  looking  at  them  for  some  time,  he  with  a  pleased 
though  stern  aspect  ordered  them  to  be  again  put  up  and 
laid  by  till  another  rebellion,  when  he  would,  he  said,  send 
them  to  the  rebels  as  a  present.     However,  they  were  all 


at  last  strung  on  cords,  and  hanged  along  the  walls  of  the 

Now  are  Belearge  and  myself  ordered,  after  recruiting 
our  men  (as  having  in  this  so  long  and  dangerous  expedi- 
tion lost  at  least  one  half),  to  be  again  in  readiness,  as  the 
next  day,  to  depart  for  our  respective  garrisons,  though 
this  my  old  and  very  good  friend  was  not  destined  to  do, 
he  being,  poor  man,  that  night  poisoned  by  a  woman,  as 
was  generally  supposed,  in  order  to  her  getting  his  post  for 
her  husband.  But  in  this  she  was  very  much  mistaken, 
all  his  men  being  put  under  my  command,  and  all  of  them 
the  next  day  marched  with  me,  getting  safe  to  my  castle  of 
Tamnsnah,  after  the  absence  of  twenty-one  months. 

Now,  after  visiting  and  settling  my  new  men  in  Belearge's 
old  garrison  of  Stant,  I  again  returned  to  my  wife,  and 
stayed  with  her  and  her  daughter  in  peace  for  four  months. 
For  as  I  was  now  so  far  inured  in  their  bloody  civil  wars,  I 
was  seldom  exempted  from  making  one,  and  receiving  many 
wounds  therein.  Nor  had  I  (during  the  remainder  of  the 
reign  of  old  Muley  Ishmael,  and  the  short  reigns  of  Muley 
Hammet  Deby,  and  Muley  Abdemeleck,  two  of  their  suc- 
ceeding emperors,  and  until  Muley  Abdallah,  who  succeeded 
the  last  of  them,  was  a  second  time  by  the  Black  Army 
driven  out)  any  rest  therefrom,  unless  by  these  little  inter- 
vals at  Tamnsnah,  and  some  few  others  at  our  garrisons, 
which  I  shall  take  notice  of  in  their  proper  place.  But 
being,  as  I  said,  now  again  with  my  wife  at  Tamnsnah,  I 
endeavoured  to  make  the  time  as  agreeable  to  my  inclina- 
tions as  I  could  possibly,  never  failing  to  employ  myself, 
according  to  our  usual  days,  in  our  old  sport  of  shooting 
and  hunting,  and  still  bringing  in  plenty  of  game,  and 
many  skins  of  good  wine ;  though  this,  indeed,  as  I  had 
now  many  new  people  to  deal  with,  was  under  closer  cover. 
Not  but  they  might  have  been  all  soon  brought  to  drink 


■wine,  but  being  seldom  or  never  faithful  to  their  promise, 
I  was  thoroughly  resolved  not  to  trust  any  of  them  in  that 
way ;  and  indeed  I  thought  wine  too  good  for  the  best  of 
them,  and  therefore  I  was  fully  determined  not  to  run  any 
hazard  on  that  account.* 

Now  are  my  four  months  expired,  and  I  am  again  ordered 
directly,  with  two  hundred  of  my  men,  to  Mequinez,  where 
we  were  soon  joined  with  two  hundred  more,  we  being  all 
light  horse  ;  and  we  were  immediately  ordered  by  the 
Emperor  to  proceed  for  Taffilet,  and  thence,  as  a  convoy  to 
the  caravan,  to  the  castle  of  Toal,  seventy  days'  journey 
in  the  deserts,  to  convoy  and  bring  safe  to  Mequinez  his 
wonted  tribute  from  those  parts.  We  proceeded  according 
to  the  following  route  : — The  first  day  to  Bittitt ;  second  to 
Suffrooe :  third  to  the  river  Gregoe  ;  fourth  to  the  moun- 
tain Ceedehamsou  f  ;  fifth  to  the  river  Melwea ;  sixth  to 
Cassavey,  a  castle  commanded  by  Muley  Hasham,  a  near 
kinsman  to  the  Emperor ;  seventh  to  Embetsgurvan ; 
eighth  to  Buiny  Menteer ;  |  ninth  to  Cassersook,  in  the 
Province  of  Endoughrah  ;  tenth  to  Fumulhungue,  and  the 
eleventh  to  the  city  of  Taffilet,  where  we  rested  four  days  ; 
here  beiug  the  beginning  of  the  deserts  this  way. 

The  kingdom  of  Tafiilet  is  famous  for  dromedaries,  which 
will  travel  as  much  in  twenty-four  hours  as  ordinary  horses 
do  in  eight  days.  It  is  much  more  barren  than  any  other 
part  of  Barbary,  and  has  only  this  one  city  in  it,  iu  which 
reside  many  of  the  Emperor's  sons ;  for  when  they  are  of 
such  an  age  that  he  is  apprehensive  they  may  be  a  cause 
of  trouble  at  home,  he  no  longer  lets  them  live  in  the 
palace.  But  they  are  disposed  of  as  the  interest  of  their 
mothers  prevail,  either  in  some  post  about  the  Court,  or 
sent  to  Taffilet,  where  the  Emperor  gives  them  a  plantation 
of  dates,  on  which  they  live.  But  those  who  have  the  mis- 
♦  Note  IG.  f  Sidi  el  Bamsoo.  I  Bern  M'tir. 


fortune  to  lose  their  mothers,  or  are  out  of  favour,  come  to 
want,  and  are  as  much  neglected  as  if  they  had  not  been 
born,  never  returning  to  Court  again.* 

In  Taffilet  vast  quantities  of  most  sorts  of  commodities, 
coming  out  of  the  deserts  and  country  round,  are  laid  up 
in  storehouses,  till  they  are  by  the  Emperor's  orders  other- 
ways  disposed  of. 

We  now  entered  with  our  pilot  and  the  caravan  into  the 
deserts ;  who,  after  seventy  days'  travel  over  this  sandy 
ocean,  he  still  directing  us  by  the  'compass,  brought  us  in 
safety  to  the  castle  of  Toal,  a  garrison  kept  by  Moors, 
always  residing  there,  and  where  the  Laurbs  or  Arabs, 
people  inhabiting  those  parts  of  the  deserts,  bring  in  once 
a  year  their  wonted  tributes,  as  gold,  ivory,  indigo,  &c., 
which  they  traffick  for  on  the  coast  of  Guinea.t 

These  Laurbs  are  an  awkward  sort  of  people  of  an 
olive  colour,  and  wearing  the  hair  of  their  heads  and 
beards  without  ever  cutting  or  topping,  it  runs  naturally 
up  into  rings  or  curls,  so  that  their  heads  look  all  one  at  a 
distance  as  if  they  had  growing  on  them  large  bushes  of 
furze.  Their  only  clothing,  is  a  blue  linen  shirt,  and  a  pair 
of  drawers  reaching  a  little  below  their  knees,  with  which 
they  are  furnished  by  the  Moors.  Their  habitations,  or 
tents,  are  made  of  the  skins  of  tame  and  wild  beasts. 
Their  food  chiefly  the  flesh  and  milk  of  camels,  as  being 
of  all  others  most  in  esteem  with  them,  though  sometimes 
they  eat  mutton,  having  many  sheep  of  a  large  size,  bear- 
ing a  long  spiry  hair  instead  of  wool ;.  antelopes,  and,  in 
short,  any  other  sort  of  flesh  they  can  catch,  as  lions, 
tigers,  ostriches,  &c.,  and  dates  instead  of  bread.  Their 
language,  called  Laurbea,|  is  much  the  same  with  that  of 
the  Moors,  as  only  differing  some  small  matter  in  the  pro- 

*  Note  17.  f  Note  18. 

I  El  Arbya  or  Ai-abic. 


nunciation,  so  that  they  understand  each  other  perfectly 

The  cattle  here  (that  is  to  say,  camels  and  sheep)  are 
tolerably  well  fleshed  ;  which  I  think  to  be  pretty  strange, 
there  being  but  here  and  there  scarce  anything  of  pasture 
to  be  seen,  and  that  chiefly  in  and  about  those  places  where 
the  springs  of  water  rise,  and  where  you  may  see  vast 
herds  of  those  creatures  almost  continually  browzing  on  a 
long  spiry  weed,  bearing  a  seed  much  in  colour  and  taste 
like  that  we  call  worm-feed. 

When  the  natives  kill  a  camel,  they  make  him  first  kneel 
down  on  his  knees  with  his  nose  close  to  the  sand,  and  then 
they  cut  his  throat  in  that  posture,  always  beginning  to 
take  off  his  skin  from  the  bunch  on  his  back  (which  is  all 
fat)  and  so  downwards.  Then  they  cut  him  into  small  long 
pieces,  drying  all  but  what  they  reserve  for  present  use  by 
the  wind  and  sun,  and  then  it  is  hung  up  in  their  tents  ; 
and  though  it  is  not  at  all  salted,  yet  will  it,  if  kept  dry, 
remain  good  for  a  long  time.  In  short,  their  stomachs 
being  pretty  much  upon  the  cannibal,  they  are  not  very 
squeamish,  generally  (to  save  themselves  the  trouble  of 
dressing)  eating  it  raw. 

We  had  with  us  in  this  expedition  several  blacks,  and 
amongst  them  one  (a  very  stout,  active,  cunning  fellow) 
named  Bushmough,  a  native  of  the  Brazils,  to  whom  one 
of  the  chief  men  amongst  those  Laurbs  had  a  very  great 
fancy,  and  was  several  times  very  desirous  of  buying  him  ; 
and  which  the  negro  perceiving,  aud  seeing  the  Laurb  one 
day  coming  again  with  some  of  his  people  to  our  castle,  he 
asked  me  why  I  did  not  sell  him.  "  Sell  you,"  replied  I, 
"  why  so  ?  No,  no,  Bushmough,  by  no  means."  "  Fob," 
said  he,  "  sell  me  for  good  gold  and  mutton,  and  you  shall 
see  I  will  be  soon  with  you  again."  '*  Oh  but,"  said  I, 
"  when  once  they  have  got  you  into  their  clutches,  they  will 


not  again  so  soon  let  you  go  as  you  may  perhaps  imagine  ; 
therefore,  good  Bushmough,  be  content  to  remain  as  you 
are  rather  than  to  run  any  such  hazard."  "Oh  no,  no," 
said  he,  **you  need  not,  as  to  that,  be  under  the  least 
concern ;  for  you  may  depend  on  Bushmough's  soon  find- 
ing his  way  back  again."  Upon  which,  and  on  my  seeing 
that  I  could  not  be  at  quiet  from  the  Laurb's  so  pressing 
and  frequent  importunities,  and  I  having  before  received 
orders  from  the  Emperor  to  sell  any  of  the  blacks,  by  way 
of  furnishing  the  army  with  provisions,  I  sold  him  for 
twenty  gold  ducats  (which  is  just  nine  pounds  English) 
and  sixty  sheep ;  and  after  I  had  taken  the  Emperor's 
clothes  off  him,  and  had  in  lieu  thereof  given  him  an  old 
blanket,  and  the  money  and  sheep  were  delivered  to  me, 
he  was,  by  his  new  master,  mounted  on  one  of  his  own 
horses,  which  I  had  the  day  before  (by  the  Emperor's  per- 
mission also)  sold  him,  together  with  several  others  past 
our  service. 

And  now  is  honest  Bushmough  about  to  depart  with  his 
new  master,  calling  to  me  in  Portuguese  that  I  should  not 
be  under  any  the  least  doubt  of  his  honour.  For  that  if  he 
could  not,  according  to  his  inclinations,  get  off  so  soon  as 
he  intended,  and  I  might  expect,  yet  I  might  depend  on  his 
coming  back  so  soon  as  he  possibly  could.  And  then  the 
Laurb  turned  about  his  own  horse  to  be  going,  looking 
very  chary  at  Bushmough,  ordering  him  to  ride  on  before 
him,  and  was,  no  doubt,  not  a  little  pleased  with  his 
bargain,  bidding  us  all  farewell ;  and  Bushmough  played 
a  thousand  antic  tricks,  as  long  as  he  thought  himself  in 
our  sight. 

And  now  is  honest  Bushmough  gone  with  his  new  master, 
with  whom  we  must  leave  him  seven  days  on  hard  drudgery, 
he  coming  back  to  us  again  on  the  eighth,  about  day-break, 
mounted  on  one  of  his  master's  best  horses,  and  a  long  lance 

adventuhes  of  teomas  pellow.  123 

on  bis  Bhoulder,  dressed  only  in  a  blue  sbirt  and  drawers, 

according  to  tbe  Laurbisb  mode,  calling  to  me  to  be  let 

in ;  of  wbicb  I  being  acquainted,  basted  as  quick  as  I  could 

to  receive  him,  accosting  one  anotber  very  friendly,  and 

laugbing  very  beartily  ;  and  after  we  had  laughed  our  fill, 

I  asked  him  what  he  thought  of  tbe  gold  ducats,  and  if  be 

was  not  afraid  I  would  keep  them  for  myself.     "  No,  no," 

said  be,  **  that  is  tbe   least   of  my  fear,  I  being,  if  you 

please,  determined  with  myself,  that  they  shall  be  laid  out 

for   tbe  good  of  so  many  of  us  as  you  shall  think  fit ; " 

adding  that  unless   it  was   my  own   fault,  I   should   sell 

him  again  and   again.     In  which,  indeed,   be  was  soon 

after  as  good  as  bis  word,  for  I  sold  him  again  to  two  other 

several  masters,  as  will  be  related  presently.     I  inquired  of 

him  the  particulars  of  this  comical  adventure  ;  first  asking 

him  what   reception   be   had   met   with    there.      "  What 

reception  ?  "  said  he,  **  oh,  very  good,  very  good  ;  I  was  used 

very  courteously  indeed,  and  wanted  for  nothing  they  had." 

After  be  bad  related  to  me  some   of  bis  pretty  pranks 

among  bis  late  owner's  household,  "  Very  well,"   said  I, 

"  but  are  you  not  afraid  your  old  master  will  be  soon  here 

again  to  inquire  after  you,  as  you  may  depend  be  will  ? 

And  bow  will  you  manage  then  ?  "     To  which  be  (walking 

on  tip-toes  laughing)  told  me  **  that  be  would  leave  that 

to  me,  and  that  if  I  should  let  him  go,  it  might  not  be 

in  bis   power   to   get  bis   friends   any  more   gold  ducats 

or  mutton."     Then   in   an   angry   tone  I   told   him   that 

be  was  a  very  pretty  fellow,  in  intending  to  carry  on 

tbe  droll  further;   but  I  could  not  forbear   laugbing,  no 

more  than   himself,    I   being  really  surprised  to  see  tbe 

subtlety  of  the  creature. 

However,  I  told  him  in  good  earnest  that  be  should 

take  especial  care  not  to  let  any  of  them  see  his  face, 

for  that  I  was  very  certain  that  bis  late   master  would 


be  again  with  us  very  soon ;  as  indeed  he  was  the 
next  morning  very  early  at  our  gates,  inquiring  if  his 
fugitive  was  come  back :  of  which  Bushmough  himself 
brought  me  the  news,  running  hastily,  and  saying  to  me  in 
a  soft,  though  pleasant  manner,  "  My  old  master  Laurb  is 
come  !  my  old  master  Laurb  is  come  !  "  "  Your  old  master 
come,"  said  I ;  "  pray  what  old  master  ?"  "  Why,"  said  he, 
*'  I  tell  you  my  old  master  Laurb."  "  No  !  "  said  L  *'  Yes, 
indeed,"  said  he,  "he  is,  for  I  saw  him  myself  with  the 
great  bush  upon  his  horns."  "  Very  well,"  said  I,  "  and 
don't  you  intend  to  go  with  him  ?  "  "  Oh  no,  no,"  said  he ; 
*'  but  you  shall  see  (if  you  will  suffer  me  to  put  on  a  rich 
dress  and  to  mount  a  good  horse)  that  I  will  ride  out,  and 
soon  make  him  glad  to  depart  again  without  me  ;  but  you 
must  be  sure  to  tell  him  that  I  am  a  very  near  relation  to 
the  Emperor;  which,"  said  he,  "will  be  very  pretty,  and 
then  I  will  ride  out  and  make  some  very  good  pastime." 
Therefore,  to  try  his  dexterity,  he  was  soon  rigged  in  a  very 
rich  dress,  a  turban  on  his  head,  a  scimitar  by  his  side, 
a  lance  in  his  right  hand,  and  mounted  on  an  exceeding 
fine  horse  richly  accoutered  ;  and  then  I,  with  some  others 
of  our  people,  rode  out,  and  Bushmough  in  the  midst  of 
us,  appearing  very  grand,  bold,  and  as  unconcerned  as  you 
please ;  and  after  my  asking  the  Laurb  what  he  would 
have,  he  told  me  that  he  was  come  to  inquire  after  the 
black  that  we  had  sold  him  about  eight  days  ago  ;  who 
was,  he  said,  gone  off  in  a  base  manner  with  his  best 
horse  and  lance,  and  that  he  was  seen  riding  that  way. 
**  Indeed  !  "  said  I,  in  a  seeming  surprise  ;  "  but  how  came 
you  to  let  him  go  ?  Certainly  you  must  have  used  him 
very  ill."  "  No,"  said  he,  "  he  had  all  the  encouragement 
imaginable."  "  Oh,  the  rogue,"  said  I ;  "a  most  un- 
grateful base  rogue !  he  knew  better  than  to  come  here. 
I  wish  I  could  light  on  him,  that  I  might  make  an  example 


of  the  base  villain,  to  the  terror  of  all  his  countrymen." 
Bushmough  was  all  this  while  close  by  the  Laurb,  whistling 
and  behaving  after  the  most  unconcerned  manner,  though 
hearing  and  understanding  our  discourse  on  both  sides 
perfectly  well ;  when  casting  my  eyes  round,  I  soon  found 
the  Laurb  had  fixed  his  on  Bushmough,  muttering  to  him- 
self that  he  thought  him  extremely  like  him. 

At  which  I  asked  him  what  was  the  matter;  when  he  said 
aloud  that  the  black  riding  the  fine  horse  was  very  much 
like  his,  and  that  had  it  not  been  for  his  rich  apparel,  and 
grandeur  of  his  fine  horse  and  furniture  (by  which  he 
appeared  to  be  a  man  of  much  higher  rank),  he  should 
actually  have  concluded  him  to  be  the  same.  When  I 
telling  him  in  Portuguese  what  the  Laurb  said,  he 
answered  me,  "I  know  it  already,"  still  keeping  his 
countenance,  without  the  least  alteration  of  temper  or 
behaviour,  and  riding  up  and  down  by  the  Laurb  as  close 
as  he  could,  till  he  seemingly  agreed  that  it  was  not  the 
same  black,  asking  if  he  was  to  be  sold.  "  Sold !  "  said 
I.  **  Oh  fie,  what  are  you  talking  of  ?  "  "  Why,"  said  he, 
"  what  harm  is  in  that  ?  "  "  Indeed,"  said  I,  "  the  harm  is 
not  much  between  us ;  yet,  as  he  is  a  very  near  relation  to 
one  of  the  Emperor's  wives,  should  he  know  what  you  said 
of  him,  he  would  no  doubt  be  very  angry  with  you ;  and, 
as  he  is  a  man  extremely  passionate  in  his  nature,  making 
no  more  of  killing  a  man  than  looking  him  in  the  face,  it 
might  not  only  prove  of  very  ill  consequence  to  you,  but  it 
is  even  a  hundred  to  one  if  he  did  not  cut  off  your  head." 
At  which  he  seemed,  and  was,  no  doubt,  in  a  very  great 
hurry  to  be  gone,  and  glad  if  he  might  depart  in  a  whole 
skin,  desiring  me  not  to  tell  the  Emperor's  cousin  of  his  so 
scandalous  opinion  of  him,  bowing  to  him  with  the  most 
profound  reverence,  and  Bushmough  behaving  like  the 
Emperor's  cousin  indeed,  not  so  much  as  giving  him  one 


nod  in  return,  but  in  a  scornful  manner  turned  upon  him 
his  back,  soon  after  laughing  very  heartily  to  see,  as  he 
said,  how  disconsolate  he  went  off,  and  how  much  like  a 
fool  he  departed,  throwing  himself  even  in  an  ecstacy  on 
the  ground,  and  crying  out,  so  well  as  his  excessive  laughter 
would  permit  him  utterance,  **  Laurbs  !  Laurbs,  Laurbs  ! 
Oh,  poor  silly  Laurbs  !  " 

Bushmough's  first  adventure  proving  so  lucky  and  divert- 
ing, and  being  finished  so  well,  he  had  now  in  a  manner 
nothing  else  to  do  than  to  look  out  sharp  for  another  chap, 
and  which  indeed  he  on  the  second  day  after  had  the  luck 
to  meet  with.  He  running  hastily  in  and  telling  me  that  he 
had  just  then  spoke  with  some  gentlemen  Laurbs  without, 
who  had  a  very  great  mind  to  buy  him,  and  that  they  lived 
in  a  quite  different  part  of  the  desert  from  that  of  his  old 
master,  I  went  out  immediately  to  them  and  asked  what 
they  wanted.  They  told  me,  to  buy  the  black  by  my  side ; 
and  finding  them  to  be  very  eager  for  a  purchase,  I  seemed 
altogether  as  indifferent  and  unwilling  about  it,  by  which 
I  screwed  them  at  last  to  forty  gold  ducats.  There  was  now 
a  dispute  between  the  Laurbs,  for  some  time,  which  of  them 
should  have  him.  However,  it  was  at  last  agreed  by  them, 
that  as  they  lived  all,  as  it  were,  together,  they  would  buy 
him  in  partnership ;  which  indeed  they  did,  and  honestly 
paid  me  down  the  forty  ducats  for  him. 

After  he  had  given  me  sufficient  satisfaction  as  to  his  in- 
tentions of  coming  back  (which  he  hoped  would  be  in  three 
or  four  days  at  the  furthest),  he  merrily  departed  with  his 
new  masters,  and  was  indeed  better  than  his  word,  he  coming 
to  us  again  the  next  day  in  good  season,  and  when  I  again 
asked  him  concerning  his  reception  with  them,  he  said  it 
was  not  in  anywise  so  agreeable  with  his  inclinations  as 
was  that  of  his  former  masters,  there  not  being,  he  said, 
so  proper  objects  of  his  observance;   therefore  he  was 


obliged  to  remain  their  debtor,  till  they  were  otherwise 
provided  better  to  his  mind.  "  Well,  but,"  said  I,  "  you 
don't,  I  hope,  intend  to  go  back  to  them,  nor  again  to  braze 
it  out  with  these  as  you  did  with  the  former.  If  you  do, 
I  think  it  is  high  time  for  you  to  be  dressing,  for  if  I  am 
not  very  much  mistaken,  I  see  them  coming,"  pointing  with 
my  finger  at  some  people  I  had  discovered  at  a  distance  ; 
whom  Bushmough  also  discovering,  he  seemed  to  be  highly 
delighted  at  it,  and  turned  himself  about  to  be  going  off ; 
and  then  I  asked  him  where  he  was  going  to.  **  Going  to  ?  " 
said  he ;  "  why,  going  to  dress,  for  they  will  be  soon  here," 
intending  to  play  again  his  old  gambol.  I  told  him,  "  No  ; 
for  that  I  thought  he  had  on  that  subject  carried  on  the 
droll  far  enough  before  ;  therefore  he  should,  at  his  perib 
keep  himself  close  within  till  they  had  an  answer  to  their 
errand  and  were  again  departed." 

However,  I  kept  him  in  discourse,  till  the  Laurbs 
came  so  near  us  that  we  plainly  made  them  out  to 
be  the  same ;  and  then  Bushmough  cried  out,  "  Oh 
yes,  yes,  they  be  my  second  masters  indeed,"  humbly 
desiring  me  to  give  him  leave  to  make  them  some 
pastime,  "for  that,"  he  said,  "was  all  they  were  like 
to  have  for  their  money,  therefore  it  would  be  very  un- 
conscionable in  me  to  deny  it  them.  However,  I  still 
persisted  in  my  former  resolution,  and  told  him,  with 
seeming  warmth,  that  in  case  he  should  offer  to  play  any 
further  pranks  of  that  nature,  I  was  thoroughly  resolved 
to  deliver  him  up  to  them ;  for  that  I  was  very  certain  all 
his  art  would  not  be  sufficient  to  conceal  from  them  the 
knowledge  of  his  noble  phiz,  nor  had  these  masters  bonis 
(so  far  as  he  could  tell  of)  to  stand  in  their  light,  as  the 
former  master's  stood  in  his.  So  he  was  at  last  constrained 
to  submit  and  tarry  within,  till  I  had  heard  the  result  of 
their  message,  and  given  them  an  answer ;  though  this, 


I  am  sure,  was  very  much  against  his  inclination,  and  he 
would,  no  doubt,  have  attempted  some  prank,  had  not  I,  by 
several  repeated  commands,  ordered  him  to  the  contrary ; 
and  then  I  rode  out  with  a  few  of  our  people,  and  asked 
them  what  they  wanted.  To  which  they  answered  me, 
that  they  wanted  the  black  whom  I  had  sold  them  the  day 
before,  and  who,  they  said,  ran  away  from  them  in  a  short 
time  after  they  had  him  at  home.  "  Eun  away  !  "  said  I, 
in  a  seeming  surprise ;  "  I  can  scarce  believe  you.  Pray 
which  way  did  he  run?"  "Nay,  that,"  said  they,  "we 
cannot  tell ;  however,  we  thought  he  might  have  been  come 
hither."  "Hither!"  said  I;  "that  you  know  he  dared 
not,  therefore  you  only  jest  with  me." 

On  which  they  confirmed  it  in  the  most  solemn 
manner,  assuring  me  that  he  was  actually  run  away, 
wringing  their  hands,  and  lifting  up  their  eyes  together, 
as  though  they  had  at  once  lost  all  they  had.  And 
thus  they  continued  to  do  for  two  days,  still  expecting 
his  return;  when  I  telling  them  what  countryman  he 
was,  and  that  probably  he  was  beating  his  way  home, 
and  their  provision  quite  spent,  and  having  no  encour- 
agement of  getting  any  more  from  us,  they  returned  in  a 
very  heavy  and  discontented  mood  without  him;  which 
Bushmough  perceiving,  he  called  after  them  from  the  castle 
wall,  in  Portuguese,  "  Here  he  is,  here  he  is !  "  though 
this  indeed  he  knew  they  did  not  understand. 

And  so  an  end  was  put  to  his  second  adventure,  they  giving 
him  quite  over;  and  he  was  now  at  liberty  again  to  look  out 
for  a  third,  in  which  he  managed  so  well,  that  on  the  sixth 
day  following  he  got  a  new  chap  to  purchase  him,  and  I 
sold  him  for  the  like  sum,  viz.,  forty  gold  ducats,  but  again 
charged  him  on  his  life  to  make  haste  back  again ;  which, 
if  he  did  not  (as  we  should  be  soon  moving  with  the 
caravan),  we  should  be  obliged  to  leave  him  behind  us. 


"  No,  no,"  said  he,  "  never  fear  that.  Do  you  but  take  care 
to  set  up  at  night  a  lighted  torch  on  the  top  of  the  castle 
wall,  and  never  fear  of  my  being  back  again  before  the 
next  daylight."  And  which,  indeed,  he  was,  coming  to  us 
soon  after  midnight  with  two  of  the  Laurbs'  muskets,  and 
all  their  ammunition  in  two  leather  pouches,  stealing  with 
them,  he  said,  out  of  their  tent  whilst  they  were  sleeping. 
However,  they  were  soon  after  daybreak  back  again  to  our 
castle  to  inquire  after  him,  sadly  lamenting  their  loss,  and 
especially  that  of  their  ammunition  and  arms ;  to  all  which 
we  only  gave  them  the  hearing,  they  being  at  last  no 
better  off  than  the  others  of  their  brethren  had  been 
before  them. 

And  now,  after  having  had  sufficient  profit  and  pastime, 
through  means  of  honest  Bushmough  (though  having  a 
very  great  mind  to  sell  himself  once  more,  he  did  not  thinli 
so),  and  all  other  matters  finished  to  our  satisfaction,  we 
packed  up  our  treasure,  and  in  seventy  days  got  safe  back 
to  Taffilet,  making  of  it  a  very  pleasant  journey;  which 
I  must  in  a  very  great  measure  attribute  to  the  jocular 
behaviour  of  honest  Bushmough,  seldom  a  day  passing 
without  our  meeting  some  of  his  old  friends,  and  his  sud- 
denly crying  out  thereon,  "  The  Laurbs  !  the  Laurbs !  " 
running  and  skipping  in  the  most  comical  manner,  though 
he  had  not  the  pleasure  of  meeting  with  any  of  his  old 
masters,  which  I  dare  say  he  of  all  things  desired.  Here 
we  rested  seven  days  to  refresh  ourselves  and  cattle,  and 
then  we  proceeded,  and  got  safe  in  eleven  days  more  to 
Mequinez,  where  we  were  well  received  by  the  Emperor, 
sumptuously  feasted  by  his  order,  and  had  every  man 
twenty  ducats ;  and  then  he  directly  ordered  us  for  our  old 
garrisons,  with  his  service  to  our  wives,  where  we  safely 
arrived,  after  the  absence  of  six  months. 

Now  am  I  again  at  my  old  sport,  and  busy  killing  plenty 



of  game,  which  was  but  for  a  very  short  duration,  I  being 
all  on  the  sudden  soon  after  hurried  away  to  try  my  fortune 
in  another  part  of  the  country,  after  a  more  hostile  manner; 
for  at  the  end  of  the  sixth  week  I  was  expressly  ordered  by 
the  Emperor  again  to  hasten  to  Mequinez  with  two  hun- 
dred of  my  men,  where  I  found  ready  to  march,  on  some 
secret  expedition,  an  army  consisting  of  sixty  thousand 
men,  horse  and  foot,  commanded  by  Bashaw  Gossoy,  with 
whom  we  were  joined,  and  the  next  day  marched  with 
them,  our  route  being,  as  I  then  understood,  for  Binnisness,* 
on  the  Eiver  Wadzeetoont  or  Eiver  of  Olives,  near  the 
borders  of  the  Morocco  dominions,  and  the  country  of  the 
Argireens,  on  account  of  their  denial  of  paying  the  Em- 
peror's agents  their  respective  tributes,  which  they  had 
refused  to  do  for  a  long  time  back,  after  a  most  insolent 

The  first  day  we  marched  to  Fez,  the  second  to  Keessan, 
third  to  Tessan,  I  fourth  to  a  skirt  of  the  deserts,  and  after 
three  other  days  march  thereon  to  Wishaddah,§  a  strong 
garrison,  to  keep  the  Argireens  in  awe,  and  wherein  the 
malcontents  had  as  strongly  fortified  themselves.  We 
lying  at  a  convenient  distance  for  the  night,  our  Bashaw 
sent  in  a  messenger  the  next  morning,  requiring  them  to 
surrender  the  fort  to  the  Emperor's  pleasure,  and  to  send 
him  out  immediately  sufficient  pledges  of  their  performance. 
To  which  he  was  answered,  "That  they  were  thoroughly 
resolved  to  the  contrary,  and  that  he  should  find  he  had 
not  children  to  deal  with."  With  which  answer  the  mes- 
senger in  a  very  short  time  returned,  and  then  we  were  all 
ordered  to  entrench  ourselves.    But  before  we  could  finish 

*  Beni-Snous. 

•f-  Wad-el-Zeitoun,  a  branch  of  the  laser,  so  called  from  the  great 
quantity  of  ohves  gathered  in  its  vicinity. 

I  Tsara,  Tezza,  or  Tazza,  still  a  considerable  town  and  fortress. 
§  Apparently  the  Hadaha  of  the  old  geographers. 


our  work,  the  malcontents  sallied  forth,  in  number  about 
ten  thousand,  who  discharged  their  muskets  on  us,  and 
were  returning  again  towards  the  castle,  when  six  thousand 
more  of  them  within  also  sallying  forth,  and  joining  them, 
they  all  of  them  turned  upon  us  again,  and  there  ensjied 
between  us  a  cruel  slaughter  for  the  space  of  three  hours,- 
thousauds  falling  on  both  sides ;  and  thus  they  continued 
by  frequent  reliefs  from  the  castle,  to  skirmish  with  us  in 
and  out  for  three  days.  At  they  end  of  which,  they  (the 
greatest  part  of  them  being  already,  by  the  force  of  our 
superior  numbers,  cut  ofiO  surrendered  to  the  discretion  of 
the  Bashaw,  Torogolgh  their  chief,  with  many  others  of 
their  principals,  coming  out  to  him  with  their  excuses, 
presents,  and  arrears,  and  amongst  the  former  several  very 
fine  horses,  and  a  large  sum  of  money  for  the  Bashaw's 
own  particular  use,  and  which,  no  doubt,  was  sufficiently 
made  good  to  them,  by  saving  some  of  their  lives,  though 
some  indeed  only  to  live  a  Httle  longer. 

And  now  am  I  again  at  leisure  to  look  about  me,  as 
indeed  it  was  high  time,  being  grievously  wounded  in  our 
last  bloody  skirmish  by  a  musket  shot  lodging  in  my  left 
thigh,  the  Bashaw  receiving  another  in  his  arm,  much 
about  the  same  time.  Mine  proved  extremely  painful  to 
me,  it  being  even  to  the  end  of  the  third  day  before  my 
surgeon  could  conveniently  take  it  out,  notwithstanding  he 
was  a  very  ingenious  man  ;  and  though  the  remains  of  our 
army  rested  there  two  months,  yet  could  I  not  ride  till  just 
before  our  departure.  However,  I  thought  myself  to  be  far 
better  off  than  a  great  many  of  our  army,  we  having  lost 
therein  full  fourteen  thousand  men. 

And  now  am  I  travelling  back,  in  a  great  deal  of  pain, 
with  the  remainder  of  our  army  for  Mequinez,  and  with 
us  forty  of  the  principal  rebels  in  this  rebellion,  to  give 
an  account  of  their  behaviour  to  the  Emperor.    Being 


brought  before  him,  he  forthwith  ordered  them  for  execu- 
tion, the  victims  standing  all  in  a  row,  and  the  headsman 
ready  with  his  sword  drawn  in  his  hand,  only  w^aiting  the 
word  of  command,  or  signal,  which  being  given,  he  struck 
off  seventeen  heads  at  so  many  strokes,  when  he  was 
ordered  to  stay  his  hand,  and  the  other  twenty-three  were 
pardoned,  and  sent  back  to  behave  with  more  prudence  for 
the  future ;  and  I,  after  I  had  recruited  the  men  I  had  lost 
(in  all  twenty-six),  so  fast  as  I  could  ride  for  Tamnsnah, 
and  my  other  three  garrisons,  getting  thither  again  after 
about  three  months'  absence,  finding  my  family  in  good 
health,  and  increased  by  a  brave  boy. 

Now  am  I,  after  my  late  skirmishes  and  sad  wound, 
again  with  my  wife  and  family  at  Tamnsnah.  There  I 
happened  to  remain  with  them  for  some  considerable  time 
in  peace  and  plenty,  spending  most  of  my  time  in  my  old 
sport  in  the  woods,  though  I  went  pretty  often  to  Sallee, 
and  where  I  met  with  several  of  my  countrymen,  with 
whom  I  soon  got  well  acquainted,  yet  could  not  I  (although 
I  very  heartily  endeavoured  it)  meet  with  any  opportunity 
to  my  mind,  wherein  I  might  in  any  probability  make  my 
escape ;  and  for  me  to  make  any  foolish  attempts  that  way, 
I  thought  was  by  far  better  to  let  alone.  Therefore,  after 
making  merry  with  my  countrymen  sometimes  for  three, 
four,  or  five  days,  I  returned  to  my  family  and  my  old 
sport.  But  as  pleasure  never  comes  sincere,  a  dash  of 
water  is  now  thrown  into  our  wine,  our  son,  at  the  age  of 
ten  months,  dying ;  though  after  this  we  lived  without  any 
uneasiness  almost  to  the  end  of  two  years,  when  a 
sudden  rumour  ran,  that  the  old  Emperor  was  dead,  as 
indeed  he  had  been  at  least  two  months  before,  though 
kept  private  for  certain  reasons  of  state,  no  doubt  to 
strengthen  the  interest  of  some  of  the  competitors  for  the 


And  here,  before  we  go  on  to  relate  what  happened  on 
the  death  of  the  old  tyrant,  Muley  Ishmael,  it  will  not  be 
amiss  to  add  some  further  particulars  of  his  character  and 
method  of  governing. 


The  rise  of  Muley  Ismail — His  character  a  mixture  of  vice  and  virtue 
and  piety  and  cruelty — How  he  made  himself  master  of  the  king- 
dom— He  clears  the  country  of  robbers — His  emi^u-e — His  mode 
of  government — How  the  governors  of  provinces  are  called  to 
account — Degrading  ceremonies  incumbent  on  officials  before  they 
enter  the  Imperial  presence — His  supposed  sanctity — His  severity 
against  law-breakers — His  disturbed  sleep — The  terror  his  atten- 
dants had  for  telling  him  whom  he  had  killed — His  duel  with  a 
woman — His  Bokhari,  or  Black  Guards — His  esteem  for  them — 
His  fickleness — The  story  of  an  attempted  assassination  of  him — 
The  influence  of  Maestro  Juan  over  him — His  mania  for  building 
in  an  economical  fashion — His  attention  to  the  affairs  of  State — 
Civil  war  on  his  death — The  contrast  between  Muley  Hamet  Deby 
and  his  brothers — Character  of  Muley  Hamet — How  Mr.  Fellow's 
career  was  influenced  by  these  turmoils. 

THE  Emperor  came  to  the  throne  in  the  year  1G72, 
upon  the  death  of  his  brother,  Muley  Archid,*  by 
opposing  his  nephews,  the  sons  of  Muley  Archid,  being 
then  only  Alcayde  of  Mequinez  ;  but  aspiring  to  the  crown, 
be  raised  what  forces  he  could,  and  by  his  courage  and 
vivacity,  with  the  help  he  met  with  from  the  Jews,  par- 
ticularly Memarran,  their  governor,  who  supplied  him  with 
money  to  carry  on  the  war,  he  overcame  both  his  nephews, 
one  of  whom,  Muby  Hamet,!  being  Bashaw  of  Morocco,  at 
his  father's  dea!h,  had  caused  himself  to  be  proclaimed 
king  there,  and  the  other,  Muley  Aran,!  set  up  in  the 
kingdom  of  Taffilet. 

*  Ar'scid  or  Er-Reschid.  f  Ahmed. 

I  Hharun,  sometimes  "  Hispanised  "  into  AiTani. 


An  excessive  cruelty,  a  great  capacity,  and  a  perfect 
knowledge  of  the  genius  and  temper  of  his  people,  pre- 
served to  this  Emperor  the  throne  for  so  long  a  space  of 
time  as  fifty-five  years,  and  death  alone  took  it  from  him. 
By  strictly  observing,  even  to  the  nicest  particulars,  all  the 
ceremonies  of  the  Mahometan  religion,  he  made  himself 
respected  by  his  subjects  for  his  virtues,  at  the  same  time 
he  -was  feared  for  his  cruelty  and  vices.  He  always 
brought  his  projects  to  bear,  and  if  he  saw  there  was 
danger  in  using  violence,  he  knew  how  to  employ  cunning. 
Voluptuous,  covetous,  passionate,  treacherous,  more  than  a 
tyrant,  he  tamed  the  natural  savageness  of  his  subjects,  by 
showing  himself  still  more  savage  than  they. 

After  the  death  of  his  nephew,  Muley  Hamet,  his  cruelty 
began  to  appear.  The  first  scene  of  which  was  acted  by 
the  side  of  a  river,  to  which  he  came  with  his  army,  but 
could  not  pass,  where  he  ordered  all  the  prisoners  to  be 
killed,  and  woven  into  a  bridge  with  rushes,  for  his  army 
to  pass  over  upon. 

In  1678,  he  made  himself  master  of  Taffilet,  and  three 
years  after  that  took  Mamora  from  the  Spaniards,  where 
he  found  eighty-eight  pieces  of  brass  cannon,  fifteen  of 
iron,  ammunition  of  all  sorts,  more  than  he  had  in  his 
■whole  dominions  before,  and  a  great  prize  of  pearls  and 
jewels  (belonging  to  merchants  who  then  were  in  the 
town)  fell  into  his  hands.  He  also  took  Larach  from  the 
Spaniards  in  1689,  clearing  all  the  sea-coast  of  his  terri- 
tory, but  Massagan,*  Pennon  de  Velez,  and  Ceuta,  the 
latter  of  which  (though  always  blockaded  with  ten  thousand 
men,  and  so  stricliy  pressed  that  the  Bashaw  cannot  stir 
from  before  it  without  leave  from  the  Emperor)  has  defied 
all  attempts  for  thirty-four  years  together.     In  1701,  he 

*  Mazagan,  spelt  in  another  page  as  Marcegouguc. 


fought  a  battle  with  the  Day  of  Algiers,*  but  coming  off 
with  the  worst,  a  peace  was  concluded,  which  has  con- 
tinued ever  since. 

At  the  beginning  of  his  reign  the  roads  were  so  infested 
with  robbers  that  it  was  dangerous  to  stir  out  of  the  towns 
without  being  well  guarded,  but  he  so  well  cleared  them 
that  now  it  is  nowhere  safer  travelling. 

He  maintains  his  large  empire  (which  consists  of  several 
kingdoms  joined  together)  in  peace  and  quietness,  although 
of  so  late  an  acquisition  to  the  family.  In  his  empire  is 
contained  all  that  country  called  by  the  Eomans  Mauritania 
Tingitana,  with  other  provinces  to  the  southward,  as  far  as 
Cape  Blanco,  where  it  is  bounded  by  the  Negro  country,  as 
it  is  northerly  by  the  Mediterranean  Sea.  It  has  on  the 
east  the  kingdom  of  Algiers,  and  part  of  the  country  of 
Bildulgerid,  and  on  the  west  the  main  ocean,  including  the 
kingdoms  of  Fez,  Morocco,  Taffilet,  Segelmess,  Darha,  Suz, 
and  Tremezen,  over  which  he  rules  with  so  severe  a  hand, 
and  has  struck  such  a  dread  into  all  men  by  his  terrible 
executions,  that  none  of  the  remnants  of  the  royal  blood  of 
the  before-mentioned  kingdoms  or  any  of  his  bashaws  have 
dared  to  take  up  arms  against  him.  All  the  distm*bance 
he  ever  met  with  at  home  (since  his  establishment  after 
the  conquest  of  his  nephew)  was  the  rebellion  of  his  son 
Muley  Mahomet,  who  causing  himself  to  be  proclaimed 
King  of  Morocco,  plagued  him  for  some  time,  but  sending 
his  son  Muley  Zidan  against  him,  Muley  Mahomet  was 
overthrown ;  and  the  Emperor  having  got  him  into  his 
clutches  ordered  his  right  hand  and  left  foot  to  be  cut  off, 
after  which  the  prince  soon  died,  not  suffering  the  blood  to 
be  stopped,  but  tearing  off  the  plasters. 

His  manner  of  governing  is  by  alcaydes,  who  have  no 

*  At  Zenboudj-el-Aousat,  in  the  Beni-Amer  country,  near  Tlemcen 
(Tremezen),  an  arrondissement  of  the  province  of  Oran. 


commission,  but  receive  their  authority  only  by  his  saying, 
"  Go  govern  such  a  country ;  be  my  general  or  admiral." 
At  Court  he  has  five  standing  officers.  They  are  the  Grand 
Mufti,  for  afifairs  of  religion  ;  the  chief  eunuch,  to  take  care 
of  the  Seraglio ;  a  treasurer  for  his  revenue ;  the  superin- 
tendent of  his  buildings,  and  the  Bashaw  of  Mequinez,  who 
is  the  first  minister,  or  supreme  alcayd.v,  of  which  there 
are  three  sorts.  The  first  and  chief  are  those  who,  in  the 
nature  of  viceroys,  are  sent  to  govern  the  provinces,  to 
whom,  for  their  greater  honour,  is  sometimes  given  the 
title  of  Bashaws.  They  have  an  unlimited  power,  and  it 
matters  not  how  much  they  tyrannize,  if,  upon  their  return 
to  Court,  they  bring  riches  enough  to  satisfy  the  Emperor. 
Another  sort  are  the  generals  of  his  armies,  and  com- 
manders over  small  parties  of  horse  or  foot.  The  third 
sort  are  governors  of  cities  or  towns,  and  are  either  made 
by  the  Emperor  himself,  as  are  the  Alcaydes  of  Morocco, 
Fez,  Sallee,  and  other  cities,  or  by  the  governors  of  the 
provinces  over  small  towns  and  cities.  A  fourth  sort  may 
be  added,  which  are  titular  only,  and  therefore  called 
Alcaydes  of  their  Heads. 

The  governors  of  the  provinces  are  ordered  to  Court 
every  two  or  three  years  to  render  an  account  of  their 
government;  that  is,  to  bring  the  Emperor  all  that  they 
have  by  an  arbitrary  and  tyrannical  power  plundered  the 
people  of ;  by  which  means  he  gets  little  less  than  their 
whole  wealth,  which  never  circulates  more,  but  is  thrown 
into  his  treasury,  and  remains  there  an  unprofitable  and 
useless  hoard,  he  never  parting  with  it  again  upon  any 
account  whatsoever — for  neither  his  armies,  fleet,  or  build- 
ings cost  him  anything.  When  he  has  occasion  to  raise 
forces,  the  alcaydes  of  the  provinces  are  obliged  to  find  and 
maintain  them,  each  providing  for  a  number  in  proportion 
to  the  extent  of  his  government.     The  ships  also  that  are 


in  bis  service  are  fitted  out  and  maintained  by  tbe  alcayde 
of  tbe  port  to  -wbicb  tbey  belong.  Nevertbeless  be  bas  balf 
tbe  prizes,  and  takes  all  tbe  slaves,  remitting  part  of  bis 
moiety  of  tbe  prize  goods  in  consideration  for  tbe  slaves, 
wbo  did  not  belong  to  bis  sbare. 

Wben  tbe  alcaydes  return  from  tbeir  governments  it  is 
•witb  tbe  greatest  fear  imaginable,  as  I  bave  before  binted, 
for  if  tbe  Emperor  tbinks  tbey  do  not  bring  bim  tbe  "wbole 
profits  tbereof,  but  keep  sometbing  for  tbemselves,  tbey  are 
in  danger  of  being  put  to  some  cruel  death.  Before  tbey 
go  into  bis  presence  tbey  pull  off  tbeir  sboes,  put  on  a 
particular  babit  tbey  bave  to  denote  a  slave,  and  wben 
tbey  approach  bim  fall  down  and  kiss  tbe  ground  at  bis 
borse's  feet.  If  be  speaks  to  them,  tbey  bend  forward  and 
bold  tbeir  beads  a  little  on  one  side  in  token  of  offering 
tbeir  life,  wbicb  great  degree  of  subjection  proceeds  partly 
from  fear  and  partly  from  superstition,  for  tbey  believe 
bim  to  be  the  true  branch  of  the  Xeripbian  *  family,  wbo 
draw  their  descent  from  the  prophet  Mahomet,  and  there- 
fore think  he  was  particularly  favoured  by  Heaven,  and 
could  do  nothing  amiss,  but  imagined  all  wbo  died  by  bis 
band  went  to  Paradise ;  in  which  opinions  he  confirmed 
them  by  a  long  continuance  of  tyrannical  power,  by  artifice 
and  by  hypocrisy,  never  doing  anything  of  consequence 
without  first  falling  down  upon  the  ground  with  his  face 
close  to  tbe  earth  for  a  considerable  time,  making  believe 
that  be  then  received  inspiration  and  directions  from  God, 
or  Mahomet  (for  which  purpose  be  bad  a  great  number  of 
praying  places  contrived  in  different  part?,  not  unlike  niches 
laid  horizontally  in  tbe  ground),  and  that  be  performed  the 
will  of  God  in  everything  he  did. 

The  Emperor  certainly  punished  all  breakers  of  their  law 
witb  great  severity,  and  carried  bis  hypocrisy  so  far  that  it 
*  Shereefian  is  the  more  general  spelling. 


-was  the  most  religious  age  that  ever  -was  in  Barbary  by  the 
King's  example,  whose  commands  were  esteemed  sacred,  for 
the  least  breach  of  which  he  had  often  inflicted  the  severest 
death ;  so  that  what  from  the  dread  of  punishment  and  the 
opinion  the  people  are  brought  up  in,  no  prince  was  better 

He  was  an  early  riser,  whether  from  his  natural  dis- 
position, or  the  horror  of  the  many  murders,  exactions,  and 
cruelties  he  had  committed  on  his  poor  subjects  and  slaves, 
I  cannot  determine  ;  but  those  who  have  been  near  him 
■when  abroad  in  camps  (for  in  his  palace  he  was  waited  on 
by  women,  young  wenches,  and  eunuchs,  who  dare  not  tell 
iales),  report  that  his  sleep  was  very  much  disturbed  and 
full  of  horror,  when,  starting  on  a  sudden,  he  has  been 
heard  to  call  upon  those  he  had  murdered,  and  sometimes 
awake  he  used  to  ask  for  them  whom  he  had  killed  but  the 
day  before  ;  and  if  any  of  the  standers-by  answered,  "  He  is 
dead,"  he  presently  replied,  "  Who  killed  him?"  To  which 
they  answered,  "  They  did  not  know,  but  supposed  God 
killed  him,"  unless  they  had  a  mind  to  follow. 

I  have  heard  he  used  once  to  call  often  on  Hameda,  a 
great  favourite  of  his,  when  he  was  walking  alone,  and 
nobody  could  be  supposed  to  hear  him.  This  Hameda  was 
the  greatest  favourite  he  ever  had  ;  he  was  the  son  of  the 
guardian  of  the  slaves,  and  came  a  boy  into  the  Emperor's 
army,  when  he  was  besieging  his  cousin  Muley  Hamet  in 
Terudant,  and  doing  some  action  before  him  he  took  notice 
of  him  and  gave  him  a  horse.  The  man  still  continued 
to  do  good  things,  and  being  a  merry  buffoon  fellow  the 
Emperor  grew  into  great  familiarity  with  him,  insomuch 
that  he  could  take  the  liberty  to  go  into  his  gardens  when 
he  was  with  his  women,  which  no  man  ever  did  before  or 
since.  He  had  the  title  of  Bashaw  by  way  of  pre-eminence 
above  all  other  bashaws.     The  Emperor  used  passionately 


to  tell  him  that  be  could  never  be  beartily  angry  witb  bim, 
and  that  it  was  impossible  be  sbould  be  provoked  to  kill 
bim.  And  it  was  tbougbt  be  did  not  design  to  do  it  when 
be  gave  bim  so  many  blows  with  the  butt-end  of  bis  lance, 
that  be  died  of  them  the  next  day.  The  Emperor  after- 
wards showed  a  great  deal  of  sorrow  at  it,  confessed  be 
repented  of  what  be  had  done,  sent  bim  and  his  physicians 
a  bag  of  money,  and  desired  him  to  live. 

As  soon  as  his  first  prayer  was  over,  which  was  before 
the  morning  star  disappeared,  be  used  to  go  to  bis  works, 
which  were  of  a  vast  extent  within  the  walls  of  bis  palace. 
There  the  poor  people  (whether  Christians,  negro  slaves, 
boys  who  attended  bim,  alcaydes,  or  overseers  of  the 
works),  all  tasted  of  bis  anger  in  their  turns,  beating, 
killing,  or  giving  good  words,  according  to  the  humour  be 
was  in.  This  was  one  of  bis  top  pleasures ;  in  some  of 
these  places  and  never  within  bis  palace  he  gave  audience 
to  ambassadors,  conversed  sometimes  sitting  on  the  corner 
of  a  wall,  walked  often,  and  sometimes  worked. 

In  the  year  1690,  before  be  was  master  of  Sabra,*  there 
came  a  woman  from  that  people  to  him,  who,  bearing  of 
ber  coming,  went  to  meet  her  on  horseback,  at  the  head  of 
twenty  thousand  men.  She  told  bim  the  people  of  Sabra 
were  desirous  to  put  themselves  under  bis  protection,  but 
that  be  must  fight  her  at  lance-play,  if  be  bad  a  mind  to 
have  her,  at  once  the  pledge  of  their  fidelity  and  the  prize 
of  his  victory.  She  set  him  bard  at  first,  but  afterwards 
suffered  herself  to  be  overpowered,  was  put  among  the  rest 
of  bis  women,  and  troops  were  sent  to  protect  the  frontiers 
of  Sabra. 

When  he  was  abroad,  there  used  to  be  carried  after  him 
a  stool,  a  kettle  of  water,  and  a  skin,  which  was  bis  table- 
cloth.    This  belonged  to  bis  eating.     And  if  be  was  out  at 
*  The  Sahara,  or  desert  country  to  the  south. 


dinner  time,  his  dinner  was  carried  after  him  upon  the 
head  of  a  negro,  in  a  great  wooden  or  copper  vessel,  which 
he  did  not  take  from  his  head  till  the  Emperor  asked  for 
it.  The  manner  of  his  eating  did  not  differ  from  the 
ordinary  Moors.  His  other  travelling  utensils  were  two  or 
three  guns,  a  sword  or  two,  and  two  lances,  because  one 
broke  once  as  he  was  murdering.  Both  the  swords  and 
lances  were  carried  with  their  points  upwards.  These 
were  all  carried  by  lusty  fellows ;  his  boys  carried  short 
Brazil  sticks,  knotted  cords  for  whipping,  a  change  of 
clothes  to  shift  when  bloody,  and  a  hatchet,  two  of  which 
he  took  in  a  Portuguese  ship,  and  the  first  time  they  were 
brought  to  him,  killed  a  negro  without  any  provocation,  to 
try  if  they  were  good. 

Although  the  natives  of  his  dominions  are  whites,  yet 
they  are  not  so  much  esteemed  by  him  as  the  blacks  and 
the  copper-coloured,  to  whom  he  commits  the  guard  of  his 
person,  and  was  so  fond  of  their  breed,  that  he  took  care 
to  mix  them  himself,  by  matching  them  to  the  best-com- 
plexioned  of  his  female  subjects." 

Thus  he  took  care  to  lay  the  foundation  of  his  tawny 
nurseries,  to  supply  his  palace  as  he  wanted,  into  which 
they  were  admitted  very  young,  are  taught  to  worship  and 
obey  that  successor  of  their  Prophet,  and  being  nursed  in 
blood  from  their  infancy,  become  the  executioners  and 
ministers  of  their  wrath,  whose  terrible  commands  they 
put  in  execution  with  as  much  zeal  and  fury  as  if  they  had 
received  them  immediately  from  Heaven.  Their  manner 
was — as  soon  as  the  word  came  out  of  his  mouth — to  seize 
on  the  wretch  ordered  for  execution  like  so  many  lions, 
whom,  if  he  was  not  to  be  executed  on  the  spot,  they 
almost  tore  to  pieces  before  he  got  to  the  place  of  execution; 
and  by  the  fury  of  their  looks,  and  their  violent  and  savage 

*  Note  20. 


manner  of  using  him,  made  a  scene  very  much  resembling 
the  picture  of  so  many  devils  tormenting  the  damned. 
They  were  so  ready  to  murder  and  destroy — even  while 
young — that  the  Alcaydes  trembled  at  the  very  sight  of 
them,  and  the  Emperor  seemed  to  take  a  great  deal  of 
pleasure,  and  placed  much  of  his  safety  in  them,  for  they 
surrounded  him  almost  wherever  he  was.  They  are  of  all 
ranks  and  degrees ;  some  were  the  sons  of  his  chief  Al- 
caydes, others  picked  up  by  chance,  or  taken  from  a  large 
negro  town  joining  to  Mequinez,*  which  the  Emperor  had 
filled  with  families  of  blacks  and  tawnies  for  his  use.  If 
they  were  well  looked  and  strong,  they  needed  no  other 
quality ;  some  who  had  relations  that  were  able  were  fed, 
clothed,  and  lodged  by  them ;  others  who  had  not  were 
lodged  in  the  outskirts  of  the  palace,  in  great  rooms, 
where  they  pigged  an  hundred  or  two  together.  They 
wore  only  a  short  and  small  coat  without  sleeves,  which 
did  not  reach  to  their  knees ;  their  heads  were  shaved  and 
always  exposed  to  the  sun,  for  he  affected  to  breed  them 
hard.  Most,  and  sometimes  all  of  them,  were  employed 
in  his  buildings,  where  they  took  off  their  clothes,  and 
laying  them  all  in  a  heap,  every  one  took  a  basket  and 
removed  earth,  stones,  or  wood ;  when  they  had  done,  he 
ordered  them  to  go  to  his  Jew  and  receive  so  much  soup  ; 
the  next  day  they  appeared  gay  and  under  arms. 

He  beat  them  in  the  cruelest  manner  imaginable,  to  try 
if  they  were  hard  ;  sometimes  you  should  see  forty  or  fifty 
of  them  all  sprawling  in  their  blood,  none  of  them  daring 
to  rise  till  he  left  the  place  where  they  were  lying,  and  if 
they  were  discountenanced  and  out  of  heart  at  this  usage, 
they  were  of  a  bastard  breed,  and  must  turn  out  of  his  ser- 
vice. I  never  heard  that  he  killed  but  three  of  them,  one  for 
a  heinous  crime,  and  two  for  hiding  a  piece  of  bread  in  the 
*  Close  to  the  Jews'  quarter,  but  now  dismantled. 


hole  of  a  wall,  which  it  was  supposed  they  could  not  eat, 
for  they  are  great  reverencers  of  bread,  and  take  up  (as  all 
Mahometans  do)  the  least  crumb,  wherever  they  find  it, 
and  kiss  it.  When  they  wanted  clothes,  the  Emperor 
thought  of  somebody  that  had  too  much  money,  either 
Moor  or  Jew,  and  bade  them  go  to  him,  and  receive  each  a 
coat  or  shirt. 

They  were  generally  about  eight  hundred  in  all,  who 
lived  with  him  in  a  sort  of  subordination  to  one  another  ; 
several  had  the  names  of  Alcaydes,  as  the  chief  of  them 
who  waited  on  the  Emperor's  person;  others  were  made 
overseers  of  some  task  or  work  the  Emperor  had  ordered 
them  to  finish ;  some  he  made  perpetual  Alcaydes  over  a 
certain  number  of  his  companions,  and  such  a  one  was  to 
answer  for  the  rest,  as  to  their  diligence,  cleanly  and  good 
deportment  in  all  particulars  ;  and  it  was  wonderful  to  see 
the  indolence,  state,  and  gravity  of  these  young  rogues, 
and  how  they  aped  the  old  Emperor  in  their  way  of 
government ;  for  though  they  could  only  inflict  blows, 
yet  they  used  the  haughty  phrases  of  command,  and 
talked  of  cutting  throats,  strangling,  dragging,  and  so 

The  first  mark  of  their  preferment,  after  they  were 
grown  too  big  to  serve  the  Emperor  in  this  nature,  was 
giving  them  a  horse — a  horseman  being  in  the  highest 
esteem  imaginable  among  them,  and  the  foot  the  contrary, 
insomuch  that  those  who  commanded  thousands  of  them 
were  not  esteemed  equal  to  the  commanders  of  fifty  horse. 
Then  the  Emperor  either  recommended  them  to  some  of 
his  Bashaws  or  great  Alcaydes  employed  against  the 
Christians,  or  the  Berebbers  that  inhabit  the  mountains, 
or  kept  them  near  him,  and  then  they  were  ready  to  be 
entrusted  with  all  important  messages,  as  to  carry  the 
Emperor's  letter  of  thanks  to  any  officer  who  served  him 


well,  or  to  call  him  cuckold,  spit  in  his  face,  give  him  a 
box  on  the  ear,  strangle,  or  cut  off  his  head. 

When  they  had  waited  a  considerable  time,  if  no  com- 
mands or  government  became  vacant,  he  sent  them  to 
gather  the  tribute  of  some  country,  with  the  title  of  an 
Alcayde  ;  and  if  any  remained  by  him  without  any  em- 
ployment after  performing  this  service,  he  was  called 
Alcayde  of  his  head,  which  was  a  sort  of  an  Alcayde  titular 
or  Eeforme,  as  I  have  noted  above.  But  perhaps  the 
Emperor  suspected  that  he  had  put  something  more  in  his 
pocket  than  ordinary,  then  he  bid  him  build  houses  of  such 
or  such  dimensions,  and  that  he  might  seem  something 
more  reasonable  than  the  Egyptian  taskmasters,  used  to  bid 
him  take  his  lime  and  stone.  The  poor  man  begins  with 
a  good  heart,  and  when  he  has  spent  all,  despair  forces 
him  to  go  to  the  Emperor,  and  tell  him  he  is  not  worth 
one  farthing  more,  lest  he  should  find  his  work  standing 
still,  and  bury  him  alive  in  one  of  the  walls.  The  Emperor 
then  used  to  pick  a  quarrel  with  him,  cut  him  with  his 
sword,  wound  him  with  his  lance,  or  take  off  his  clothes, 
all  but  his  drawers,  give  him  five  hundred  blows  on  the 
buttocks,  put  him  in  prison,  or  load  him  with  two  great 
chains,  and  send  him  to  labour  at  the  house  he  was 
building,  and  ordered  somebody  else  to  finish  it.  Now  you 
must  know  the  Emperor  never  beat  a  man  soundly,  but 
the  man  was  in  the  high  way  of  preferment,  and  it  was  ten 
to  one  but  His  Majesty  passing  by  him  in  chains  a  few 
days  after,  and  finding  him  in  a  sad  pickle,  he  called  him 
his  dear  friend,  uncle,  or  brother,  and  inquired  how  he 
came  into  that  condition,  as  if  he  knew  nothing  of  the 
matter,  sent  for  a  suit  of  his  own  clothes  (which  was  a 
great  compliment),  made  him  as  fine  as  a  prince,  and  sent 
him  to  govern  some  of  his  great  towns ;  for  by  this  means 
he  was  sure  he  had  not  left  him  worth  a  groat,  and  made 


a  careful  computation  of  what  be  might  get  in  his  govern- 
ment, till  it  was  his  turn  to  be  squeezed  again. 

They  tell  a  story  of  a  Spaniard  who  was  esteemed  a 
good  marksman,  and  bribed  to  shoot  the  Emperor :  he  so 
missed  his  aim,  that  the  two  balls  he  had  charged  his  gun 
with,  flew  into  the  pommel  of  the  Emperor's  saddle.  The 
man  was  immediately  seized,  and  when  it  was  expected  he 
would  be  put  to  a  cruel  death,  the  Emperor  first  reproached 
him  with  his  base  design,  asking  him  what  he  had  done  to 
deserve  being  used  so,  whether  he  was  no  more  beloved, 
and  people  were  tired  with  him ;  then  calmly  sent  him 
to  the  works  among  the  rest  of  the  Christians.  The 
Spaniard,  fearing  he  should  not  come  off  so,  and  thinking 
it  a  means  (if  there  was  any)  to  get  his  liberty  again, 
turned  Moor,  but  continued  in  his  Christian  habit.  Some 
years  after,  the  Emperor,  going  among  the  workmen 
where  he  was,  asked  him  why  he  did  not  pull  off  his  hat. 
He  answered,  he  was  a  Moor ;  and  the  Emperor,  being 
informed  who  he  was,  ordered  him  to  be  freed  immediately, 
asked  him  a  thousand  pardons  for  keeping  him  at  work  so 
long,  dressed  him  from  head  to  foot,  and  made  him  a 
governor  of  some  country. 

A  little  more  or  less  this  was  the  treatment  of  his 
grandees  :  to-day  hugged,  kissed,  and  preferred ;  to-morrow 
stripped,  robbed,  and  beaten.  Many  of  the  people  about 
him  bore  the  marks  of  his  sword,  lance,  or  short  sticks  : 
and  the  face  and  arms  of  the  negro  who  carried  his 
umbrella  when  Captain  Norbury  was  there,  was  scarred  all 
over  with  cuts  that  the  Emperor  had  given  him,  it  was 
supposed,  for  letting  the  sun  come  upon  him ;  for  he  was 
exceeding  nice  in  his  tyranny,  and  when  he  had  done  with 
his  lance,  he  darted  it  suddenly  into  the  air,  and  it  must 
be  caught  before  it  comes  to  the  ground,  or  he  would  kill 
the  man  appointed  for  that  purpose. 



If  he  chanced  to  kill  anybody  when  he  had  not 
determined  their  death — as  it  frequently  happened — he 
civilly  begged  their  pardon,  and  said  he  did  not  design  to 
kill  that  poor  man,  and  laid  the  fault  on  God,  saying  his 
time  was  come,  the  powers  above  would  have  it  so. 

If  he  designed  the  death  of  a  Christian  whom  he  cared 
not  to  pardon,  he  shut  the  gates  of  his  palace,  that 
Maestro  Juan  should  not  come ;  for  it  was  very  singular 
that  this  Maestro  Juan,  a  Christian  slave  of  Catalonia,  by 
his  good  works,  temper,  and  sincerity  wrought  so  much 
upon  the  Emperor,  that  he  once  swore  he  would  never  see 
him  but  he  would  give  him  something,  and  that  he  should 
never  ask  him  anything  but  he  would  grant  it ;  and  that, 
being  desirous  to  keep  his  word,  made  him  fear  that  Juan 
should  come  to  beg  such  a  man's  life ;  nay,  sometimes 
having  seen  him  first,  he  cried  out  he  must  give  him 
something,  for  he  had  seen  him. 

The  Emperor  was  wonderfully  addicted  to  building ;  yet 
it  is  a  question  whether  he  was  more  addicted  to  that,  or 
pulling  down  ;  for  they  said  if  all  his  buildings  were  now 
standing,  by  a  moderate  computation  they  would  reach  to 
Fez,  twelve  leagues  off.  And  those  who  had  been  near 
him  since  the  beginning  of  his  reign,  have  observed  him 
eternally  building  and  pulling  down,  shutting  up  doors  and 
breaking  out  new  ones  in  the  walls.  But  he  told  them 
this  was  done  to  occupy  his  people.  "  For,"  said  he,  "if 
I  have  a  bag  full  of  rats,  unless  I  keep  that  bag  stirring 
they  would  eat  their  way  through."  He  also  dug  many 
strange  caverns  in  the  earth  of  all  sizes,  some  for  corn, 
others  for  powder,  arms,  brimstone,  and  money,  of  which 
latter  it  is  suspected  he  left  no  witnesses,  when  finished. 

The  Emperor  never  parted  with  any  money,  to  defray 
the  expenses  of  war  or  building,  and  caused  his  large  and 
magnificent  palace  to  be  erected,   without  expending  a 


blankill  towards  it.  But  instead  of  money  he  gave  the 
Alcayde  of  his  buildings  a  government ;  which  then  was 
all  that  country  lying  between  Mequinez  and  Tremezen,  a 
large  tract  of  ground,  and  a  very  fruitful  soil ;  but  con- 
sidering the  continual  employment  and  unlimited  expenses 
which  his  office  obliged  him  to,  it  was  thought  he  could 
not  get  anything  for  himself,  more  than  what  sufficed  for 
his  maintenance. 

Although  this  Emperor  had  eight  thousand  wives,  nine 
hundred  sons,  and  about  three  hundred  daughters,  yet  he 
was  always  attentive  to  the  affairs  of  the  State,  and  never 
committed  the  care  of  it  out  of  his  own  hands. 

Muley  Hamet  Deby,*  one  of  his  sons,  whom  he  had 
designed  for  his  successor,  hearing  of  his  father's  illness, 
came  with  all  despatch  from  Tedla  (where  he  resided)  to 
Mequinez,  to  see  him.  It  was  not  but  with  much  difficulty 
that  he  got  the  liberty  of  speaking  to  him,  and  he  was  at 
last  but  badly  received.  The  father,  persuaded  that  interest 
rather  than  affection  was  the  motive  of  this  visit  of  his 
son's,  told  him  to  moderate  his  eagerness  for  the  crown ; 
but  the  son  protested  to  his  father,  that  the  pleasure  of 
seeing  him  was  the  only  motive  of  his  coming. 

Hamet  Deby  found,  by  the  condition  in  which  he  saw 
his  father,  and  from  the  opinions  of  the  physicians,  that 
he  could  not  live  long,  he  therefore  took  all  possible 
methods  to  prevent  disturbances,  and  to  assure  himself  of 
the  crown ;  for  he  had  many  rivals  for  it,  and  amongst 
others  two  of  his  brothers,  Muley  Abdallah,  and  Muley 
Abdemelick,t  who  was  accounted  one  of  the  most  able 
generals  in  the  kingdom.  These  had  all  been  secretly 
making  great  preparations  ;  but  Deby  had,  by  his  prudence 
and  vigilance,  disconcerted  all  their  measures.  He  had 
brought  with  him  only  a  thousand  men,  but  as  soon  as  he 
*  Afterwards  Ahmid  (Hamid)  IV.  Ed-dehebL  f  Abd-el-Malek. 


knew  of  the  different  parties  which  were  forming  in  the 
kingdom,  he  drew  from  the  provinces  of  his  jurisdiction 
five  hundred  foot  more,  and  six  hundred  horse,  whom 
causing  to  enter  privately  in  the  night  into  Mequinez,  he 
seized  upon  all  the  advantageous  posts  therein,  and  obliged 
the  governor  to  render  to  him  an  oath  of  fidelity.  During 
this,  the  disorder  of  the  Emperor  Muley  Ishmael,  together 
with  his  great  age,  put  an  end  to  his  life  the  22nd  of  March, 
1727,  in  the  81st  year  of  his  age.* 

The  moment  his  death  was  known,  all  the  inhabitants  of 
Mequinez  retired  every  one  to  their  houses,  abandoning  all 
the  public  works  on  which  Muley  Ishmael  had  unprofit- 
ably  kept  them  incessantly  employed.  The  same  day  the 
Bashaw  Mesael  presented  the  keys  of  the  city  to  Muley 
Hamet  Deby,  who,  without  losing  any  time,  went  to  take 
possession  of  the  palace,  and  the  apartment  of  his  deceased 
father.  He  ordered  him  to  be  buried  in  the  night,  in  a 
place  he  himself  had  fixed  on,  and  gave  orders  for  erecting 
a  monument  over  him,  according  to  the  fashion  of  that 
country,  viz.,  a  large  tower,  on  the  summit  of  which  were 
placed  five  balls  of  gilt  copper. 

The  measures  which  Deby  had  taken  were  not  useless. 
The  very  day  that  the  death  of  his  father  was  made  public, 
he  was  acknowledged  by  the  inhabitants  of  Mequinez  as 
King  of  Morocco,  notwithstanding  the  attempts  made  to 
defeat  it  by  his  brother  Muley  Abdallah;  who  being  in- 
formed of  all  that  passed  by  his  mother,  waited  in  vain  for 
a  favourable  opportunity  of  having  himself  proclaimed 
King  ;  and  with  this  design  he  drew  together  some  troops 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Mequinez,  expecting  that  seven 
thousand  men  in  the  city,  who  had  promised  to  espouse  his 
part,  would  come  and  join  him.  But  the  vigilance  of  Deby, 
and  the  zeal  of  the  Bashaw  Mesael,  hindered  these  from 

*  Note  22. 


putting  their  design  into  execution  ;  so  that  the  troops 
which  were  with  Ahdallah  seeing  this  reinforcement  did  not 
join  them,  abandoned  that  prince,  leaving  only  sixteen 
borse  with  him.  This  desertion  entirely  ruined  his  affairs ; 
so  that  to  save  his  life  he  fled  to  a  sanctuary.  Deby 
caused  him  to  be  sought  for,  and  learning  that  he  had 
taken  refuge  at  Fez,  in  the  Mosque  of  Mulej  Idris,  which 
is  held  in  great  veneration  by  all  the  Mahometans,  he 
caused  it  to  be  told  that  prince,  that  he  might  with  all 
safety  repair  to  Court,  giving  him  his  solemn  oath  that  he 
would  neither  hurt  him,  nor  any  that  should  accompany 
him.  Ahdallah  trusting  to  the  King's  promise,  went  to  pay 
his  respects  to  him.  Hamet  received  him  with  kindness, 
and  having  pardoned  him  and  embraced  him,  gave  him,  as 
a  token  of  his  friendship,  a  very  fine  horse,  most  richly 
caparisoned.  It  was  by  this  act  of  generosity  that  Deby 
signalized  the  day  of  his  coronation,  the  ceremony  of 
which  was  performed  in  the  Mosque  of  the  great  Seraglio. 

The  principal  officers  of  the  Army  of  the  Blacks  assem- 
bled together,  crying  out,  "  Long  live  the  King  !  "  and 
threatening  death  and  destruction  to  every  one  who  would 
not  acknowledge  him.  Hamet  Deby  went  out  from  the 
palace,  to  hear  what  they  had  to  say.  They  told  him  they 
were  deputed  by  the  Army  of  the  Blacks  to  assure  him  they 
were  ready  to  execute  his  orders,  and  if  necessary  to  shed 
their  blood  in  his  service.  The  King  was  so  pleased  with 
this  deputation,  that  he  gave  these  officers  two  hundred 
and  twenty  thousand  ducats  to  distribute  among  the  Black 
Army,  and  ordered  that  they  should  march  immediately 
against  the  Alarbes  of  the  province  of  Duquela,  who  had 
not  acknowledged  him. 

The  deputies  immediately  returned  to  their  camp,  pitched 
about  six  leagues  from  Mahmora,  and  distributed  among 
the  soldiers  their  shares  in  the  Kind's  liberalitv  ;   so  that 


the  whole  army  were  eager  to  march  on  the  expedition  they 
were  ordered  upon. 

The  Alarbes  *  did  not  let  themselves  be  surprised. 
Hearing  of  the  march  of  the  Blacks,  they  prepared  them- 
selves for  an  engagement.  The  two  armies  soon  came 
within  sight  of  each  other.  The  Blacks  resolved  to  attack 
the  Alarbes  in  their  camp,  which  was  entrenched  by  camels 
and  other  animals,  lying  down.  However  odd  such  a 
fortification  might  appear,  it  was  not  without  a  great  deal 
of  trouble  that  the  Blacks  could  force  it.  Both  sides  fought 
with  great  fury ;  at  length  the  Blacks,  equal  in  courage  to 
the  Alarbes,  and  superior  in  numbers  and  discipline,  gained 
a  signal  victory.  Sixteen  thousand  of  the  Alarbes  were 
cut  in  pieces,  with  the  loss  only  to  the  victors  of  fourteen 
hundred  men  killed,  and  sixteen  hundred  wounded.  The 
loss  of  this  battle  prevented  the  provinces,  who  had  taken 
part  with  the  Alarbes,  from  continuing  in  their  revolt.  The 
Black  Army  overran  them  in  fifteen  daj^s,  without  meeting 
with  any  considerable  resistance.  At  length  the  Alarbes, 
having  desired  a  suspension  of  arms,  submitted  to  the 
clemency  of  the  King ;  who,  though  he  gave  them  a  pardon, 
did,  notwithstanding,  give  secret  orders  to  his  generals  to 
drain  the  riches  of  these  rebellious  provinces,  without, 
however,  depopulating  them.  And  these  orders  were  indeed 
punctually  executed,  being  highly  agreeable  to  their  natural 

The  first  certain  intelligence  I  had  of  the  advancement 
of  Muley  Hamet  Deby  to  the  throne,  was  by  Alcayde 
Larbeet  Benabbo  Woldernjottlee,!  then  head  governor  of 
that  province ;  who,  with  1£00  horse,  came  one  morning 
within  musket-shot  of  my  castle  ;  to  whom  I  sent  one  of 
my  people,  to  know  his  pleasure,  and  to  tell  him,  that  in 
case  he  had  anything  to  say  to  me  he  should  advance  with 
*  Arabs.  f  El'  Arby  Beu  Abou  Gold  Enjiotlee. 


a  few  only  to  the  foot  of  the  wall,  and  let  me  know  it ;  but 
if  he,  on  the  contrary,  persumed  to  draw  his  main  body 
on  any  farther,  I  should  be  obliged  to  fire  upon  them. 
And  which  he  well  knowing  to  be  my  positive  orders,  and 
that  I  would  actually  have  performed  it,  he  came  with  a 
very  few,  and  told  me,  that  the  old  Emperor  was  actually 
dead,  and  that  Muley  Hamet  Deby  was,  by  the  general 
consent  of  the  Black  Army,  proclaimed  at  Mequinez  in  his 

This  Muley  Hamet  was  a  man  of  a  most  generous,  though 
very  sottish  nature,  being  almost  ever  drunk,  giving  the 
Blacks  a  great  deal  of  gold,  and  many  other  valuable 
presents,  insomuch  that  their  hearts  were  for  the  present 
entirely  his.  The  governor  advising  me  to  go  directly  to 
him,  and  submit  myself  to  his  will,  telling  me  that  he 
thought  it  in  all  likeliliood  to  be  by  far  the  better  and  safer 
course  ;  and  which  I  also  thinging  to  be  so,  I  (after  giving 
my  people  very  strict  charge  concerning  the  garrison) 
accordingly  did,  the  governor  going  also  with  me  ;  and  we 
were  both  of  us  very  kindly  received  by  him,  and  I  directly 
ordered  back,  and  again  to  return  with  all  my  men. 

And  now  am  I  soon  about  to  leave  my  old,  so  much 
beloved  habitation,  for  such  as  my  future  chance  might 
happen  to  allot  for  me  ;  and  after  bidding  adieu  to  all 
my  rural  diversions,  and  merry-makings  thereabout,  and 
settling  my  garrisons  under  the  care  of  the  country  people, 
who  had  been  trained  up  to  arms,  much  in  like  nature  of 
our  trained-bands,  we  departed  together  after  a  very  dis- 
consolate manner,  though  we  got  all  well  to  Mequinez,  and 
were  by  the  new  Emperor  all  most  kindly  received,  and 
each  man  immediately  presented  with  new  clothes,  fire 
arms  and  swords. 

Here  we  stayed  about  four  days  ;  then  we  were  sent  to 
Hartan,  a  castle  about  six  miles  out  of  the  city,  where  the 


ambassadors  of  foreign  princes  generally  lodge  at  night, 
before  they  make  their  public  entrance  into  Mequinez  ; 
■where  we  stayed  six  days,  and  then  were  sent  to  the  castle  of 
Agoory,  and  from  thence,  after  having  been  there  two 
months,  to  the  siege  of  old  Fez,  the  inhabitants  there  and 
thereabout,  on  the  death  of  the  old  Emperor,  throwing  off 
all  future  allegiance  to  any  of  his  successors,  as  thinking 
themselves  thereby  entirely  delivered  from  their  so  long 
grevious  bondage,  now  acknowledging  no  lawful  king,  killing 
Alcayde  Boel  le  Eosea,*  their  old  Governor,  boiling  his 
flesh,  and  many,  through  spite,  eating  thereof,  and  throw- 
ing what  they  would  not  eat  of  it  to  the  dogs,  killing  also 
thirty-six  of  his  head  servants,  whom  they  said  had  also 
committed  many  insolencies  against  them.  All  which 
coming  to  the  Emperor's  ears,  he  forthwith  ordered  an 
army,  consisting  of  one  hundred  and  twenty  thousand  men, 
horse  and  foot,  to  be  in  readiness  to  march  from  Mequinez 
against  them,  myself  and  all  my  men  being  of  the  number; 
and  it  being  but  twelve  leagues,  we  marched  the  first  day  to 
Emhaddumah,  and  the  next,  in  good  season,  to  the  walls 
of  the  city,  where  we  entrenched  ourselves.  Here  we  had 
shrewd  skirmishing  with  the  malecontents  in  and  out  for 
forty-eight  days,  and  during  which  were  slain  on  both  sides 
many  thousand  men ;  when  Muley  Mustada,  one  of  the 
Emperor's  brothers,  arrived  at  our  camp  with  a  commission 
from  him  to  offer  the  malecontents  quarter  on  the  following 
easy  conditions,  viz.,  that  they  should  immediately  sur- 
render, and  promise  to  him  future  obedience ;  on  which  he 
■was  ready  to  pardon  them  for  all  that  was  past.  These 
terms,  indeed,  they  accepted  of,  though  I  think  I  never  saw 
anything  of  that  nature  accepted  with  so  much  seeming 
indifference,  they  bringing  him  out  only  such  presents  to  be 
carried  back  to  his  brother  as  they  pleased. 

*  Al  Kaid  Bou  el  Roseo. 


And  now  we  were  all  ordered  to  march  back  again  to 
Mequinez  ;  and  though  I  lost  in  this  expedition  several  of 
my  men,  yet  did  I,  as  to  my  own  part,  escape  for  this  bout 
unwounded,  as  indeed  I  did  soon  after  in  an  affair  of  a  far 
more  dangerous  though  quite  different  nature  ;  and  which, 
I  hope,  will  be  by  all  allowed  to  be  a  very  extraordinary 
providence,  and  which  I  shall,  after  I  have  finished  the 
small  remainder  of  my  present  expedition,  give  you  a 
particular  account  of.  During  our  stay  at  Old  Fez,  came 
Captain  Russel  to  New  Fez,  who  lodged  there  a  night  or 
two,  visited  our  army,  then  went  to  Mequinez,  and  in  a 
little  time  redeemed  the  few  English  captives  then  there.* 

*  Note  21. 


Mr.  Fellow  makes  a  determined  attempt  to  escape  from  Morocco — He 
succeeds  in  reaching  Mazagan,  then  in  the  possession  of  the 
Portuguese — He  unfortunately,  however,  mistakes  the  Moorish 
outposts  for  the  Christian,  and  is  seized  and  sent  to  Azamoor — 
He  is  thrown  into  a  dimgeon  and  is  threatened  with  execution — 
A  friend  saves  him,  and  he  is  able  to  reach  his  family  in  Agoory — 
The  revolt  of  the  Black  Army — The  author  takes  part  in  the 
Siege  of  Fez — He  is  sent  to  Sallee  to  bring  new  carriages  for  the 
field-guns — Arrived  thei'e,  he  plots  another  attempt  at  freedom — 13 
betrayed  by  another  Christian  renegado— He  saves  himself  with 
diflficulty,  and  abandoning  the  plan  returns  to  Fez  with  the  gun 
carriages — Is  well  received  by  Muley  Hamet — The  author  is 
wounded,  and  while  thinking  of  returning  to  his  wife  and 
daughter  hears  of  the  death  of  both. 

AND  now  I  am  soon  about  to  give  a  relation  of  my  so 
wonderful  preservation  ;  for  I  had  just  returned  with 
the  remains  of  our  army  to  Mequinez,  received  of  the 
Emperor  twelve  ducats,  and  ordered  back  to  my  wife  at 
Agoory  (where  I  found  I  was  very  likely  to  be  exempted 
from  any  of  their  bloody  actions  for  some  time),  before 
my  mind  ran  altogether  upon  escape ;  and  after  I  had 
with  myself  agreed  on  the  means,  which  was  to  go  first 
for  Sallee,  and  if  I  could  not  to  my  mind  speed  there,  to 
travel  on  toMarcegongue*  to  the  Portuguese  garrison  there, 
if  I  could  bring  it  to  pass,  several  to  my  knowledge  having 
before  made  their  escapes  that  way — as  indeed  so  should  I 

*  Mazagan, 


row,  had  I  not  most  unhappily  precipitated  myself  into  the 
enemies'  hands. 

For  as  I  could  find  no  ship  at  Sallee,  I  travelled 
on  to  Marcegongue,  -which  is  about  three  days  and  a 
half's  journey  further  to  the  southward,  and  where  the 
fourth  following  night  I  got  without  any  accident,  and,  to 
my  most  unspeakable  joy,  even  close  home,  or  within  a 
hundred  yards  at  the  utmost,  of  the  castle  walls.  And 
here  we  may  soon  see  the  lubricity  of  mundane  affairs ; 
for  I  was,  even  in  the  height  of  this  my  excessive  joy,  laid 
hold  on  by  four  Moors,  who  had  that  night  been  upon  the 
plunder  in  the  gardens,  but  had  been  disturbed  therein  by 
the  Portuguese  sentinels.  But  the  night  being  excessive 
dark  and  windy,  they  in  a  narrow  passage  between  two 
garden  walls  ran  right  against  me ;  and  laid  fast  hold 
of  me.  When  I  telling  them  I  was  a  Christian  (as  sup- 
posing them  to  be  some  of  the  Portuguese,  a  very  un- 
happy mistake)  I  was  carried  by  them  in  a  little  time 
back  to  their  main  guard,  and  confined  in  irons,  and 
early  the  next  morning  conducted  by  a  strong  party 
of  them  to  Assamoore,  a  town  to  the  northward  of 
Marcegongue  about  five  leagues ;  and  where,  after  being 
severely  handled  by  them,  I  was  carried  before  Simmough 
Hammet  Beorsmine,*  their  then  commanding  officer, 
(Ellemensore,f  their  Governor,  being,  on  account  of  the 
people's  rising  against  him,  fled  to  the  Emperor  for  assist- 
ance), who  ordered  the  Moors  to  put  me  in  prison  till  his 
return,  when  he  told  them  I  should  be  very  severely  pun- 
ished. "  "\Then  he  returns,"  said  they,  '*  who  can  tell  how 
long  that  may  be,  or  if  it  may  be  ever;  for  if  he  meets 
with  his  reward,  the  Emperor  will  there  cut  off  his  head, 
and  therefore  this  fellow  shall  be  put  to  death  directly." 
"  No,"  said  Beorsmine,  "  I  tell  you  he  shall  not  now,  neither 
*  Si  Mohammed  Smtlhyn  ?  f  El  Mansoor. 


shall  he  be  at  all  till  the  Governor's  return,  and  which  may 
be  sooner  than  now  you  imagine."  Upon  which  they  cried 
out  I  was  a  Christian,  and  about  to  make  my  escape  to 
Christian-land.  To  which  the  Governor  made  them  no 
answer,  neither  had  they  the  power  to  tell  him  that  they 
had  it  from  my  own  mouth,  at  their  first  surprising  me. 
However,  it  was  at  last  agreed  between  the  Governor  and 
them,  that  I  should  be  kept  till  their  next  market-day,  when 
I  should  be  put  to  death  in  the  market-place  ;  and  as  that 
would  be  on  the  next  Thursday,  and  it  being  then  Sunday, 
it  could  not  make  any  difference,  and  during  that  time  the 
neighbourhood  might  be  acquainted  with  it,  and  come  in 
and  see  the  execution. 

And  now  am  I,  as  any  may  suppose,  under  a  most 
grievous  agony,  the  next  Thursday  being  the  peremptory 
day  fixed  for  my  execution  ;  and  for  their  better  securing 
me,  I  was  directly  guarded  away  by  a  multitude  of  those 
bloodthirsty  villains,  and  put  into  a  very  deep  and  dark 
dungeon,  there  to  be  kept  without  any  allowance  from  them 
besides  bread  and  water,  though  the  Governor  sent  me  in 
the  evening  a  servant  (in  whom  he  could  confide)  with  some 
meat,  and  to  tell  me  that  I  should  not  be  under  any  appre- 
hension of  danger  from  the  mob,  for  that  he  had  truly 
considered  my  case,  and  that  he  would  deliver  me  from 
their  rage,  even  to  the  hazard  of  his  own  life.  And  this 
he,  by  his  servant,  repeated  twice  every  day,  till  the  ap- 
pointed day  for  my  execution  came.  And  when  he  early 
brought  me  my  breakfast  that  same  morning  (to  which  I 
then  had  but  little  stomach)  he  told  me  that  I  should  not 
despair,  for  that  his  master  still  continued  his  friendly 
resolutions  towards  me,  and  that  he  was  very  well  assured 
he  would  deliver  me  out  of  their  hands,  for  that  he  had 
often  told  him  so  in  the  most  positive  manner. 

This,  I  must  own,  moderated  my  fear  in  some  measure  ; 


but  as  it  was  but  the  promise  of  an  infidel,  and  at  second 
hand,  which  made  it   the   more   uncertain,  how  could  I 
otherwise  choose  but  be  still  under  a  very  great  agony,  as 
indeed  I  really  was,  and  more  so,  when  about  ten  o'clock 
these   bloodthirsty  villains   came,  hauled  me   out   of   my 
dungeon,  and  led  me  through  the  street  to  the  market- 
place, being  attended  by  an  insolent  mob,  still  increasing 
as  we  went,  so  that  by  the  time  we  got  to  the  market- 
place, which  was  sufficiently  crowded  by  the  barbarians, 
to  feast  their  eyes  with  the  blood  of  an  innocent  Christian, 
I  was  almost  ready  to  expire.     And  now,  notwithstanding 
I   saw   Simmo  Hammet  *   amongst  them  as   indeed,    I 
did  from  the  moment  of  my  being  first  hauled  out  of  my 
prison,  yet  could  not  I  help,  at  sight  of  a  long  murdering 
knife  in  the  hand  of  the  executioner,  being  stricken  with 
a  very  great  terror.     Nay,  so  great  indeed,  as  is  scarce 
possible  to  be  here  expressed.    For  though  Simmo  Hammet 
had    faithfully    promised    me    all   the   assistance   in   his 
power,  yet  was  it  at  such  a  time  very  much  to  be  doubted 
if  that  power  would  be  sufficient  to   save   my  life,  and 
especially  as  I  was  exposed  to  the  rage   of  an   insolent 
mob ;  who,  though  they  be  in  some  cases  accounted  good 
servants,  yet  are  they,  I  think,  on  the  other  hand  (like 
wind,  fire,  and  water),  bad  masters ;  therefore  I  expected 
nothing  less  than  death.    The  executioner  had  now  his 
knife  ready   in  his  right   hand,  and  with  his  left  hand 
had  taken  fast  hold  of  my  beard,  the  better  to  hold  back  my 
head  to  cut  my  throat,  when  my  guardian  angel  stepped 
forth,  and  took  the  knife  out  of  his  hand ;  and  which, 
had  not  he  done  that  very  instant,  he  would,  no  doubt, 
therewith  have  soon  taken  from  me  the  small  remainder 
of  life  that  was  left  in  me,  without  any  addition  to  my 
pain.     For,  in  short,  had  he  then  cut  my  throat,  I  was 

♦  "  Si"  Mohammed, — the  namesons  of  the  Prophet  having  always 
this  honorary  prefix.  . 


before  so  much  stricken  with  the  thoughts  of  immediate 
death,  that  I  should  not  have  felt  it ;  and  though  I  had 
seen  death  before  in  so  many  various  shapes,  yet  could 
not  I  then  for  my  life  behave  with  better  courage. 

And  now  is  there  a  very  hot  dispute  between  the  mob, 
whether  I  should  die  or  not  being  the  question  ;  insomuch, 
that  had  not  Simmo  Hammet  procured  a  good  party  from 
the  neighbouring  parishes,  it  would  in  all  likelihood 
(notwithstanding  his  office)  have  gone  very  hard  with 
me.  However,  it  was  at  last  agreed  by  all  of  them  that 
I  should  be  again  sent  back  to  my  dungeon,  and  there 
to  remain  till  the  next  market  day,  and  which  they  plainly 
told  the  Governor  should  actually  be  my  last.  Therefore 
I  should  not  feed  myself  with  vain  hopes  and  fancies,  for 
that  it  should  not  then  be  in  the  power  of  him  or  any- 
body else  to  prevent  it. 

But,  on  the  other  hand,  I  was  by  the  Governor  alto- 
gether as  much  encouraged,  and  plainly  told  not  to 
despair,  for  that  he  would  deliver  me  out  of  their 
hands,  even  to  the  hazard  of  his  own  life ;  and  lest 
they  might  offer  me  any  foul  play  in  my  prison,  he 
solemnly  promised  me  that  he  would  order  a  good  look- 
out about  it.  Which  you  may  imagine,  as  I  had  hitherto 
found  him  so  punctual  to  his  honour,  made  my  imprison- 
ment much  more  supportable,  though  I  was  again  the 
next  market  day  hauled  by  the  mob  to  the  market-place, 
and  by  my  guardian  angel  again  brought  back,  as  indeed 
I  was  a  third  time.  After  which  he  came  that  night  to 
my  dungeon,  desiring  me  to  be  of  good  courage,  for  that 
I  should  no  more  be  hurried  by  the  mob  to  the  market- 
place ;  that  he  expected  Elemensore's  return  in  a  very 
little  time,  which  he  said  (as  he  understood  he  had  been 
very  favourably  received  by  Muley  Hammet  Deby)  he 
hoped  it  would  be  to  his  satisfaction,  as  well  as  that  of 


all  his  friends.  However,  it  was  to  the  full  expiration 
of  two  months  before  he  came,  and  then  he  came  with 
sufficient  strength  indeed,  and  in  open  daylight  delivered 
me  from  my  nasty  prison,  and  set  me  again  at  liberty  to 
depart  where  I  would,  out  of  the  reach  of  my  cruel 
persecutors.  And  as  I  had  promised  them,  upon  my 
honour,  to  return  again  to  Agoory,  so  I  did,  and  got 
thither  again  (even  beyond  my  own  expectation)  after 
the  absence  of  about  four  months.  And,  what  I  was 
much  surprised  at,  I  never  once  heard  the  least  syllable 
from  the  Emperor  concerning  this  my  attempt  to  escape. 

Now  am  I,  instead  of  entering  the  walls  of  Marcegongue, 
returned  safe  to  my  family  at  Agoory  :  and  which,  though 
quite  the  reverse  of  my  intentions,  yet  must  I  ever 
acknowledge  it  to  be,  even  in  the  highest  degree,  very 
extraordinarily  providential,  and  what  I  could  never  have 
expected.  But  I  never  told  my  wife  the  least  word  of  this 
affair.  Whilst  I  was  in  the  middle  of  these  reflections, 
I  received  an  account  from  Mequinez,  that  the  Black 
Army  had  all  of  them  revolted  from  Muley  Hammet  Deby, 
in  favour  of  Muley  Abdemelick,  and  that  they  had  sur- 
prised Muley  Hammet  in  his  own  house,  keeping  him 
there,  under  a  very  strict  guard,  close  prisoner,  and,  as 
most  thought,  very  sufficiently  guarded,  though  he  found 
means  to  escape.  And  Abdemelick,  though  he  was  then 
at  Terridget,*  and  it  was  six  weeks  before  he  came,  yet 
he  was  immediately  proclaimed  Emperor  of  Mequinez, 
with  the  general  approbation ;  and  after,  at  his  coming, 
no  less  received.  The  first  thing  he  did  was  a  bloody, 
and  I  think  most  unaccountable,  revenge  on  Muley 
Hammet' s  servants,  putting  so  many  of  them  as  he 
could  light  on  instantly  to  death,  sending  me  with  four 
hundred  hght  horse  to  the  castle  of  Tessout,  about  two 

*  Terrijet. 


days'  journey  short  of  Morocco,  there  to  join  some  other 
troops,  to  cover  and  demand  the  Emperor's  dues.  And 
this,  though  my  heart  was  with  Muley  Hammet,  I  was 
directly  obHged  to  do.  On  our  first  coming  thither  we 
were  received  by  the  inhabitants  in  seeming  friendship, 
but  soon  finding  them  beginning  to  play  tricks  with  us, 
as  allowing  us  no  more  than  half  a  pint  of  flour  a  day 
for  two  men,  and  using  us  thus  for  seven  days,  and 
stripping  our  people  going  out  singly  to  fish  in  their 
rivers.  This  not  in  the  least  pleasing  us,  and  knowing 
it  in  our  own  power  to  redress  our  own  grievances,  we  soon 
made  such  reprisals  as  our  necessities  required,  and  they 
deserved,  killing  about  eighteen  of  them,  and  they  seven 
or  eight  of  us ;  and  had  not  Bashaw  Belide  Shawey 
suddenly  alarmed  us  that  Muley  Hammet  Deby  was 
within  a  day  or  two's  journey  of  us  with  thirty  horse 
only,  again  going  back  to  try  his  fortune  at  Mequinez, 
we  should  soon  have  taught  them  better  manners.  On 
which  we  left  them  and  went  directly  to  him,  and  marched 
with  him  to  Mequinez,  where  he  expected  sufficient  forces 
ready  to  receive  him,  and  where,  indeed,  the  Black  Army, 
who  were  all  again  revolted  from  Muley  Abdemelick  to 
him,  and  all  encamped  without  the  walls  of  the  city, 
waited  his  coming,  Muley  Abdemelick  being  within  with 
most  of  the  citizens,  making  what  defence  they  could  to 
keep  him  out.  But  at  the  end  of  forty-eight  hours,  or 
thereabout,  Muley  Hammet's  forces,  still  increasing,  got 
in,  and,  after  a  faint  resistance,  put  vast  numbers  of  them 
to  the  sword,  and  him  again  in  possession  of  the  city. 
But  as  to  Muley  Abdemelick,  he  was  obliged  to  seek 
further  after  before  he  could  find  him,  he  being  with  a 
few  fled  thence  through  a  by-gate  in  the  night-time,  as 
was  rumoured,  to  Old  Fez.  And  which,  indeed,  proved 
to  be  true,  though  on  confirmation  of  this  report,  and  of 


his  being  there  well  received,  he  was,  by  a  body  of  Muley 
Hammet's  army,  consisting  of  sixty  thousand  men,  soon 
followed,  costing  much  blood,  time,  and  expense  before 
we  could  get  him  thence. 

Now  am  I  one  in  the  above  number  before  Old  Fez, 
Abdemeleck  being  within  strongly  fortified,  resolutely 
resolved  and  well  provided,  bravely  defending  himself 
six  months  and  fourteen  days,  and  during  which  scarce 
a  day  passed  without  skirmishing  and  much  slaughter  on 
both  sides.  But  I  am,  to  my  very  great  satisfaction, 
even  to  the  middle  of  the  siege,  unwounded,  and  sent 
very  unexpectedly  (though  to  my  great  content)  to  Sallee 
with  a  few  of  my  men,  there  to  forward,  with  all  possible 
expedition,  the  making  new  carriages  for  our  field  pieces, 
the  old  ones  being,  through  the  so  frequent  shocks  of  such 
weighty  and  high-metalled  cannon  (thirty-six  pounders  of 
brass),  to  that  degree  shaken,  as  they  were  become  in  a 
manner  unserviceable.  So,  after  taking  the  dimensions, 
I  was  hurried  away  with  a  strict  charge  therewith  to 
return  as  soon  as  possible.  The  second  day  I  got  thither, 
and  delivered  my  charge  to  Amberk  Foolan,*  a  black,  the 
then  Governor  ;  and  by  him  the  shipwrights  were  directly 
ordered  to  work,  and  to  be  as  expeditious  as  possible.  Yet, 
supposing  all  hands  at  work,  the  carriages  being  in  all 
thirty-six,  they  could  not  finish  so  soon,  but  what  I  might 
again  have  time  sufiicient  to  gratify  my  curiosity  in  the 
old  affair,  and  from  which  I  was  thoroughly  resolved  never 
to  desist  so  long  as  I  could  see  any  possibility  remaining. 
For,  notwithstanding  my  so  late  miraculous  escape  from 
the  bloody  knife  at  Assamoore,  I  say  I  was  then  thoroughly 
resolved  to  pursue  it,  and  on  my  road  thither  from  Fez 
had  so  confirmed  my  resolutions,  that  rather  than  go 
back  again  to  the  army  I  was  fully  determined  to  make 

*  'Abd  er  Foolan. 


all  imaginary  efforts  that  way,  be  the  consequence  what 
it  would.  For  as  the  country  was  then  in  very  great  con- 
fusion, and  the  place  I  was  then  in  very  likely  for  my 
purpose,  I  thought  I  could  not  desire  a  more  favourable 

And  now  are  mine  eyes  busily  employed  in  looking 
sharp  out  after  the  ships  then  in  the  harbour,  and  my 
thoughts  (in  case  I  could  not  in  any  probability  perform 
my  design  by  myself)  on  what  other  help  I  might  with 
safety  procure  me ;  and  which,  indeed,  I  soon  found  to  be 
the  most  difficult  and  dangerous  point;  though  to  do  it 
alone,  if  I  could,  I  was  thoroughly  resolved  upon.  Not- 
withstanding I  made  all  the  inquiry  I  could,  yet  could  not 
I  to  my  mind  find  any  proper  assistance,  though  on  the 
other  hand  such  a  glorious  opportunity  offered  as  could 
not  but  be  accounted,  with  the  assistance  of  one  or  two 
more,  a  very  plausible  and  easy  undertaking,  and  which 
was  as  follows  : — Early  the  next  morning,  after  my  arrival 
at  Sallee,  I  took  a  walk  to  the  seaside  where  ships'  boats 
generally  put  in  at,  and  where  I  met  two  Moorish  sailors 
just  landed  with  a  few  empty  barrels  to  fill  with  water  ; 
and,  after  a  very  courteous  salute,  I  asked  them  what 
vessel  they  belonged  to,  their  lading,  and  whither  bound. 
To  which  they  answered,  To  such  a  sloop  (pointing  at 
her),  bound  to  Santa  Cruz,  and  laden  with  gums,  bees- 
wax, and  copper.  "Very  well,"  said  I,  "but  have  you 
on  board  no  good  wine  or  brandy  ? "  "  No,  indeed," 
said  they  with  a  sigh,  "so  far  as  we  can  tell  of,  and  in 
short  if  there  was,  very  little  of  it  would  fall  to  their 
shares."  "  Alas  !  "  said  I,  "  poor  hearts,  I  thought  that 
sailors  could  not  live  without  it."  When  they,  shrinking 
up  their  shoulders,  telling  me,  "  There  was  no  help  for 
it,"  I  left  them,  seeming  for  the  present  to  take  no  further 
notice  of  them,  till  they  had  filled  the  water  and  got  the 


casks  again  into  the  boat,  and  then  I  came  to  them  again, 
telling  them  "that  I  thought  the  few  casks  they  had 
with  them  held  but  a  small  matter  of  water  for  their 
ship's  company,  as  being,  no  doubt  (as  the  sloop  was 
upwards  of  fifty  tons),  five  or  six."  "Oh,"  said  they, 
"we  are  in  all  eight,  though  no  more  kept  on  the  vessel 
than  us  two,  the  other  six  being  constantly  on  shore 
waiting  a  fair  wind.  Our  main  sea  store  of  water  is 
already  laid  in,  and  this  (without  our  using  of  that)  only 
for  us  two  for  present  spending ;  and  if  it  is  not  enough, 
you  know  it  is  not  very  far  to  fetch  more."  "  Eeally,"  said 
I,  "  that  (as  none  can  tell  how  long  your  voyage  may  be) 
is  very  well  considered,  and,  as  all  must  agree,  to  leave 
than  lack  is  by  far  the  better  policy,"  turning  from  them 
in  a  seeming  manner  to  be  going  off;  but  I  turned  me 
quick  round  again,  and  told  them,  "  If  the  wind  stood 
out  of  the  way  till  the  next  day,  it  should  go  very  hard 
if  I  did  not  find  for  them  a  dram  or  a  glass  of  wine," 
seeming  again  to  be  going  off;  when  they,  to  my  very 
great  satisfaction,  and  as,  indeed,  I  really  expected,  asked 
me  if  I  would  go  off  with  them  and  see  their  vessel. 
"  Why,  really,"  said  I,  "  that  is  what  I  would  do  with  all 
my  heart,  but  that  then  I  could  but  badly  spare  so  much 
time.  However,  as  I  had  not  been  on  board  any  vessel 
for  a  long  time,  and  in  case  I  was  certain  of  my  being 
again  in  a  little  time  brought  back,  I  could  even  find  in 
my  heart  to  go  with  them."  '*  Well,"  said  they,  "  as  to 
that  it  shall  be  even  as  you  please."  So  I  stepped  into  the 
boat,  went  with  them,  was  kindly  received,  and  treated 
with  such  as  they  had.  And  after  I  had  employed  my 
tongue  so  far  as  I  thought  fit  in  telling  them  my  present 
state,  as  how  I  was  one  of  the  Emperor's  soldiers,  that 
under  him  I  bore  an  office  of  some  distinction,  and 
mine  eyes  in  viewing  the  dimensions  of  the  sloop,  sails, 


&c.,  SO  nigh  as  I  could  guess,  and  given  them  my  hearty 
thanks  for  my  so  kind  welcome,  I  humbly  entreated  them 
to  put  me  again  on  shore ;  and  which  they,  after  telling 
me  they  should  be  very  glad  to  see  me  there  again, 
instantly  did,  kindly  for  that  time  bidding  one  another 

Now  is  my  heart  to  that  degree  inflamed,  that  every 
dro^D  of  the  blood  in  my  veins  is  upon  the  ferment  how 
I  should  manage  in  this  affair.  To  do  it  alone  I  found 
was  impossible,  and  to  communicate  it  to  others  exceed- 
ing dangerous;  though  which  I  must  be  obliged  to  do, 
or  let  all  drop ;  not  but  I  could  of  myself  easily  manage 
and  overcome  the  two  Moors,  but  to  sail  and  navigate 
the  vessel  was  the  main  point.  And  now  am  I  at  a 
greater  debate  with  myself  than  ever  who  those  associates 
should  be,  though  I  very  luckily  thought  on  one  in  a  very 
little  time,  named  William  Hussey,  a  Devonshire  man, 
and  whom  I  soon  determined  in  myself  to  be  a  very 
trusty  and  honest  man.  And  as  he  was  then  one  of  my 
soldiers,  and  in  Sallee  with  me,  I  could  let  him  gradually 
into  the  secret  when  I  pleased  ;  and  which,  indeed,  you 
may  suppose  I  did  the  first  opportunity,  for  in  less  than 
an  hour  after  I  singled  him  out,  and  began  to  discourse 
him  after  the  following  manner  : — **  Now,  Will,"  said  I,  "  I 
desire  you  will  answer  me  sincerely  to  a  question  I  am 
about  to  ask  you."  **  That,"  said  he,  "  you  may  depend 
I  will,  be  it  what  it  will."  "  Then,"  said  I,  "  do  not  you 
think  yourself  to  be  better  off  here  than  to  be  in  the 
camp  before  Fez,  where  are,  no  doubt,  some  even  this 
moment  expiring  of  their  wounds,  others  receiving  fresh 
ones  ?  Would  you  not  still  think  it  safer  and  better  to 
be  in  your  own  country  ?  And  would  you  not  rather  run 
some  small  hazard  to  make  your  escape,  than  to  go  back 
again  to  such  bloody  dogs  to  run  a  greater  ?  "     "  Yes," 


said  he,  "to  be  sure ;  and  could  I  find  any  probable 
means  for  it,  they  should  never  see  my  face  in  their 
country  more ;  that  it  was  what  his  soul  had  for  a  long 
time  longed  after ;  and  he  was  ready,  even  at  the  expense 
of  the  last  drop  of  his  blood,  to  make  the  experiment." 

"  Then,  honest  Will,"  said  I,  "  if  I  am  not  very  much 
mistaken,  I  have  at  last  found  one,  and  which  I  do  not 
in  the  least  doubt,  by  our  prudent  management,  will 
answer  both  our  expectations,  even  without  our  losing 
any  blood  about  the  matter ;  "  telling  him  every  particular 
wherein  it  consisted,  and  which  he  also  approved  of 
greatly,  alleging  the  only  difficulty  to  be  our  procuring 
of  a  third  person  that  might  be  trusted,  for  that  two 
were  not  sufficient  to  work  the  vessel  and  steer  her  well 
over  to  the  Spanish  shore,  or  to  any  other  coast,  in  case 
the  winds  would  not  permit  us  to  go  thither.  "Well, 
Will,"  said  I,  "  cannot  you  tell  where  to  look  out  for 
such  a  one  ? "  "  Yes,"  said  he,  "  I  could  soon  name 
one,  but  I  cannot  altogether  answer  for  his  fidelity, 
though  I  never  heard  anything  to  the  contrary  of  his 
being  an  honest  man."  "  Very  well,"  said  I,  "  name 
him,  and  then  we  will  consult  further  whether  he  may 
be  trusted ; "  and  then  he  told  me  it  was  William 
Johnston,  his  comrade,  a  Kentish  man.  "Very  well," 
said  I,  "  then  let  us  not  trouble  our  heads  about  any 
other  till  we  have  at  a  distance  proved  him  ; "  which  we 
instantly  went  about,  and  on  our  finding  him  very  desirous 
to  make  his  escape,  we  (on  his  swearing  secrecy)  let  him 
into  it,  and  which  he  seemed  very  highly  to  approve  of, 
and  eagerly  pressed  the  execution. 

So  having  consulted  and  agreed  on  the  means,  we  were 
the  next  night  fully  determined  to  put  it  into  execution,  and 
which  we  ordered  after  the  following  manner ;  I,  having,  as 
aforesaid,  very  highly  ingratiated  myself  with  the  two  Moors, 


and  taking  with  me  a  bottle  of  brandy,  went  down  to  the 
landing-place ;  and  where  I  had  not  been  but  a  very  little 
time  before  they  had  from  the  vessel  (which  was  not  more 
than  a  hundred  yards  off  the  shore)  discovered  me,  and 
came  with  their  boat  directly  to  me,  thinking  (as  they 
said)  I  had  a  mind  to  go  again  on  board.  I  told  them, 
"  No,  for  that  I  had  then  only  borrowed  so  much  time  as 
to  be  as  good  as  my  word  with  them,"  seeming  to  be  in 
an  extreme  hurry ;  then  privately  conveying  them  the 
bottle,  I  turned  me  about  to  be  again  going  off,  as  if  I 
had  for  that  time  nothing  further  to  say  to  them ;  when 
they,  calling  to  me  and  expressing  their  gratitude  in 
hearty  thanks,  I  turned  me  round  again,  and  said,  "  Poor 
hearts,  I  wish  with  all  my  heart  it  had  been  a  greater 
quantity ;  but  that  you  know  would  at  this  time  of  day 
have  been  very  dangerous  to  bring ;  therefore,  if  you  will 
come  to-morrow  night  by  ten  of  the  clock,  I  will  meet  you 
here,  and  bring  with  me  some  more  brandy,  sugar,  and 
lemons,  and  (if  you  please)  two  of  my  comrades,  as 
honest  cocks  as  any  in  Barbary,  and  we  will  go  on  board 
together  and  heartily  enjoy  ourselves."  Which  they 
seemed  very  highly  to  approve  of,  and  earnestly  desired 
that  I  would  not  fail  in  it. 

Now  is  my  heart  by  far  more  light,  seeing  myself,  as  it 
were,  already  safely  landed  on  some  Christian  shore,  flying 
to  my  comrades  with  the  news,  who  seemed  therewith  (and 
especially  Johnston)  no  less  pleased  than  myself ;  and  that 
night  and  the  next  day  we  got  all  our  little  matters  in 
readiness,  as  two  pair  of  pistols,  the  brandy,  &c.,  and  the 
time  appointed  for  the  boat's  coming  just  at  hand ;  when 
Johnston,  to  my  very  great  surprise,  told  us  he  could  not 
by  any  means  go  that  night.  However,  Hussey  and  I  went, 
and  found  the  Moors  just  landed,  telling  them  that  as  we 
had  good  reason  to  believe  there  were  then  some  people  on 


the  watch,  we  had  deferred  our  going  on  board  till  the  next 
night ;  however,  in  point  of  good  manners,  we  had  brought 
them  a  couple  of  bottles  of  brandy,  sugar  and  lemons, 
which  we  thought  ourselves  obliged  to,  rather  than  to 
suffer  them  to  wait  our  coming  in  vain.  And  with  which 
they  were,  no  doubt,  highly  delighted,  telling  us,  after  a 
most  pleasing  manner,  that  they  would  go  on  board  and 
drink  our  healths,  and  that  we  might  depend  on  their 
coming  again  the  next  night;  as  indeed  they  did,  but 
Johnston  again  disappointing  us,  we  could  not  then  go  with 
them  no  more  than  the  night  before.  Therefore,  after 
thanking  them  for  their  civility,  desiring  them  to  accept  of 
a  couple  of  bottles  more  of  brandy,  &c.,  and  telling  them, 
that  when  we  saw  the  way  clear  we  would  give  them  notice, 
we  parted,  they  again  on  board  to  make  merry,  and  we  on 
t'lc  contrary  back  to  our  loathed  apartments,  in  a  very  dis- 
satisfied mood,  though  resolving,  before  we  let  loose  our 
rage,  to  lay  us  down,  if  we  could,  to  compose  ourselves. 
But  alas  !  sleep  fled  us,  rising  again  at  daybreak  as  we  lay 
down,  without  so  much  as  closing  our  eyes  ;  when  we  went 
directly  to  Johnston,  taking  him  aside,  and  telling  him, 
that  in  an  affair  of  that  nature,  to  do  as  he  had  done,  was 
using  both  us  and  himself  very  ill ;  and  which,  had  he 
gone  about  as  heartily  as  he  promised,  we  should  in  all 
likelihood  have  been  then  safely  landed  on  some  Christian 
shore,  quite  out  of  the  power  of  the  Moors,  and  with  a 
rich  prize,  to  the  value  at  least  of  five  or  six  thousand 
pounds,  in  our  possession.  This  might,  in  some  measure, 
make  us  a  compensation  for  our  so  long  and  grievous  cap- 
tivity ;  and  as  the  opportunity  was  still  in  our  power,  we 
hoped  he  would  mend  all,  by  going  heartily  about  it  that 
night.  To  which  he,  after  a  short  pause,  answered,  '*  That 
he  had  again  considered  maturely  of  the  affair  himself,  and 
that  he  found  it  to  be  quite  different  from  what  it  had  first 


appeared  to  him  ;  therefore  we  should  urge  it  to  hini  no 
further,  for  that  it  was  only  a  foolish  whimsey  come  into 
our  heads,  impossible  to  be  executed  ;  and  for  which,  if  we 
did  not  desist,  he  would  inform  the  Governor.  "Why, 
thou  vile  villain,"  said  I,  "  thou  can'st  not  surely  be  in 
good  earnest."  "  No,"  said  he,  *'  but  indeed  I  am,"  and 
confirmed  it  with  many  horrid  oaths  ;  when  I,  being  quite 
overcome  with  passion,  could  no  longer  forbear  him,  but 
directly  drew  my  sword,  and  gave  him  a  very  deep  cut 
across  his  face,  which  I  verily  thought,  and  really  hoped, 
had  done  his  business,  at  least  so  far  as  that  it  might  not 
be  in  his  power  to  tell  any  tales.  However,  the  dog 
recovered ;  but  let  him  come  home  when  he  will,  I  war- 
rant he  will  bring  with  him  the  mark,  which  I  told  his 
sister,  who  was  with  me  in  the  river  of  London,  inquiring 
if  I  had  seen  him  in  Barbary ;  together  with  what  it  was 
that  he  complained  of  to  the  Governor  about  me ;  how  I 
got  off,  and  him  confined  close  prisoner?  For  after  my 
giving  him  this  shrewd  cut  (which  I  must  own  to  be 
intended  in  another  manner),  he  went  directly  to  the 
Oovernor,  holding  his  wound  so  close  together  as  he  could 
(though  bleeding  prodigiously),  complaining  against  me, 
and  telling  my  reasons  for  serving  him  so.  And  then  I 
was  forthwith  ordered  before  the  Governor  by  a  file  of 
musketeers,  who  offering  to  lay  hold  on  me,  I  put  them  by, 
telling  them  that  they  should  not,  at  their  peril,  lead  me 
like  a  dog,  for  that  I  had  done  nothing  anywise  deserving 
of  such  usage.  However,  if  they  would  walk  on  before, 
I  would  follow  them  ;  and  which  they  consenting  to,  I  was 
soon  before  the  Governor,  who  looking  at  me  very  fiercely, 
and  turning  up  the  white  of  his  eyes  sullenly,  told  me 
that  he  never  thought  me  to  be  so  much  a  villain,  always 
having  had  of  me  before  a  very  high  opinion ;  that  he 
thought   I  would   be  the   last  person   guilty  of  such   an 


action.  "Pray,  sir,"  said  I,  "of  what  action?"  "Of 
what  action  ?  "  said  he.  "  Why  you  know  already  better 
than  myself;  and  therefore  I  do  not  see  what  occasion 
there  is  of  my  repeating  it.  However,  since  you  plead 
ignorance,  I  desire  to  know  what  could  induce  you  to  cut 
Johnston  across  the  face."  "  As  to  my  cutting  him  across 
the  face,"  said  I,  "  I  cannot  deny ;  and  as  to  the  induce- 
ment, I  was  only  sorry  that  it  had  not  ended  his  days." 
*' A  very  pretty  inducement  indeed,"  said  he,  "to  kill  a 
man,  for  not  joining  with  you  in  your  wicked  design  in 
running  away  with  the  sloop  and  cargo."  "  I  run  away 
with  the  sloop  and  cargo,"  said  I;  "the  villain  could  not 
have  the  impudence  to  say  so !  "  "  No,"  said  he,  "but  he 
will  say  it  to  your  face,  and  you  shall  be  punished  in  a  way 
deserving  of  so  notorious  a  crime,"  ordering  the  guards 
to  carry  me  directly  oflf,  and  to  put  me  into  safe  custody. 

When  I  humbly  entreating  to  be  heard,  and  that  before 
he  let  loose  his  rage  he  would  be  pleased  to  inquire  into  the 
truth  of  this  second  part  of  Johnston's  story,  it  being  quite 
reverse  and  notoriously  false,  he  asked  me  what  I  could  say 
to  justify  myself.  I  told  him  I  could  say  enough  to  con- 
vince him,  and  all  other  impartial  judges,  of  my  innocence  ; 
and  which,  if  I  did  not  make  very  plainly  to  appear,  by 
most  undeniable  evidence,  he  should  proceed  against  me, 
and  I  was  willing  to  undergo  such  punishment  as  the 
nature  of  the  case  deserved,  and  his  Excellency  should 
think  fit  to  inflict ;  and  that  in  order  thereunto,  he  would 
be  pleased  to  suffer  Johnston  to  be  confronted,  and  in  both 
our  presence  to  examine  such  evidence  as  should  be  by  me 

On  this  Johnston  was  directly  ordered  forth,  and 
soon  appeared  in  a  terrible  condition ;  and  being  asked 
if  I  had  not  often  prompted  him  to  run  away  with  the 
■sloop  and  cargo,  and  if  I  had  not,  on  his  refusing  to  join 


me  in  so  foul  an  action,  given  him  that  cut,  he  as  well  as 
he  could  answered  in  the  affirmative.  At  which  the  Gover- 
nor, looking  again  at  me  very  fiercely,  said,  "  Now  are  not 
you  a  very  pretty  fellow  ?  "  I  told  him  yes,  and  that  when 
he  had  heard  my  evidence,  I  did  not  doubt  but  what  he 
would  think  me  so  in  good  earnest ;  and  for  me  to  tell  him 
myself  that  he  had  the  word  only  of  a  perjured  villain, 
who  would  not  stick  to  say  anything,  even  to  the  prejudice 
of  his  own  father,  so  he  might  thereby  accomplish  his 
wicked  designs,  would  signify  nothing.  Not  but  he  had 
most  basely  reversed  the  story,  himself  being  the  only 
aggressor  ;  for  that  he  had  of  a  long  time  back  continually 
teazed  me  to  join  with  him  in  escape,  and  very  particularly 
during  the  last  three  days,  concerning  the  sloop  ;  and  at 
last,  finding  that  notwithstanding  my  often  denials  and 
representations  I  could  not  be  at  quiet  for  him,  and  his  so 
wicked  importunities,  I  gave  him  the  cut.  And  of  all  which, 
if  his  Excellency  doubted,  I  could  make  most  undeniable 
proof,  by  means  of  another  person,  whom  he  also  prompted 
to  the  same  undertaking.  "  Indeed !  "  said  the  Governor. 
**  What  may  the  person's  name  be  ?  "  I  told  him  "William 
Hussey."  "And  can  you  produce  him,"  said  he.  "Yes, 
sir,"  said  I,  "  I  can,  for  he  is  one  of  the  people  who  came 
with  me  from  Fez  for  the  carriages,  and  cannot  be  far  off, 
but  very  likely  in  the  yard  with  the  carpenters,  where  my 
men  generally,  by  my  orders,  gave  their  attendance." 

Then  a  messenger  was  sent  for  him,  and  soon  returned, 
and  Hussey  with  them,  Johnston  being  all  this  time,  no 
doubt,  in  a  fearful  condition,  it  being  then  too  late  for  him 
to  bring  in  Hussey  for  a  party  ;  through  which  omission, 
Hussey's  evidence  carried  with  it  by  far  the  greater  weight, 
and  he  had  his  lesson,  as  you  may  suppose,  at  his  tongue's 
end,  though  he  said  never  a  word  till  he  was  by  the  Gover- 
nor asked  if    he  knew  anything   concerning   Johnston's 


wound,  and  of  the  party  giving  it?  Wlien  he  answered 
yes,  it  was  Pellow,  and  that  if  I  had  not  given  it,  he  had 
fully  designed  to  have  given  it  himself.  "  Pray,"  said  the 
Governor,  "  for  what  reason  ?  "  **  For  what  reason,  sir," 
Baid  he,  "for  reason  enough,  I  think;  and  no  doubt,  when 
I  have  told  you  the  truth  of  the  story,  you  will  also  allow 
it."  "  Very  well,"  said  he,  *'  proceed,  and  let  me  know  the 
very  truth  of  the  matter.  "  Then  the  matter,  sir,  in  short 
is  even  this  : — Johnston  and  myself  are  soldiers,  you  must 
know,  under  Fellow's  command,  and  therefore  consequently 
generally  together ;  and  for  a  long  time  back  I  have  not 
been  at  quiet,  on  Johnston's  frequent  importuning  me  to 
join  with  him  in  escape,  and  very  particularly  since  coming 
to  Sallee,  in  carrying  off  a  certain  sloop  ;  alleging  that 
Pellow  had  akeady  given  his  word,  and  that  if  I  would 
likewise  consent  to  it,  it  would  be  strength  sujficient.  This, 
sir,  I  must  confess  very  much  surprised  me,  I  having 
always  found  Pellow  very  easy  under  his  present  condition; 
and  as  not  knowing  what  such  falsities  might  tend  to,  I 
could  not  be  quiet  till  I  had  it  either  confirmed  or  denied 
from  Pellow  s  own  mouth,  and  for  which  I  this  morning 
found  an  opportunity,  and  told  Pellow  in  Johnston's  hear- 
ing what  he  had  said  of  him.  Indeed  (said  Pellow,  in  a 
very  great  surprise),  Will,  had  not  I  a  very  good  opinion  of 
you,  I  should  have  no  small  difficulty  with  myself  to  believe 
it ;  and  now  I  cannot  very  well  tell  what  to  make  of  it,  it 
being,  I  think,  almost  impossible  for  any  one  to  invent 
such  an  abomiuable  falsity,  looking  sternly  at  Johnston, 
and  asking  him  if  it  was  true ;  to  which  he  making  no 
answer,  Pellow  asked  him  what  he  meant  by  it,  thus  (the 
better  to  colour  his  so  wicked  designs)  to  make  use  of  his 
name ;  at  which  Johnston  being  so  confounded  that  he 
could  make  no  answer,  Pellow  said,  '  You  dog,  you  are 
going  the  right  way  to  take  away  my  life  ;  tell  me  what 


could  induce  you  to  it,  or  if  ever  I  had  any  discourse  with 
you  tending  to  the  affair.  Speak,  had  I,  or  had  I  not  ?  ' 
And  being  still  silent,  Pellow  drew  his  sword  and  gave  him 
the  cut;  and  this,  sir,  is  the  very  truth  of  the  matter." 
Here  the  Governor  was  silent  for  some  time,  looking  very 
fiercely  at  Johnston,  and  at  last  telling  him  that  he  could 
not  imagine  how  he  could  invent  such  a  damnable  lie  !  and 
which,  had  not  Providence  interposed,  by  Hussey's  being 
let  into  the  secret,  must  in  all  likelihood  have  taken  away 
the  life  of  an  innocent  person,  ordering  the  guards  to  carry 
him  off  and  put  him  in  irons.  As  for  me,  their  atten- 
dance on  me  was  no  longer  necessary,  for  that  I  had 
sufficiently  cleared  myself,  and  that  I  was  again  at  liberty 
to  depart  when  and  where  I  would. 

Now  having  overreached  Johnston,  and  for  his  villainy 
procured  him  a  close  prison,  and  of  which  I  think  he  was 
in  more  respects  than  one  highly  deserving,  and  which  (as 
proper  for  the  keeping  the  knowledge  of  the  affair  from  the 
public  whereby  it  might  probably  spread  and  reach  the 
Emperor's  ears)  was,  I  think,  the  fittest  place  for  him. 
However,  to  prevent  all  this,  I  humbly  desired  the  Gover- 
nor to  pardon  him,  and  that  he  might  in  the  prison  be 
taken  care  of,  and  cured  of  his  wound,  and  that  the  matter 
might  be  all  hushed.  For  notwithstanding  he  had  so  dealt 
by  me,  yet  would  not  I  on  any  account,  as  I  was  then  so 
far  in  the  Emperor's  good  graces,  that  he  should  know  it, 
thereby  to  give  him  any  uneasiness,  or  the  least  doubt  of 
my  fidelity.  "Therefore,  pray,  sir,"  said  I,  "forgive  him, 
and  be  pleased  to  accept  of  the  small  matters  in  this  purse, 
as  an  acknowledgment  of  so  great  a  favour :  "  giving  him 
forty  gold  ducats  (which  I  had  been  a  long  time  before 
scraping  together),  and  which  he  very  greedily  accepted  of, 
telling  me,  with  a  pleased  countenance,  to  keep  my  own 
secrets,  and  vA\  should  be  well. 


And  here,  before  I  proceed  any  further,  I  shall,  by  way 
of  a  short  digression,  ask  my  readers  if  they  think  we 
used  Johnston  in  anywise  ill,  or  otherwise  than  they  would 
have  done,  had  it  been  their  own  case,  unless  by  my  extra- 
ordinary care  of  him,  after  he  was  made  a  prisoner,  which 
I  think  to  be  no  way  suitable  to  his  deserts,  notwithstanding 
our  so  wrongfully  turning  the  tables  upon  him  ;  therefore, 
I  say,  the  nature  of  the  case  being  duly  considered,  and 
when  I  tell  them  that  it  prolonged  my  captivity  eight 
years,  I  hope  my  treatment  of  him  will  be  rather  approved 
of  than  censured.  Though  Hussey  was  so  lucky  to  get  off 
in  a  short  time  after,  and  he  has,  I  am  sure,  gratitude 
enough  to  acknowledge  that  I  was  therein  very  instru- 
mental, though  it  was  not  my  fortune  (I  having  yet  a 
much  longer  and  very  severe  servitude  to  encounter  with) 
to  go  with  him,  he  getting  with  success  to  Marcegongue, 
and  thence  in  a  Portuguese  ship  to  Lisbon.  But  to 

The  carriages  being  all  now  finished,  and  all  of  us 
ordered  to  be  at  the  next  morning  in  readiness  to  depart, 
I  that  night  waited  on  the  Governor,  to  thank  him  for  all 
his  past  favours,  and  to  intreat  his  future  remembrance  of 
my  so  late  misfortunes,  and  as  Johnston  was  not  then  able 
to  undergo  the  journey,  he  would  order  such  care  of  him 
as  to  send  him  after  us,  so  soon  as  he  was ;  not  that  I  ever 
desired  to  see  him  any  more,  but  in  case  he  might  happen 
to  be  required  at  our  hands,  we  might  know  where  to  find 
him  ;  though  indeed  he  never  after  cared  to  come  where  I 
was,  neither  did  I  see  him  but  very  seldom. 

Now  are  we  on  the  road  with  the  carriages,  having  with 
us  a  sufficient  number  of  the  inhabitants  from  Bailee,  to 
the  next  town,  and  so  from  town  to  town,  relieving  one 
another  till  we  got  well  to  the  camp,  and  where  I  was  by 
Muley  Hamet  most  kindly  received,  and  told  by  him  that 


he  had  an  account  from  Bashaw  Belide  Showey,  of  my 
readiness  in  following  him  from  Tessent,  in  order  to  assist 
him  in  his  restoration  at  Mequinez,  and  that  he  would 
alwaj's  have  a  kind  remembrance  thereof.  And  now  are 
our  cannon  all  mounted,  and  for  a  month's  time  we  kept 
almost  a  continual  battery  upon  the  town ;  and  though  I 
had  the  good  fortune  to  escape  hitherto  unwounded,  yet 
was  it  my  mishap  soon  after,  the  malcontents  sallying,  to 
receive  two  musket  shots  within  a  minute's  time  of  each 
other,  one  passing  through  my  right  thigh,  and  the  other 
through  my  left  shoulder,  and  at  such  a  time  as  I  had  but 
the  moment  before  received  a  shrewd  cut  in  my  left  hand, 
and  disengaged  myself  from  a  party  fighting  sword  in  hand. 
And  now  am  I  in  a  bloody  condition,  I  being  tapped  in 
three  several  places,  insomuch  that  from  my  excessive  loss 
of  blood  from  them  all,  I  really  thought  that  I  could  not 
have  long  survived  it ;  and  thought  the  wound  in  my  hand 
might  not  be  in  anywise  reckoned  dangerous  as  the  others, 
yet  could  not  the  surgeons  prevent  its  bleeding  little  or 
more  for  three  days,  though  they  staunched  the  others  in 
a  very  little  time. 

Now  am  I  laid  on  a  bier,  in  order  to  be  carried  to  an 
hospital  in  New  Fez,  for  the  better  conveniency  of  cure ;  and 
which  Muley  Hamet  seeing,  he  rode  forth,  and  asked  who 
I  was,  and  after  being  told,  he  said  he  was  very  sorry  for 
me,  and  that  it  was  his  pleasure  I  should  be  particularly 
taken  care  of,  and  ordered  three  surgeons  to  go  along  with 
me,  and  to  use  the  best  of  their  skill  for  my  recovery,  and 
a  Genoese  servitor  to  be  always  in  my  apartment  with 
me,  giving  me  out  of  his  jibbera,*  or  purse  (which  he  had 
generally  hanging  at  bis  saddle  before  him),  fifty  gold 
ducats,  and  strictly  charging  that  I  should  have  a  quarter 

*  The  •*  chkai'a,"  or  leather  bag,  slung  over  the  shoixlder,  which 
serves  the  purpose  of  a  pocket,  haversack,  and  purse. 


of  fresh  mutton  brought  in  every  day,  or  anything  else  the 
surgeons  should  approve  of  for  my  subsistence.  Then, 
after  wishing  me  well,  he  turned  from  me,  and  my  bearers 
proceeded  ;  and  they  had  not  carried  me  far  before  a  Moor 
(just  arrived  in  the  camp  from  Agoory)  stepped  forth, 
telling  me  that  he  was  sorry  to  see  me  in  that  condition, 
that  he  hoped  my  wounds  were  not  mortal,  and  so  forth  ; 
that  though  he  never  cared  to  be  the  bearer  of  ill  news, 
yet  he  could  not  forbear  telling  me  that  my  wife  and 
daughter  were  both  very  lately  dead,  dying  within  three 
days  one  of  the  other.  One  of  Job's  comforters  indeed ! 
though  I  must  own  that  it  gave  me  very  little  uneasiness, 
as  I  thought  them  to  be  by  far  better  o£f  than  they  could 
have  been  in  this  troublesome  world,  especially  this  part  of 
it ;  and  I  was  really  very  glad  that  they  were  delivered  out 
of  it,  and  therefore  it  gave  me  very  little  uneasiness. 


More  uses  for  wine  than  one — Mr.  Pellow  and  his  renegade  attendant 
find  httle  difficulty  in  trying  how  far  Malaga  is  potent  to  cure 
wounds — He  amazes  his  surgeon — Doctor  and  patient,  their 
adopted  faith  notwithstanding,  have  a  merry  evening  over  the  for- 
bidden cup — The  surrender  of  Fez — The  humiliation  and  murder 
of  Abdemeleck — A  general  heh.e&  more  Mauritiano—Mnlej 
Hamid  Ed-dehebi  is  poisoned  by  Muley  Abdallah's  mother — This 
prince  seizes  the  throne — A  new  master  but  old  habits — War  again 
— Fez  once  more  in  rebellion — A  terrible  siege  of  seven  months — 
Famine  compels  the  Fasees  to  yield  and  meet  their  retribution — 
Hopes  of  escape  again  disappointed  by  a  fresh  rebellion  and  a 
long  march — How  malcontents  are  brought  to  book. 

NOW  am  I  brought  to  my  apartment,  and  my  wounds 
in  my  thigh  and  shoulder  were  carefully  searched 
and  dressed,  and  the  blood  staunched.  Yet,  I  say,  they 
could  not  with  all  their  skill  (though  they  applied  all  the 
medicines  they  could  think  of),  prevent  that  of  my  hand 
from  bleeding  for  three  days,  and  which  was  at  last 
staunched  by  applying  (as  I  may  say)  some  of  the  same 
blood,  it  being  first  put  into  a  receiver,  and  by  a  continual 
stirring  over  a  pan  of  fresh  coals  burnt  into  a  powder,  and 
a  small  matter  thereof  laid  on  the  wound  put  an  end  to  the 
bleeding,  which  I  thought  might  not  be  unuseful  to  men- 
tion. Now  am  I  in  a  very  low,  painful,  and  disconsolate 
condition,  and  my  spirits  sunk  to  that  degree  that  I  really 
expected  every  day  to  be  my  last ;  and,  indeed,  had  I  not 


by  way  of  my  Genoese  attendant  borrowed  a  point  of  the 
law  I  must  actually  have  been  dead  in  a  very  little  time,  it 
being  otherwise  impossible  for  me  to  get  over  it.  For  not- 
withstanding I  was  so  miserably  low,  and  my  so  often 
telling  my  surgeons  of  it,  yet  would  not  they  allow  me  to 
drink  anything  stronger  than  water. 

Therefore  I,  considering  my  own  case,  told  my  keeper 
(whom  I  knew  to  be  a  trusty  person)  if  he  did  not 
instantly  look  out  for  some  comfortable  wine  for  me,  or 
something  that  was  stronger  by  way  of  cordial,  I  could 
hold  it  but  very  little  longer.  Therefore,  said  I,  pray 
hasten  and  see  what  you  can  do  for  me,  giving  him  a 
gold  ducat,  with  which  he  departed,  and  was  in  a  very 
little  time  back  again  with  two  leather  bottles  concealed 
under  his  robe,  the  one  full  of  brandy,  and  the  other 
of  excellent  old  Malaga  wine,  with  which  I  that  night 
made  pretty  free,  drinking,  I  believe,  of  both  sorts,  as  a  be- 
ginning, about  a  pint,  and  slept  after  it  a  hearty  nap,  I  not 
having  shut  my  eyes  before  from  the  time  I  was  wounded. 
At  my  awaking  I  found  myself  another  man,  my  spirits 
being  to  that  degree  exhilarated  that  never  was  there  a 
more  sudden  and  surprising  alteration ;  and  then  I  took 
another  moderate  tiff,  by  which  1  was  soon  again  composed, 
and  slept  till  the  next  morning  sunrising,  when  my  German 
came  to  look  at  and  dress  my  wounds,  asking  me  how  I 
felt  myself,  and  if  I  had  taken  any  rest.  I  told  him,  yes,  I 
had  slept  many  hours,  and  that  I  found  myself  very  much 
revived.  "  Very  well,"  said  he,  "  I  am  glad  of  it  with  all 
my  heart."  "  But  sir,"  said  I,  "I  hope  you  will  be  pleased 
to  allow  me  something  by  way  of  cordial,  to  cheer  my 
spirits,  for  you  cannot  but  suppose  them,  after  so  great  a 
loss  of  blood,  to  be  very  low."  "Well,"  said  he,  "I  will 
consider  of  it,  but  first  let  me  feel  your  arm  wrist," 
when  he,  starting  back  as  one  in  a  very  great  surprise, 



"Something,"  says  he,  "to  raise  your  spirits;  why  your 
spirits  are  now  ten  times  higher  than  they  were  yesterday, 
therefore  I  hope  there  will  be  no  occasion  for  any  spirituous 
liquors,  and  I  very  heartily  wish  there  may  not,  it  being 
the  most  dangerous  thing  in  the  world ;  therefore,"  said 
he,  "I  would  by  all  means  have  you  to  content  yourself 
without  it  till  to-morrow,  and  if  I  find  any  further  occasion 
for  it  then  than  I  do  at  this  time,  I  give  you  my  honour  to 
procure  some  for  you,  and  to  trust  to  yours  for  the  event." 

I  told  him  it  was  very  well,  and  that  I  should  be  thereby 
highly  obliged  to  him,  desiring  him  to  look  at  my  wounds. 
To  which  he  answered  me  that  he  would  willingly  first 
stay  a  little  longer,  for  that  he  every  moment  expected  his 
brethren — who  indeed  came  in  a  very  little  time  after,  and 
by  consent  fell  to  opening  the  bandage,  and  after  a  very 
short  time  looking  at  that  in  my  shoulder  (which,  as  being 
so  near  my  heart,  they  thought  to  be  by  far  the  most 
dangerous),  they  in  a  very  pleasing  manner  told  me  that 
they  had  never  before  seen,  in  so  short  a  time,  so  great  an 
alteration  for  the  better,  for  whereas  it  was  the  day  before 
inflamed  to  a  very  high  degree,  it  was  then  wonderfully 
altered,  and  the  inflammation  almost  quite  off ;  and  then 
they  looked  at  the  other  two  and  found  them  the  same,  so 
after  dressing  me  they,  having  many  other  patients  to  go 
to,  departed  together.  But  the  German  coming  hastily  back 
again  told  me  that  he  really  thought  my  wounds  to  be  in  a 
very  promising  way,  and  so  it  would  be  mere  madness  in 
me  to  drink  any  spirituous  liquors  till  the  inflammation 
was  quite  over,  and  they  had  brought  them  to  a  better 
matter ;  and  which,  if  I  did,  it  would  not  only  be  the  un- 
doing of  what  they  had  hitherto  done  for  me,  but  put  it  out 
of  the  power  of  all  the  surgeons  in  Barbary  to  cure  me. 

"Well,"  said  I,  with  a  sigh,  "I  remember  you  told  me  so 
before,"  and  then  he  left  me,  but  he  was  not  gone  out  of 


the  room  two  minutes  before  I  and  my  attendant  drank 
each  of  us  a  bumper  to  his  good  health,  and  between  us, 
before  night,  finished  all  the  wine,  burning  most  of  it  with 
sugar  and  spices,  which  threw  me  into  a  gallant  sweat  and 
sound  sleep.  In  this  I  continued  the  best  part  of  that 
day,  and  at  night  had  our  wine  bottle  replenished  again, 
when  I  took  another  hearty  tiff,  and  fell  again  into  a  sound 
sleep,  napping  it  in  and  out  till  six  of  the  clock  the  next 
morning,  when  my  surgeons  came  in  a  full  body  to  dress 
my  wounds,  which  they  instantly  went  about,  and  still 
found  them  growing  better  in  a  surprising  manner,  saying 
that  the  inflammation  was  quite  off,  and  there  was  a  very 
good  digestion,  asking  me  if  I  did  not  find  my  spirits  to  be 
very  much  restored.  I  told  them  yes,  to  a  very  high 
degree.  "Well/'  said  the  German,  "keep  but  a  good 
heart,  and  never  fear  of  a  cure  in  a  little  time,"  and  after 
telling  me  in  a  low  voice  he  would  bring  me  some  wine  the 
next  morning,  he  departed  with  his  brethren. 

Now  is  my  stomach  again  craving  after  meat,  and  soon^ 
began  to  relish  it  tolerably  well,  eating  a  good  mess  of 
mutton  broth  two  or  three  times  a  day,  and  which,  with 
the  continuance  of  my  wine,  and  a  good  bowl  of  cuscassoo 
now  and  then,  I  found  to  bring  me  on  apace.  My  German 
coming  again  the  next  morning  before  any  of  the  rest, 
bringing  with  him  a  bottle  of  wine  concealed  under  his 
robe,  after  sending  my  attendant  out  of  the  room,  he  asked 
me  if  I  would  venture  to  take  a  tiff.  I  told  him  yes,  if  he 
pleased,  with  all  my  heart.  **  Then,"  said  he,  **  here,  take 
the  bottle  and  drink,"  giving  it  into  my  hand,  though 
after  it  had  been  but  a  very  short  time  at  my  mouth  he 
cried  out,  "  Hold !  hold  !  you  have  drunk  enough,"  when 
I  took  it  off,  telling  him  that  I  thought  it  to  be  very 
excellent  wine,  and  that  I  found  it  very  comfortable. 
"Well,"  said  he,  "don't  you  by  any  means  make  too  free 


with  it,  but  now  and  then  take  a  little  by  way  of  cordial," 
to  which  I  had  but  just  time  to  tell  him  that  it  was  very 
well,  and  hid  the  bottle  in  my  bed-clothes,  before  my  other 
surgeons  came  in,  and  fell  to  opening  my  wounds ;  still 
finding  them  for  the  better,  and  soon  again  left  me,  when 
I  fell  to  work  with  the  doctor's  bottle,  and  which  (as  being 
but  a  quart)  my  attendant  and  I  drank  clear  out  that  same 
day,  designing  no  longer  to  impose  upon  my  benefactor, 
but  to  bring  him  in  the  next  morning,  if  I  could,  for  a  third 
man ;  and  when  he,  coming  again  before  any  of  the  rest, 
very  opportunely  asked  me  how  the  wine  had  agreed  with 
me,  and  if  I  thought  it  had  done  me  no  harm,  "  Harm!" 
said  I,  "  no,  no,  but  has,  I  think,  on  the  contrary  done  me 
a  great  deal  of  good,  and  which,  if  I  had  more  of  it,  you 
would  as  well  as  myself  soon  find  to  be  true,  and  to  work 
a  perfect  cure  on  me  in  a  very  little  time."  "  Some  more 
of  it !  "  said  he,  in  a  seeming  surprise,  "why  you  have  not, 
I  hope,  finished  all  I  brought  you  yesterday."  *'  Indeed, 
sir,"  said  I,  "  I  have,  and,  to  be  plain  with  you,  a  great 
deal  more,  or  I  should  not  be  now  here  to  tell  you  so." 
"  Now  here,"  said  he,  "  to  tell  me  so  ;  in  short,  that  you 
are  is  the  greatest  miracle."  And  when  I  told  him  the 
real  truth,  how  much  I  had  drank,  the  benefit  I  had 
received  by  it,  and  how  I  must  have  been  inevitably  dead 
without  it,  "Well,"  said  he,  "  God  is  all  sufficient,  but  of 
all  the  ways  I  ever  saw  or  heard  of  curing  wounds  before, 
yours  is  the  most  uncommon  one." 

Then  I  called  to  my  attendant  to  bring  forth  one  of 
our  own  bottles,  and  drank  a  hearty  tiff  to  my  doctor's 
good  health,  delivering  him  the  bottle,  and  he  as  heartily 
pledged  me,  telling  me  that  he  thought  it  to  be  very 
excellent  wine,  and  that  he  was  very  glad  it  had  so  well 
agreed  with  me ;  however,  he  believed  that  nobody  be- 
fore had  ever  been  that  way  cured.     "  Oh,  doctor,"  said 


I,  **  you  are  in  that  very  much  mistaken,  I  having  many 
times  before  made  the  experiment  on  myself."  "  Very 
well,"  said  he,  '*  I  hope  all  this  is  under  the  rose." 
"  Yes,  yes,  doctor,"  said  I,  **  that  you  need  not  fear,  and  if 
you  will  be  pleased  to  come  in  with  us  for  a  third  man  we 
may  innocently  enjoy  ourselves  over  a  bottle,  without  doing 
any  harm  to  anybody  else."  "  Very  well,"  said  he,  "  I 
understand  you,  and  as  to  my  answer  I  will  give  it  you  in 
the  evening."  His  comrades  coming  in  at  once  upon  us,  we 
had  not  time  then  to  talk  any  further  about  it,  and  after 
they  had  dressed  me,  and  told  me  that  my  wounds  were 
bettering  apace,  they  again  for  that  day  left  me. 

And  now  is  my  German  doctor  soon  about  to  come  in  for 
a  snack.  Coming  at  the  beginning  of  the  night,  when  all 
was  pretty  quiet,  and  bringing  with  him  two  bottles  of 
excellent  old  Malaga  wine,  he  sat  down,  took  a  cup  out  of 
his  pocket,  filled  it  to  the  top,  and  drank  it  off  to  the  good 
health  of  our  Christian  friends,  myself  and  my  attendant 
following  his  example ;  and  after  we  had  drank  a  round  or 
two  more,  he  told  me  that  he  thought  I  might  think  myself 
very  happy  under  my  present  circumstances,  and  to  be  much 
better  off  than  a  great  number  of  my  comrades,  who, 
during  my  lying  sick,  had  been  exposed  to  many  dangers 
and  hardships,  and  a  great  many  of  them  slain.  Of  which, 
indeed,  I  had  before  repeated  advices,  and  therefore  my  life 
was  in  all  likelihood  entirely  owing  to  my  wounds,  and 
which,  indeed,  was  very  likely  to  be  true,  for  during  my 
cure  were  many  thousands  on  both  sides  slain,  and  amongst 
them  of  my  small  number  at  least  one  hundred  and  fifty. 

Now  are  my  wounds  healing  apace,  being  able  again  to 
sit  up  and  walk  a  little,  and  my  strength  every  day  very 
apparently  increasing,  insomuch  that  my  surgeons  told  me 
that  they  did  not  doubt  but  that  I  might  in  three  weeks 
more  be  again  in  a  capacity  to  return  to  my  duty  in  the 


army.  Though  indeed  I  thought  myself  fit  at  the  fortnight's 
end,  and  should  certainly  have  made  my  appearance  then 
had  not  they  prevented  me,  telling  me  that  they  thought 
my  wound  to  be  still  too  green,  and  not  sufficiently 
hardened,  and  therefore  I  was  obliged  to  remain  there 
another  week ;  at  the  end  of  which  I  waited  with  my  sur- 
geons on  Muley  Hamet,  who  seemed  to  be  highly  pleased 
at  my  recovery,  and  thereof  gave  my  surgeons  very  liberal 
acknowledgments,  ordering  me  immediately  back  again  to 
my  old  apartment.  For  as  the  malcontents  were  then 
reduced  to  the  lowest  ebb,  he  said  he  could  not  see  what 
service  I  could  be  of  there,  and  after  making  most  humble 
acknowledgment  for  his  so  very  great  care  of  me,  I  obeyed 
his  orders,  went  back,  and  there  continued  six  days  longer, 
at  the  end  of  which  he  sent  me  word  by  one  of  my  own 
people  that  the  city  had  surrendered,  and  that  it  was  his 
pleasure  I  should  come  directly  and  see  the  rebels  march 
out ;  which,  so  Well  as  they  were  able,  I  soon  did,  being 
really  all  of  them  reduced  to  a  very  miserable  condition. 
Yet,  notwithstanding,  many  of  them  (especially  their  ring- 
leaders) had  their  heads  chopped  off  on  the  spot,  and 
Abdemeleck,  with  forty  principal  men,  were  put  into  safe 
custody,  in  order  to  be  safely  conducted  by  the  army  to 

Before  Abdemeleck  was  brought  into  Hamet  Deby's  pre- 
sence he  was  searched  by  the  captain  of  his  guards  and 
some  other  officers,  who  found  a  poniard  and  a  small  pistol 
concealed  in  his  pockets,  which  they  took  away,  and  then 
conducted  him  into  Hamet  Deby's  tent,  who,  instead  of 
venting  his  wrath  and  vengeance  upon  him,  contented 
himself  with  making  some  reproaches,  and  those  without 
sharpness.  "What,"  says  he,  "after  having  taken  the 
crown  from  me,  are  you  now  cruel  enough  to  seek  to  take 
away  my  life  ?  " 


Now  have  we  a  general  muster,  by  which  we  found  we  had 
lost  in  all  on  our  side  in  this  siege  thirty  thousand  men  ; 
then  we  struck  our  tents,  and  with  the  remainder  of  our 
army  marched  with  our  prisoners  to  Mequinez,  where  the 
forty  principal  men  were  beheaded  in  the  market-place, 
which  was  a  much  milder  fate  than  those  met  with  who 
were  before  taken  in  Mequinez,  for  there  the  governor  of 
the  city  and  some  of  the  principal  men  were  nailed  by 
their  hands  and  feet  to  one  of  the  gates  of  the  city,  in  which 
miserable  manner  they  lived  three  days,  except  the  governor 
of  the  city,  whose  hands  and  feet  were  so  torn  by  the  weight 
of  his  body  (being  a  lusty  man)  that  he  fell  down  from  the 
gate  some  time  after  he  had  been  nailed  thereto,  upon 
which  they  had  the  mercy  to  dispatch  him  with  their 
sabres.  And  at  this  time,  indeed,  the  Emperor  ordered  the 
Governor  of  Sallee  to  be  served  in  the  same  or  worse 
manner,  for  he  had  first  his  skull  cracked  with  the  blows 
of  a  pistol,  and  was  then  himg  up  by  the  feet  at  one  of  the 
gates  of  the  city,  in  which  deplorable  condition  he  remained 
alive  four  days. 

Abdemeleck  was  put  under  the  custody  of  Emshael,*  the 
black  Bashaw,  who  was  strictly  charged  to  keep  him  close 
prisoner  in  his  own  house  till  further  orders  ;  and  indeed 
he  never  got  free  from  thence,  being  at  the  end  of  six  weeks 
strangled  by  two  of  his  own  brothers ;  and  lest  ho  might 
not  be  dead  enough,  they  gave  him  each  a  stab  with  their 
long  murdering  knives  through  his  body,  Muley  Hamet  Deby 
dying  about  an  hour  before  him.  His  death  was  occasioned 
— as  was  by  all  supposed — by  his  drinking  a  small  bowl  of 
milk  at  his  entrance  into  Mequinez  from  Fez — according 
to  custom,  after  obtaining  any  signal  victory — it  being 
poisoned  by  Muley  Abdallah's  mother,  in  order  to  clear 
her  son's  way  to  the  Empire,  he  languishing  from  the  very 

'■'-  'Mshael. 


moment  of  his  taking  it,  even  to  his  last  hour.  Muley 
Abdallah  was  accordingly  proclaimed  as  soon  as  Hamet 
Deby  was  dead,  his  mother  Lela  Coneta,  who  had  been 
one  of  the  wives  of  Muley  Swine,  or  Ishmael,  having — by 
distributing  three  hundred  thousand  ducats  amongst  the 
Black  Army,  besides  fifty  thousand  given  by  her  own  hands 
to  their  chief  officers — engaged  them  in  his  interest,  not- 
withstanding Hamet  Deby  left  a  son  named  Muley  Bouser,* 
who  was  capable  of  reigning,  whom  Muley  Abdallah  kept 
in  prison  some  time,  but  he  at  last  found  an  opportunity 
to  escape. 

Now  am  I  to  prepare  myself  for  swimming  through  a 
fresh  sea  of  blood,  the  scene  opening  in  new  and  deeper 
colours  indeed,  for  though  Muley  Abdallah  was  in  my  time 
driven  out  twice,  yet  was  there  scarce  a  day  passed  without 
his  murdering  some  of  his  subjects,  more  or  less ;  he 
having,  I  believe,  killed  with  his  own  hands,  besides  those 
most  unmercifully  butchered  by  the  hands  of  his  execu- 
tioners, at  least  fifty  thousand  men,  he  having  his  old 
father  the  devil  so  riveted  in  his  heart,  as  that  it  was  im- 
possible for  anybody  to  tell  when  he  was  in  jest  or  in 
earnest,  being  always  bent  on  bloody  enterprises,  and 
unhappy  I,  seldom  exempted  from  making  one  therein — I 
mean  in  his  inhumane  bloody  wars.  But  I  was  for  the 
present  sent  again  to  my  old  station  at  Agoory,  and  where 
I  had  a  short  interval  of  about  six  weeks,  often  reflecting 
on  the  loss  of  my  wife  and  daughter ;  for  though  I  said 
before  their  death  gave  me  very  little  uneasiness,  yet  could 
not  I  help  now  being  under  concern  for  them,  and  especially 
the  child,  who  always  used,  at  my  coming  home  wounded, 
to  clasp  her  little  arms  about  my  neck,  hugging  and  be- 
moaning her  poor  father,  and  telling  me  that  I  should  no 
more  go  into  the  wars,  for  that  she  and  her  mother 
*  Bou  Azza. 


would  go  with  me  to  England,  and  live  with  her  grand- 

These  reflections,  I  say,  gave  me  some  concern  ;  however, 
I  soon  endeavoured  to  forget  them,  for,  in  short,  what 
could  I  do  ?  To  bring  them  back  again  I  knew  was  im- 
possible, and  as  they  were — as  far  as  lay  in  my  power — 
instructed  in  the  knowledge  and,  I  hope,  true  belief  in 
Christ,  and  my  intentions  were  fully  bent  upon  escape,  I 
was  really  glad  that  they  were  dead;  and  I  plainly  told 
myself  that  as  I  could  find  in  my  heart  in  their  lifetime  to 
endeavour  to  leave  the  country,  I  had  now  no  room  left 
for  excuse,  but  ought  to  pursue  it ;  and  therefore  I  was 
thoroughly  resolved  to  lay  hold  of  all  opportunities,  and 
as  soon  as  my  strength  was  a  little  better  restored  again, 
to  push  all  for  all.  My  resolutions  thus  settled,  I  am 
again  at  peace  with  myself,  diligently  employing  my  time 
in  bathing  my  wounds  with  such  ointments  as  my  doctors 
had  directed  me. 

But  I  was  again  on  a  sudden  ordered,  with  all  my 
men,  for  Mequinez  ;  and  though  I  was  in  a  very  indif- 
ferent condition,  sore  against  my  inclinations,  and  full 
two  of  the  clock  in  the  afternoon  when  my  orders 
came,  yet  was  I  obliged  to  obey  them,  and  to  be  there,  if 
possibly  I  could,  that  same  day ;  and  which,  though  very 
short  notice,  it  being  in  the  month  of  July,  I  punctually 
performed,  we  being  all  on  horseback  by  four,  and  without 
any  hurry  got  to  Mequinez  in  good  season,  where  I  found 
^iluley  Abdallah  at  the  head  of  an  army  consisting  of 
140,000  men,  chiefly  blacks,  ready  to  march  for  Old  Fez. 
With  whom  we  were  joined,  and  early  the  next  morning 
marched  with  them,  the  malcontents  having  gathered 
together  there,  refusing  to  acknowledge  him,  and  yet  setting 
up  no  one  else ;  so  that  I  verily  believe  it  was  merely  for 
the  sake  of  rebellion,  and  I  easUy  foresaw  that,  if  they 


chose  to  be  obstinate,  their  blood  would  be  poured  out  like 
water ;  and  I  must  own  I  heartily  wished — seeing  they 
were  of  so  cruel  a  nature — that  their  insatiate  eyes  might 
be  never  satisfied  with  blood,  till  the  last  of  them  had  seen 
the  last  drop  of  all  the  rest,  himself  expiring  with  the 
utter  extermination  of  that  so  barbarous  and  most  un- 
christian monarchy.  And  which  is,  indeed,  now  in  a  very 
fair  way  of  being  accomplished,  they  having  a  most  in- 
satiate thirst  after  each  other's  destruction,  attended  with 
sad  devastation  and  famine,  and  the  times  still  growing 
worse  and  worse  upon  their  hands ;  and  which  may  God 
continue,  till  they  are  either  brought  to  a  true  sight  of  their 
errors,  or  the  utter  extirpation  of  themselves  and  principles. 

For  as  their  country  is  so  very  rich,  spacious,  and  popu- 
lous, it  is  much  to  be  regretted  that  it  should  go  under  any 
other  denomination  than  that  of  a  part  of  a  Christendom ; 
and  whereto  should  all  Christian  princes  but  set  their 
helping  hand,  Christianity  would  not  only  flourish  and 
abound,  but  many  poor  ignorant  souls  who  are  now, 
through  means  of  their  following  false  lights,  in  a  most 
dangerous  and  deplorable  condition,  be  in  a  little  time 
brought  by  the  hght  of  the  Gospel  into  a  true  knowledge 
and  belief  in  Christ,  and  to  the  utter  abhorrence  and 
detestation  of  Mahometism ;  which,  through  the  ambitious 
artifices  of  cunning  and  designing  men,  hath  for  so  many 
ages  been  so  grossly  imposed  upon  them. — But  whither 
am  I  wandering  ?  These  digressions  are  quite  out  of  my 
way,  as  well  as  a  subject  far  beyond  my  abilities,  and 
altogether  out  of  my  way  to  meddle  with;  therefore  I 
shall  again  return  to  my  old  road,  travel  gently  on,  and 
leave  the  event  of  all  these  things  to  God ;  who,  no 
doubt,  hath  in  a  great  measure  ordained  them  for  wise 

Now  am  I  again  one  in  this  large  army  before  Old  Fez, 


where  Muley  Abdallah  offered  the  malcontents  free  pardon, 
in  case  they  would  surrender,  and  promise  future  obedience 
to  him.  To  which  they  answered,  being  but  too  well  ac- 
quainted with  his  deceitful  nature,  that,  considering  their 
resistance  was  for  liberty  and  property,  they  thought  it  as 
good  or  much  better  for  them  to  die  then,  than  at  another 
time  ;  therefore  they  utterly  despised  his  offer,  which  they 
directly  confirmed  from  the  mouths  of  their  muskets. 
And  now  is  the  bloody  scene  opening  apace,  nothing  but 
death  and  horror  reigning  here  for  the  space  of  seven 
months,  during  which  I  was  not  backward  in  acting  my 
part  even  in  place  of  greatest  danger,  insomuch  that  I 
was  very  willing — in  case  I  might  escape  with  my  life — to 
compound  for  a  smart  wound  or  two ;  and  which,  indeed, 
was  both  my  bad  and  good  hap,  as  you  will  by  and  by  hear. 
Now  is  there  scarce  a  day  without  close  skirmishing, 
and  on  both  sides  gi-eat  slaughter ;  and  notwithstanding 
our  cruel  treatment  of  those  we  took  alive,  as  unmercifully 
cutting  some  to  pieces,  and  hanging  others  up  alive  by 
the  heels,  till  they  were  dead  through  anguish  and  hunger, 
and  others  by  many  other  cruel  inventions  of  tortures,  and 
all  within  sight  of  the  garrison,  yet  did  they  seem  to  make 
no  manner  account  of  it,  unless  growing  thereat  more 
desperate.  And  which,  indeed,  by  their  future  behaviour 
and  bold  attempts  of  reprisals,  they  made  soon  to  be  very 
apparent,  behaving  to  the  last  with  an  undaunted  resolu- 
tion, selling  their  blood  with  their  lives,  to  the  very  great 
expense  of  that  of  our  army.  Had  not  their  provisions 
and  warlike  stores  failed  them,  they  had  certainly  done 
us  far  greater  mischief,  we  having  from  several  prisoners 
repeated  accounts  that,  as  long  as  their  stores  lasted  and 
people  continued,  they  were  thoroughly  resolved  to  hold  it 
out.  But  when  their  provision  was  exhausted,  their  horses 
bad  eaten  up  all  their  provender,  and  they  at  last  eaten 


up  their  horses,  the  remnant  were  resolved  to  sally  forth 
together,  and  sell  their  lives  at  the  rate  of  those  of  the 
bravest  soldiers,  which  they  deemed  much  better,  and  by 
far  more  honourable,  than  to  drag  a  miserable  life,  attended 
with  grievous  servitude,  and  continually  exposed  to  the 
capricious  humour  of  a  bloody  tyrant. 

Therefore  they  were  resolved  to  deliver  their  country 
from  his  tyranny,  or  perish  with  it.  And  in  which,  indeed, 
they  were  in  a  great  measure  as  good  as  their  words,  for 
they  fought  us  to  the  last  with  a  noble  resolution,  and 
desperately  sallied  so  long  as  they  had  anything  remaining 
whereby  to  support  their  sinking  spirits,  their  horses  being 
at  last  all  eaten  up,  and  the  remnant  of  themselves  so 
miserably  weak  through  famine,  that  their  lives  were  scarce 
worth  the  taking,  not  having  strength  enough  left  them  to 
make  an  honourable  pile  for  burial,  which  was  what  they 
fully  intended,  and,  like  Samson,  to  have  killed  more  at 
their  deaths  than  they  had  before  done  during  all  the  time 
of  their  lives. 

But  as  their  strength  could  do  no  more,  they  were  at  last 
obliged  to  submit  to  the  mercy  of  a  merciless  tyrant, 
marching  out,  or  rather,  indeed,  crawling  out — as  being 
scarce  able  to  stand — in  one  body  of  sis  thousand  and 
thirty-six.  The  36  were  instantly  on  the  spot  beheaded, 
and  the  remaining  6,000  led  by  the  army  in  a  miserable 
condition  to  Mequinez,  and  ever  after  exposed  (so  long  as 
any  of  them  remained)  in  the  fronts  of  the  tyrant's  bloody 
battles,  and  most  of  them  were  killed  in  my  sight.  This 
was  my  third  battle  at  Fez.  We  lost  40,000  men  ;  and  of 
1,500  Christians  in  this  siege  and  the  former,  no  more 
remained  than  660,  myself  being  likewise  wounded  by  two- 
musket  shots  in  my  left  shoulder  and  fleshy  part  of  my 
buttock,  though  these  wounds  did  not  keep  me  from  my 
duty  more  than  five  weeks. 


Now  am  I,  after  this  my  so  very  great  fatigue  and 
narrow  escape  of  my  life,  sent  again  to  Agoory,  where  I 
could  not  again  help  thinking  on  my  late  wife  and  little 
prattler,  ruminating  on  the  many  hazards  I  had  hitherto 
undergone,  and  the  no  less  miraculous  preservations  I  had 
met  with,  fully  intending  to  pursue  my  intentions  of 
escaping,  and  to  put  my  trust  in  Providence  for  de- 
liverance, as  soon  as  my  wounds  were  somewhat  hardened, 
my  strength  restored,  and  a  convenient  opportunity  should 

But  alas  !  I  may  as  to  that  set  my  heart  at  quiet  for 
some  very  considerable  time  longer,  I  having  first  many 
more  tedious  and  hazardous  exploits  to  encounter  with. 
And  first  I  was  by  Muley  Abdallah,  even,  as  1  may  say, 
before  I  had  time  to  look  about  me,  very  unexpectedly 
hurried  away  on  the  following  expedition.  He  having 
repeated  accounts  of  a  great  body  of  malcontents,  con- 
sisting to  the  least  of  100,000,  gathered  at  Itehuzzan,*  in 
the  province  of  Itemoor,t  and  that  they  behaved  after  a 
most  insolent  manner,  he  therefore  directly  ordered  70,000 
horse  to  be  got  ready  to  march  with  him  thither  to 
correct  them,  and  of  which  number  myself  and  men,  as  a 
part,  were  forthwith  ordered  to  Mequinez,  where  we 
directly  joined  the  rest  of  the  army  and  marched  towards 
the  rebels ;  and  the  second  day  following  we  got  to  Ite- 

Here  we  soon  found  the  grand  assembly  had  divided 
themselves  into  several  parties,  flying  before  us  as  fast 
as  they  could  into  the  heights  of  the  mountains,  so  as 
we  were  at  least  two  months  before  we  could  light  on  them 
to  any  purpose,  and  then,  being  driven  to  many  hardships, 
they  sent  to  the  Emperor  twelve  of  their  chiefs,  and  with 

*  Ait-Hassan  ? 

i  The  district  of  the  Ait-Zemonr,  a  still  rebellious  tribe  ? 


them  sixteen  fine  horses  as  a  present,  with  full  power  to 
tell  him  that  if  in  case  he  would  send  a  small  party  of  his 
people  back  with  them,  they  would  so  order  matters,  as 
that  they  should  return  again  in  little  time  with  their 
respective  dues.  In  order  to  which  he  sent  with  them  the 
next  morning  six  thousand  men,  who  were  treated  by  them 
for  some  time  in  a  seeming  friendly  manner,  and  a  great 
many  of  them,  in  conformity  to  this  offer,  accordingly 
brought  in  the  tributes,  though  the  greatest  part  of  them, 
as  not  at  all  liking  such  heavy  impositions,  joining  in 
grand  consult,  sent  thirty-eight  of  their  chiefs  to  the 
Emperor  to  tell  him  that  they  had  not  as  then  brought  in 
their  several  payments,  according  to  their  promise  by  their 
former  messengers  ;  not  but  they  fully  intended  to  do  it, 
and  were  then  ready  to  do  so,  provided  he  would  make  an 
abatement.  At  this  the  tyrant  was  so  enraged,  that  be 
answered  them  in  a  most  furious  manner,  "An  abatement, 
you  dogs  !  I'll  soon  make  an  abatement  of  you,"  looking 
at  them  very  fiercely,  and  beckoning  to  his  own  people  to 
hem  them  in,  and  then,  on  giving  a  sign,  they  had  all 
their  heads  in  a  moment  cut  off,  saving  one  only,  who 
through  wonderful  chance  escaped  to  carry  this  so  unex- 
pected answer  back  to  their  message  :  and  which,  for  some 
time,  put  the  remainder  of  them  into  a  most  terrible  con- 
sternation, as  not  thoroughly  resolving  for  a  day  or  two 
what  course  to  take  ;  though  it  was  at  last  agreed  by  them 
to  surprise  and  cut  off  the  six  thousand  of  our  people, 
who  lay  encamped  near  them,  and  accordingly  they  fell 
directly  on  them,  and  notwithstanding  they  made  a  gallant 
resistance,  yet  did  they  kill  of  them  four  thousand  on  the 
spot,  the  other  two  thousand  flying  in  great  confusion  back 
to  our  army,  with  this  so  unwelcome  and  unexpected  news. 
Now  is  the  tyrant  most  highly  enraged,  insomuch  that 
he  directly  ordered  most  of  us  up  the  mountains  on  foot. 


and  to  give  no  quarter  to  all  we  could  light  on  ;  which  was 
punctually  obeyed,  though  we  found  at  first  but  very  few 
of  them,  as  only  here  and  there  a  small  number  tarrying 
behind  the  rest  of  their  brethren,  under  a  pretence  of  being 
shepherds  or  herdsmen  to  look  after  their  cattle,  the  main 
body  (of  about  30,000)  flying  from  mountain  to  mountain 
before  us,  and  so  continuing  for  seven  days.  On  the  eighth 
day  we  got  so  near  them,  and  to  that  degree  so  hemmed 
them  in,  that  we  in  a  very  little  time  destroyed  them, 
putting  them  all  to  the  sword  with  very  little  loss  on  our 
side ;  and  then,  after  breathing  some  short  time,  we 
marched  to  the  castle  of  Mint,  in  the  province  of 
Itehacam,*  lying  at  the  foot  of  a  very  high  mountain,  and 
wherein  we  had  an  account  that  50,000  more  of  the  rebels 
were  entrenched  ;  and  very  early  the  next  morning  we  were 
all  ordered  up  on  foot,  to  pay  them  a  visit,  and  so  surrounded 
them  that  we  attacked  them  in  their  trenches  sword  in 
hand,  and  in  a  short  time  killed  of  them  30,000  more,  the 
remainder  in  great  confusion  flying  before  us  to  the  moun- 
tain of  Ceedeboazzo  Multorria,!  where  they  were  in  such  a 
manner  sheltered  from  our  fury,  that  it  would  have  been 
in  us  not  only  a  mere  madness  to  follow  them,  but  also 
very  hazardous,  as  well  as  altogether  in  vain. 

Therefore  we  marched  to  the  river  Cuscasoe,!  about  four 
leagues  farther  on  between  the  mountains,  lying  between 
Ceedeboazzo  §  and  Mint,  there  intending  to  settle  our  camp 
for  some  time  ;  and  which  was  indeed  forthwith  marked  out, 
and  our  tents  pitched  there ;  but  on  the  eighth  day  follow- 
ing our  camp  was  very  accidentally  set  on  fire  by  a  coal 
of  fire  sticking  at  the  bottom  of  a  cake  of  bread,  just  taken 
out  of  a  hot  oven,  which  falling  amongst  the  fodder  (of 
which  there  was  a  prodigious  quantity,  very  long  and  dry) 

*  This  is  probably  another  form  of  Beni  Hassan. 

t  Sidi  Bou  Azzua  Multorria.        I  K'sksoo  ?        §  Sidi  Bou  Azza. 


the  fire  quickly  spread  itself  to  that  degree,  that  notwith- 
standing all  our  haste  in  removing  our  tents,  &c.,  yet  were 
many  of  them,  with  several  of  our  horses  and  all  our 
stores,  burnt,  the  fire  still  spreading  towards  the  Emperor's 
pavilions,  wherein  were  fifty  of  his  concubines,  who  were 
with  great  difficulty  carried  off  by  the  eunuchs,  covered  all 
over  with  cloaks,  and  shrieking  after  a  dismal  manner, 
before  the  fire  reached  them. 

Now  are  we,  on  account  of  this  sad  accident,  both  as  to 
our  provision  and  ammunition,  in  a  very  great  strait,  and 
there  was  very  little  dependence  of  having  a  fresh  supply 
from  the  country,  any  further  than  what  we  got  by  foraging. 
Therefore  we  were  obliged  to  send  expressly  to  Mequinez  for 
such  as  we  wanted,  and  which  was  full  twenty  days  before 
it  came  to  our  hands  ;  though  during  this  (after  the  fodder 
was  all  burnt  up,  the  fire  extinguished,  and  all  the  ashes 
cleared  off,  for  fear  of  a  second  accident  of  like  nature)  we 
settled  the  remainder  of  our  tents,  which  we  had  preserved 
from  the  flames,  again  in  the  same  place. 

Our  stores,  &c.,  being  arrived,  we  rose  with  our  army, 
and  marched  out  in  four  days  to  the  castle  of  Cassavah 
Amarisu,*  in  the  parish  of  Juzob,  in  the  province  of 
Tamnsnah,  after  the  following  route  :  The  first  day  to 
the  other  side  of  the  river  Melhah  :  the  second  to  Mer- 
saidore  f  ;  the  third  to  Zeebedah  ;  and  the  fourth,  by  three 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  within  two  leagues  of  the  castle. 
Here  we  met  with  a  great  party  of  the  malcontents ;  and 
though  they  were  double  our  number,  we  forthwith  attacked 
them,  and  by  ten  of  the  clock  that  same  night  cut  most  of 
them  off,  when  we  marched  on  to  the  castle,  and  settled 
our  camp  without  the  walls,  where  we  remained  for  the 
space  of  two  months,  ravaging  and  plundering  the  country 
all  round  us  of  their  corn,  fruit,  cattle,  &c.,  after  a  most 
*  Kasbah  Amarisoo.  f  Mers-el-Abiod  ? 


shocking  manner,  the  inhabitants  (all  but  those  of  the 
parish  of  Meduna)  *  flying  from  us  into  the  heights  of  the 
mountains.  Indeed  it  would  have  been  much  better  for 
them  had  those  of  Meduna  also  done  so,  for  notwith- 
standing their  so  ready  compliance  in  sending  in  to  the 
tyrant  four  hundred  horse  all  gallantly  mounted  with  the 
prime  of  their  youth,  and  almost  laden  with  vast  sums  of 
money  for  his  service,  yet  did  he  instantly  order  them  for 
execution,  and  had  all  their  heads  cut  off  on  the  spot.  The 
rest  of  the  inhabitants  in  those  parts,  on  seeing  this  sad 
disaster  of  their  neighbours,  compounded  for  their  own 
lives  by  bringing  in  vast  sums  of  money.  Then  our  army 
rose,  and  marched  thence  with  much  booty  and  several 
prisoners  to  Milce.t  about  six  leagues,  where  we  again 
pitched  our  tents,  and  settled  four  weeks,  still  making  in 
the  country  grievous  havoc.  At  length  we  rose  and 
marched  thence,  after  the  following  route  for  Mequinez : 
The  first  day  to  Invelghummeese ;  t  the  second  to  Inemo- 
coon ;  the  third  to  the  river  Sharrot ;  the  fourth  to 
Wilgehiah  Ben  Hammo  ;  the  fifth  to  the  river  Bate ;  and 
the  sixth,  in  good  season,  to  Mequinez,  the  tyrant  still 
(as  we  passed  along)  plundering  the  country  and  murder- 
ing his  subjects. § 

*  District  of  Mediuna.  f  Mils. 

t  Invelg-Kh amiss.  5  Note  22, 



War  is  exclianged  for  commerce — Pellow  is  sent  with  the  trading 
caravan  to  the  coast  of  Guinea — The  route  taken  by  him — Priva- 
tions from  v/ant  of  water — How  to  find  it — Wonderful  acuteness 
of  the  senses  displayed  by  a  blind  ATab — Lions  and  ostriches — 
How  the  latter  are  killed  in  the  desert — Business  being  finished 
on  the  coast  the  caravan  returns  to  Morocco — Displeasure  of  the 
Emperor  Muley  Abdallah  at  the  results  of  the  journey — He,  as 
usual,  slaughters  a  great  many  innocent  men — He  kills  a  plotting 
Marabout  or  Saint — An  expedition  to  the  Eiver  Draa  country — A 
cruel  sight — The  deaths  of  Jerrory  and  Bendoobash — Treachery 
of  the  Emperor — An  easy  life  again — Hunting  and  fishing — To 
Mequinez — War  once  more. 

NOW  am  I  again  returned  •  to  Mequinez,  where  this 
bloody  villain  is  for  the  space  of  a  month  employed 
in  nothing  but  contriving  ways  and  means  how  to  put  his 
people  to  death,  scarce  a  day  passing  without  his  exercising 
his  cruelty  more  or  less.  But  I  could  not  (very  much  to 
my  dissatisfaction)  find  any  likely  means  to  escape,  and 
therefore  I  found  myself  of  necessity  obliged  to  follow  his 
so  evil  genius  till  a  more  convenient  season,  and  to  content 
myself  under  it  so  well  as  I  could,  I  being  at  the  end  of 
five  weeks  a  second  time  ordered  with  a  good  number  of 
troops  for  Itemoor,  and  after  following  the  malcontents 
into  the  mountains  for  eight  weeks,  killing  all  we  could 
light  on,  and  plundering  their  cattle,  &c.,  we  again  re- 
turned therewith  to  Mequinez ;  and  wheie  I  had  not  again 


remained  no  more  than  three  weeks,  but  I  was  ordered 
forthwith  with  the  caravan  to  the  coast  of  Guinea. 

This  really  gave  me  some  disquiet,  as  being  (I  was  very 
certain)  work  cut  out  for  me  for  at  least  two  years.  However, 
to  show  any  dissatisfaction  I  knew  would  not  be  in  the  least 
availing,  and  therefore  with  seeming  cheerfulness  set  out 
thence  in  company  with  12,000  camels  (our  numbers  still 
increasing  on  the  road),  and  got  the  first  night  to  the  river 
Bate  ;  the  second  to  Dyefroome  ;  *  the  third  to  Bolegrig  and 
Grove,  where  two  rivers  meet ;  the  fourth  to  Amwoodermel ; 
the  fifth  to  Waddon  Enkeese  ;t  the  sixth  to  Meetheor  Obeor,! 
the  hundred  and  one  wells ;   the  seventh  to  Broash ;  the 
eighth  to  Emshrah  Dellia  ;  §  the  ninth  to  Menzet ;  and  the 
tenth  to  Morocco,  with  our  caravan  very  much  increased. 
Here  we  rested  ten  days  ;  the  eleventh  we  came  to  Wadden 
Enfeese ;    the  twelfth  to  Zouyet  Belhoul ;  the  thirteenth 
to  Kishour  ;  the  fourteenth  to  Algorarsassa ;  the  fifteenth 
to  Itewaddel ;  the  sixteenth  to  Sofeegofulee ;  il  the  seven- 
teenth to  Afford  ;  the  eighteenth  to  Agroot,  a  small  fishing 
cove  ;  the  nineteenth  to  Tammanert ;  the  twentieth  to  the 
river  Souze,  three  leagues  to  the  southward  of  Santa  Crux ; 
the  twenty-first  to  Messah ;  the  twenty- second  to  Agolooe  ; 
the  twenty-third  to  Ceedehammet  Benmoosa,iy  where  one  of 
their  famous  conjurers,  formerly  called  after  that  name, 
was  buried ;  the  twenty-fourth  to  Ofran  ;  the  twenty-fifth 
to  Wadnoon,**  and  which  is  the  last  that  way,  where 
the    inhabitants    live    in    houses ;    the    twenty-sixth    to 
Shebeccah,  and  the  twenty-seventh  to 
Thence  entering  the  deserts,  our  numbers  now  being  30,000 
men,  and  60,000  camels  complete,  each  soldier  having  the 
charge  over  two  ;  and  we  were  all  of  us  (saving  a  few  that 

*  Dayat-er  Eoumi.  f  Wad  Enkees.  J  Meat  Bir  oo  Bir. 

§  'Msbrah  Dallia.      |1  Safeegosoolz.      H  Sidi  Hamid  ben  Moosa. 
**  Wad  Nun.  f  f  Sejea  Hambra. 


died  on  the  passage)  safely  conducted  by  an  old  blind 
Laurb  in  five  months'  time  over  this  sandy  ocean,  to  the 
castle  of  Shinget.  This  castle  of  Shinget  belongs  to  a 
better  sort  of  Laurbs,  as  they  are  generally  termed ; 
though  I  think  they  are  all  of  them  a  pack  of  thievish 
bloodthirsty  villains,  insomuch  that  whether  of  them  or  the 
Moors  are  the  better  I  shall  not  take  upon  me  to  deter- 
mine. Though  indeed,  in  the  original,  I  take  them  to  be  all 
one  and  the  same  people,  yet  is  there  here  a  Moorish 
governor  always  residing,  and  the  plunder  and  tribute  is 
there  brought  in  during  the  stay  of  one  caravan  on  the 
Guinea  coast  till  another  caravan  arrives,  and  then  the 
old  ones  march  off  with  their  booty,  and  leave  the  new 
comers  the  possession. 

In  and  about  this  castle  was  our  general  rendezvous, 
though  we  marched  thrice  to  the  Wadnil,  or  river  Nile, 
and  all  such  as  made  any  the  least  resistance  we  brought 
under  subjection  with  the  sword,  so  that  they  were  either 
obliged  to  bring  in  the  tyrant's  exorbitant  demands,  or 
to  suffer  the  severe  plundering  of  the  army,  stripping 
the  poor  negroes  of  all  they  had,  killing  many  of  them, 
and  bringing  off  their  children  into  the  bargain.  At 
our  first  coming  to  the  river,  we  found  on  it  a  French  vessel 
of  about  eighty  tons,  and  manned  by  twelve  sailors,  which 
the  Moors  swam  off  to,  boarded,  and  hauled  to  the  shore.* 
But  before  I  proceed  any  further,  I  shall  first  beg  leave  to 
go  back,  and  tell  you  of  a  most  extraordinary  thing  trans- 
acted by  our  old  blind  pilot,  in  our  travel  over  the  deserts, 
into  which  we  being  entered  about  fifty  days,  during  which 
we  never  failed  of  meeting  every  day,  or  every  other  day 
at  the  furthest,  with  some  very  refreshing  springs  of  water, 
whereby  we  and  our  cattle  were  very  much  cherished.  At 
one  of  those  springs  the  old  man  told  us  that  we  should 

*  Note  23. 


not  fail  there  to  fill  so  many  of  our  skins  as  would  hold 
■water  sufficient  for  all  of  us  for  three  days  at  the  least,  for 
that  we  should  not  meet  with  any  more  of  them  during 
that  time  ;  which  we  did  accordingly,  and  at  the  third  day's 
end  we  got  again  to  other  springs  where  he  told  us  that 
we  should  not  neglect  doing  the  same,  for  that  we  should 
not  for  a  fortnight  meet  with  water  oftener  than  every  third 
day ;  and  which,  indeed,  we  did  not.  However,  we  passed 
over  those  stages  without  any  great  matter  of  murmuring, 
and  at  the  last  of  them  he  told  us  that  we  should  there  be 
sure  to  fill  all  our  skins,  and  let  our  cattle  drink  their  fill, 
for  that  we  should  not  meet  with  any  more  water  for  some 
considerable  time,  and  therefore  we  should  be  on  our  march 
as  sparing  as  possible.  But  the  weather  being  according 
to  the  season  of  the  year  (it  being  in  the  beginning  of 
Autumn)  exceeding  hot,  about  the  sixth  day  following,  we 
being  about  to  pour  the  water  out  of  our  skins,  to  our  very 
great  astonishment  found  them  (or  at  least  the  greatest 
part  of  them)  quite  empty,  the  excessive  heat  of  the  sun 
having  exhaled  the  water  through  the  pores  of  the  leather, 
iusomuch  that  we  to  that  degree  suffered  for  four  days, 
that  had  not  our  old  pilot  cheered  us  in  a  wonderful  manner, 
it  must  certainly  have  been  attended  with  very  ill  conse- 
quences, it  causing  amongst  us  a  general  murmuring. 
But  he  desired  us  to  be  as  easy  as  we  could  under  our  sad 
distress,  for  that  he  was  well  satisfied  we  should  again  in  a 
short  time  have  water  enough,  desiring  one  of  our  people 
to  take  him  up  a  handful  of  sand  and  hold  it  to  his  nose ; 
and  after  he  had  snuffed  upon  it  for  some  short  time,  he 
pleasingly  told  we  should  before  two  days'  end  reach  other 
springs,  and  have  water  enough,  travelling  on,  and  en- 
couraging us  all  in  his  power. 

In  the  morning  of  the  second  day  following  he  desired 
that  another  handful  of  the   sand  of  that  place   might 


be  taken  up  and  held  to  his  nose;  on  which  the  party 
taking  that  which  he  had  smelt  of  two  days  before  (he 
having  still  preserved  it  in  a  piece  of  old  linen  cloth) 
stepped  forth  and  held  the  same  for  him  to  smell  to 
again ;  and  after  he  had  snuffled  on  it  for  a  much  longer 
time  than  at  first,  he  told  him  that  either  the  army  was 
again  marching  back,  or  that  he  had  most  grossly  and 
basely  imposed  on  him,  for  that  was  actually  the  same  or 
some  other  of  the  sand  of  that  place  he  had  smelt  of  two 
days  before,  and  therefore  he  thought  him  highly  to  blame, 
and  that  he  did  very  ill  thus  to  go  about  to  deceive  a  dark 
old  man.  However,  it  was  not  in  his  power,  notwithstand- 
ing he  had  so  much  like  a  fool  endeavoured  it.  "  There- 
fore," said  he,  "throw  it  away,  and  on  your  honour  take 
me  up  a  handful  of  the  real  sand  of  this  place,"  which, 
after  just  putting  his  nose  to  it,  he  said  in  a  most  pleasant 
manner,  "Now,  sirs,  this  is  something  like,"  giving  us  all 
to  understand  that  we  should,  about  four  o'clock  that  after- 
noon, have  water  sufficient;  which  was,  indeed,  at  this 
time  as  comfortable  news  to  me,  as  my  trusty  Genoese 
servitor's  assurance  of  procuring  me  some  comfortable 
cordials,  when  I  was  sick  with  my  wounds  at  Fez. 

About  noon  he  desired  a  fresh  handful  of  sand,  which 
putting  his  nose  to,  he  said,  "  Ay,  ay,  this  is  as  it  should 
be,"  ordering  us  to  keep  a  good  look  out  if  we  could  see  any 
wild  beasts,  ostriches,  eagles,'&c.,  and  in  such  case  to  tell 
him  of  it ;  and  before  we  had  travelled  half  a  league  further 
we  saw  several  eagles  in  the  air,  and  soon  after  many  wild 
beasts  and  ostriches,  flocking  together  on  the  sand,  and  on 
our  telling  him  of  it  he  told  us  to  march  directly  thither, 
and  there  we  should  find  several  shallow  wells  of  excellent 
water,  covered  over  with  the  skins  of  wild  beasts.  "  But," 
said  he,  "  take  care  you  don't  disturb  it,  by  pressing  on  too 
eagerly,  but  go  gradually  on,  and  you  will  find  sufficient 


for  you  all ;  and  I  further  promise  to  bring  you  to-morrow 
evening  to  a  very  large  pond,  where  yourselves  and  cattle 
may  all  drink  at  once,  and  where  we  may  again  fill  our 
skins,  so  as  no  more  to  want  water  during  the  remainder 
of  our  journey,  for  we  shall  afterwards  meet  with  little  or 
more  every  day."  At  last  we  got  up  to  these  so  very  much 
longed  after  wells,  which  we  found  according  to  the  old 
man's  assertion,  close  covered,  but  soon  hauled  off  the 
skins,  and  all  of  us,  to  our  very  great  satisfaction,  in  course 
drank  our  fill,  and  then  we  fell  to  settling  our  camp  there 
for  the  night,  and  there  being  for  a  good  space  round,  store 
of  pasture,  our  cattle  were  as  well  off  as  ourselves.* 

By  the  next  morning  we  were  gallantly  refreshed  ;  when, 
after  covering  the  wells  (having  first  filled  our  skins  with 
water,  sufficient  for  that  day),  we  with  fresh  courage  travelled 
on,  and  got  that  evening, according  to  promise,  to  the  spacious 
pond ;  and  here  being  also  good  store  of  provender,  with 
vast  numbers  of  wild  beasts,  ostriches,  &c.,  we  rested  two 
days,  and  through  means  of  our  old  pilot  we  killed  a  great 
many  of  them  after  the  following  manner.  On  our  seeing 
those  creatures  hankering  after  the  water,  and  telling  our 
pilot  of  it,  he  ordered  us  to  dig  holes  in  several  places 
round  the  pond,  deep  and  large  enough  to  hide  two  or  three 
musqueteers  in  each  ;  then  to  draw  off  the  army,  when  he 
said  they  would  come  to  drink,  so  as  we  might  shoot  them 
at  our  pleasure.  After  which  method  we  in  a  little  time 
killed  a  great  many  of  them,  committing  all  to  pot,  as 
lions,  antelopes,  and  ostriches  together ;  though  I  think  the 
latter  by  far  too  good  to  be  thus  misused,  as  being  alone 
most  excellent  and  dehcious  eating,  and  of  all  other  birds 
(if  it  may  properly  be  so  called),  in  the  way  of  serving  a 
great  many  people,  by  far  the  most  preferable,  as  weighing, 
no  doubt,  at  the  least  two  hundred  pounds  weight,  and  in 

♦  Note  24. 


a  manner  all  one  lump  of  fat,  so  as  one  of  them  decently 
handled  will  no  doubt  suffice  two  hundred  men. 

When  the  native  Laurbs  are  minded  to  kill  an  ostrich, 
they  generally  go  out  in  a  party,  and  at  a  distance  surround 
him,  drawing  nearer  by  degrees,  driving  him  from  one  to 
another  till  he  is  at  last  so  tired  as  that  he  can  seemingly 
do  no  more  harm;  which,  as  he  cannot  fly,  may  seem  to 
those  who  are  therewith  unacquainted  to  be  a  very  easy 
matter,  yet  is  it,  I  assure  you,  a  very  difficult  point.  For 
when  he  is  pursued,  he  runs  so  swiftly  as  few  horses  in 
Barbary  can  keep  up  with  him  :  and  when  he  finds  himself 
beginning  to  slacken  his  pace,  and  the  enemy  to  gain 
ground  upon  him,  he  to  that  degree  spurs  himself  with 
his  spurs  (which  he  hath  growing  under  his  wings,  pro- 
digious long  and  sharp)  as  that  he  soon  again  recovers  his 
pace,  his  wings  being  always  extended,  and  though  of  no 
benefit  to  him  by  way  of  flying  off  the  ground,  yet  no 
doubt  of  a  very  great  addition  to  his  speed  in  running,  he 
being  at  last  run  down  much  in  like  nature  of  a  hare  before 
a  pack  of  hounds,  with  this  difference  only,  that  being 
generally  close  hunting,  this  altogether  in  open  view. 

And  now  to  return  to  the  French  vessel ;  which,  after 
taking  out  some  elephants'  teeth  and  blacks  (their  gold 
being  all  thrown  overboard),  was  directly  burnt,  carrying 
the  prisoners  with  us  to  Shinget,  four  of  them  dying  in  the 
desert  on  our  way  homeward,  and  the  other  eight  we  carried 
with  us  to  Mequinez.  During  our  stay  on  the  Guinea 
coast,  which  was  in  all  about  twelve  months,  we  got  together 
a  very  great  booty,  as  gold,  ivory,  blacks,  &c.,  though  it 
did  not  satisfy  our  insatiate  master,  as  you  will  by  and  by 

Our  time  being  expired,  and  another  caravan  arrived, 
we  packed  up  our  treasure,  and  set  out  for  Mequinez, 
getting  well  to  our  old  pilot's  pond  without  anything  hap- 


pening  worth  my  noting,  where  we  again  gallantly  refreshed 
ourselves  during  the  space  of  two  days,  regahng  on  our 
wild  dainties.     And  after  filling  all  our  skins,  we  set  for- 
ward, and  got   that   evening  to  our  so  late  longed  after 
wells,  where  we  again  took  up  our  quarters,  without  im- 
pairing our   main   stock  of  provisions,   we   have   several 
ostriches  and  antelopes,  which  we  brought  with  us  from 
the   pond  for  our    supper.      The   next   morning  at   day- 
break we  were  again  on  the  march,  myself  and  six  more, 
in  pursuit  of  some  antelopes,  staying  about  a  mile  behind 
the  rest  of  the  caravan ;  when  all  on  a  sudden  we  saw 
twenty  of  the  wild  Laurbs  riding  on  camels  towards  us, 
they  having  during    the  caravan's  passing  by  hid  them- 
selves behind  some  large  sandy  banks,  of  which  were  here 
and  there  several  thrown  up   by  the   violent  winds,  and 
again  the  next  storm  very  likely  removed  to  other  places. 
The  Laurbs  being  between  us  and  the  army,  thought  no 
doubt  to  have  made  of  us  sure  prize  ;  six  of  them  advanced 
within  a  hundred  yards  of  us,  and  discharged  their  muskets 
on  us,  one  of  their  shot  grazing  along  the  side  of  my  head, 
and  another  wounding  a  Moor  close  by  my  side.     On  which 
we  fired  at  once  and  killed  two  of  them,  when  we  directly 
rode  off  to  charge,  and  fired  at  them  again,  killing  the 
other  four,  when  again  riding  off  we  saw  several  of  our 
people  coming  back  to  our  assistance. 

However,  before  they  came  up  with  us,  we  had  fired  twice 
round  on  the  other  fourteen,  and  killed  most  of  those,  and 
then  we  saw  many  more  of  their  party  advancing ;  though 
on  their  seeing  those  of  our  people  come  back  they  turned 
from  us  and  fled,  and  lest  we  might  happen  to  lose  sight  of 
our  army  we  pursued  them  no  further,  but  hasted  forward  as 
fast  as  we  could.  After  this  skirmish  we  travelled  on  un- 
molested, taking  most  special  care  of  our  water,  so  as  we 
might  not  be  again  reduced  to  so  sad  a  calamity,  I  riding 


as  often  as  I  could  alongside  of  the  old  Laurb,  asking  him 
a  great  many  questions,  and  particularly  concerning  his  so 
wonderful  and  surprising  knowledge  in  smelling  to  the 
sand.  To  which  he,  after  a  most  courteous  manner,  answered 
me  that  this  was  his  thirtieth  journey  over  this  ocean, 
therefore  in  going  and  coming  his  sixtieth  time ;  that  in 
his  last  four  journeys,  finding  his  sight  gradually  declining, 
he  had,  by  often  making  the  experiment  (as  having  a 
wonderful  faculty  in  smelling),  attained  to  this  so  wonderful 
knowledge,  he  being,  he  said,  well  satisfied  that  the  loss 
of  his  sight  was  thereby  in  a  very  great  measure  compen- 
sated, insomuch  that  he  would  engage  at  any  time  to  tell 
in  what  part  of  the  desert  he  was.  One  day  as  I  was 
riding  pretty  near  him,  my  camel  happened  with  one  of  his 
feet  to  hit  against  something  which  sounded  very  hollow, 
which  I  telling  the  old  man  of,  as  wondering  what  it  should 
be,  he  told  me  it  was  a  mummy.  "  A  mummy,"  said  I, 
"  pray  what  is  that  ?  "  "  It  is,"  said  he,  "  a  human  corpse, 
which  hath  for  some  time  lain  buried  in  the  sands,  till 
through  the  excessive  heat  thereof  it  is  dried  to  a  kecks ; 
and  if  our  surgeons  knew  it,  they  would  not  suffer  it  (if  they 
thought  it  fit  for  their  purpose)  to  lie  any  longer  there."  "  Fit 
for  their  purpose,"  said  I.  "  What,  is  one  of  them  better 
than  another  ?  "  "  That,"  said  he,  "  is  according  to  the  time 
of  their  being  buried,  or  of  their  being  more  or  less  dried." 
*'  Well,  father,"  said  I,  "if  I  should  be  so  lucky  to  light 
on  another,  I  think  I  should  have  curiosity  enough  to  take 
it  up."  And  riding  again  the  next  day  near  the  old  man, 
he  bade  me  to  get  off  my  camel,  for  that  his  camel  had  with 
one  of  his  feet  struck  against  a  mummy ;  which,  by  his 
directions,  I  with  the  point  of  my  sword  soon  found,  and 
with  a  spade  digged  it  up  in  a  little  time.  It  was  as  hard 
as  a  stock-fish,  had  all  its  limbs  and  flesh  (though  shrivelled) 
entire,  all  the  teeth  firm  in  the  gums  ;  and  as  to  its  being 


any  way  nauseous,  a  man  might  without  oJQfence  have  even 
carried  it  in  his  bosom. 

After  this,  we  travelled  on  without  anything  else  happen- 
ing particular,  till  we  safely  arrived  at  Tedlah,  where  we 
found  Muley  Abdallah  waiting  our  coming,  diverting  the 
time  in  plundering  the  country,  and  murdering  his  subjects. 
And  after  he  had  strictly  examined  into  the  value  of  our 
treasure,  he  being  not  at  all  pleased  with  it  (though  no 
doubt  it  was  to  the  value  of  some  millions  of  English 
pounds  sterling),  killed  Mod  sore,  our  Bashaw,  and  seventeen 
more  of  our  principals,  with  his  own  hand,  and  the  next 
day  twenty-seven  chiefs,  who  came  thither  to  him  in  all 
humility  from  several  parts  of  the  country  with  their 
presents,  and,  to  my  most  unspeakable  grief,  my  deliverer 
from  the  bloody  knife  at  Assamoor. 

When  the  tyrant  was  glutted  with  blood,  we  marched  with 
him  at  our  head  to  Mequinez  ;  whence,  after  the  caravan  was 
separated  and  sent  home  to  their  respective  habitations,  I 
was  again  at  the  end  of  six  weeks  hurried  away  on  the  follow- 
ing expedition  : — The  tyrant  having  repeated  advices  of  a 
Vast  number  of  credulous  poor  souls  being  (through  the 
means  of  one  Enseph*  or  Joseph  Haunsell,  a  noted  conjurer) 
stirred  up  to  rebellion  in  and  about  Tedlah,  he  having 
before  shown  many  of  his  magic  pranks,  and  had  then  so 
far  insinuated  into  the  giddy  multitude  as  to  make  them 
believe  they  should  be  invulnerable  from  Muley  Abdallah's 
shot,  and  suchlike  stuff,  and  they  pinning  their  faith  so 
far  on  his  sleeve,  that  they  were  gathered  in  a  little  time 
to  a  body  of  at  least  two  hundred  thousand  men,  doing 
even  as  he  commanded  them,  committing  many  insolencies, 
and  with  a  high  hand  (like  a  great  torrent)  bearing  all 
down  before  them.  All  which,  I  say,  coming  to  the 
Emperor's  ears,  I  am,  in  company  with  eighty  thousand 

♦  y(j)usuf. 


regular  troops,  and  Salem  DucuUee  *  at  our  head,  ordered 
directly  to  march  against  them  ;  and  notwithstanding  the 
vast  number  the  conjurer  had  with  him,  and  those  spirited 
up  by  his  pretended  conjurations,  yet  could  he  not  hinder 
them  from  flying  into  the  heights  of  the  mountains  before 
us.  However,  we  followed  them  so  close,  that  we  by  the 
sword  and  musket  killed  vast  numbers  in  a  very  little 
time ;  and  after  we  had  at  last  conjured  the  conjurer  into 
our  custody,  we  marched  with  him  to  Tedlah,  where  the 
Emperor  then  was,  and  gladly  received  him  at  our  hands, 
telling  him  that  he  was  very  glad  to  see  him  there,  and 
that  as  he  had  hitherto  heard  so  very  much  of  his  famous 
conjurations,  if  he  could  tell  him  what  death  he  had  within 
himself  determined  for  him,  he  would,  notwithstanding  all 
his  past  villainies,  pardon  him.  To  which  the  conjurer 
making  no  answer,  he  told  him  that  he  thought  his  con- 
juration to  be  then  at  an  end,  and  that  himself  was  become 
the  better  conjurer  of  the  two,  for  that  he  was  very  sure 
his  hands  and  feet  should  be  cut  off  to  the  arm-wrists  and 
ankles ;  which  was  immediately  done,  and  his  body  thrown 
on  a  dunghill  naked,  guarded  by  fifty  soldiers  till  dead,  and 
afterwards  left  till  it  was  eaten  up  by  the  dogs. 

This  Enseph  Haunsell  was  actually  in  his  days  not  only 
a  noted  magician,  but  had  therein  performed  many  strange 
and  very  unaccountable  things  in  favour  of  Muley  Hamet 
Deby,  as  raising  to  all  human  appearance  vast  numbers 
of  armed  men,  and  in  the  Emperor's  palace  at  Mequinez 
making  most  surprising  doings,  the  doors  in  and  through- 
out it,  when  they  were  to  all  people's  seeming  close  shut 
and  firmly  bolted,  flying  open  on  a  sudden  of  themselves, 
and  on  the  top  of  the  palace  walls  many  armed  men 
appearing  on  horseback,  sometimes  in  grand  order,  riding 
in  ranks,  and  sometimes  in  great  confusion,  rallying  and 
*  'Abd  es-slam — or  Salem — Eddoukkali. 


charging  one  another  sword  in  hand.  This  did  I  myself 
see,  as  well  as  many  thousand  others ;  though  indeed  I 
could  not  at  that  time  have  any  further  opinion  of  it  than 
that  it  was  a  trick  or  delusion,  yet  I  must  confess  that  I 
had  afterwards  (when  I  was  about  to  make  my  escape  for 
good)  some  reason  to  believe  there  was  somewhat  more 
than  imaginary,  as  shall  in  its  proper  place  be  set  forth. 

This  way  of  putting  the  conjurer  to  death  was  premedi- 
tated by  the  tyrant,  though  I  had  never  before  seen  any 
of  his  subjects  despatched  by  his  order  that  way ;  not  but 
it  was  (when  they  were  up  in  arms  one  against  another  in 
their  civil  wars)  cruelly  practised,  and  of  which  indeed  I 
had  one  night  a  very  melancholy  instance.  I  being  out  in 
pursuit  of  some  of  those  rebels,  and  straying  a  little  from 
my  party,  in  passing  by  an  old  ruined  house  I  heard  a 
most  dismal  groan,  and  which  I  very  attentively  listening 
to,  I  soon  heard  to  be  repeated  in  different  accents ;  when 
stopping  at  the  entrance,  I  was  soon  given  to  understand 
that  there  were  four  brothers  (stout  young  men)  lying  on 
the  floor,  having  all  of  them  their  hands  and  feet  cut  off, 
through  the  cruelty  of  their  enemies  of  a  neighbouring 
town,  humbly  imploring  me  to  go  to  their  father's  house 
and  acquaint  him  with  it. 

And  after  they  had  given  me  directions,  I  went,  found 
the  house,  and  was  in  a  little  time  back  again  with  their 
father  and  mother,  and  with  them  sufficient  help  and 
light ;  and  at  our  entrance  we  found  two  of  them  dead,  and 
the  other  two  almost  ready  to  expire.  However,  they  had 
time  enough  to  tell  them  by  whom  they  were  thus  used  ; 
so  that  I  was,  to  my  very  great  satisfaction,  freed  from  all 
suspicion  of  having  any  hand  in  it ;  of  which,  had  they  all 
died  in  my  absence,  I  might  very  reasonably  have  lain 
under  a  very  great  one,  and  have  been  very  innocently 
punished.    And  now  are  they  all  at  work  in  removing  the 


two  surviving  unhappy  wretches ;  who,  on  their  being 
moved,  died  also,  and  then  I  was  courteously  entreated 
by  their  father  to  go  to  his  house ;  which,  as  thinking 
myself  to  be  altogether  unsafe  till  I  had  again  joined  my 
own  party,  I  did  not  think  fit  to  do ;  therefore  I  went 
directly  in  quest  of  them. 

Now  am  I,  after  conjuring  the  conjurer,  again  breath- 
ing for  some  short  time  in  Mequinez,  and  where  is  soon 
about  to  be  acted  by  the  tyrant  the  most  bloody  tragedy 
you  ever  before  heard  of;  and  though  I  was,  during  the 
time  of  the  transaction  of  the  first  part  of  this  story,  with 
the  caravan  on  the  coast  of  Guinea,  yet  (as  I  had  it  from 
so  many  undoubted  reports)  I  shall  here  venture  to  set  it 
down  for  fact,  and  therefore  I  will  tell  it  you  from  the 
beginning,  together  with  all  its  circumstances.  The  tyrant 
having  amongst  his  soldiery  a  particular  troop  of  brave 
men,  to  the  number  of  about  eight  hundred,  commanded 
by  one  Musa  Jerrory  *  (one  Eli  Bendoobash  t  being  his 
lieutenant),  who  had  of  a  long  time  behaved  after  the 
bravest  manner,  and,  like  the  veteran  Janissaries  in  the 
armies  of  the  Grand  Turk,  bearing  down  all  before  them ; 
but  talking  a  little  too  freely  and  openly  touching  the 
tyrant's  most  unwarrantable  bloody  actions  amongst  his 
subjects,  which  coming  to  his  ears,  he  was  thereat  so 
disturbed  that  he  was  thoroughly  resolved  to  get  rid  of 
them,  could  he  tell  how — and  which,  indeed,  as  standing 
in  very  great  fear  of  them,  he  could  not  for  some  time 
contrive  how  to  bring  about. 

However,  his  old  friend  the  Devil  soon  put  it  into  his 
head,  ordering  them  in  a  friendly  manner  to  repair  forth- 
with to  the  river  Draugh,  there  to  receive  and  bring  to 
him  to  Mequinez  their  respective  tributes,  though  he  at 
the  same  time  very  well  knew  there  was  none  due  to  him 
*  Moosa  El  Djerari  f  Ali  ben  Doobash. 


from  them,  they  being,  on  account  of  their  furnishing  him 
with  a  certain  number  of  horsemen  for  his  wars,  exempted 
from  all  other  impositions  whatsoever ;  and  he  knew,  should 
they  be  any  further  pressed,  they  would  no  doubt  soon  fall 
on  this  small  number  and  cut  them  to  pieces.  Nevertheless, 
lest  they  might  not  do  it  so  soon  as  he  expected,  he  took 
special  care  to  preadvise  them  how  they  should  behave  to 
them,  viz.  (for  certain  reasons  of  state,  as  then  to  him- 
self only  known),  to  put  them  all  to  the  sword  ;  for  should 
he  at  that  time  go  about  to  do  justice  upon  them  at  home, 
it  might  chance,  as  his  affaii's  then  stood,  to  prove  to 
him  of  very  ill  consequence ;  therefore,  as  he  was  in 
danger  of  his  life  through  their  means,  he  humbly  hoped 
they  would  rid  him  of  them  as  soon  as  they  found  a  fit 

And  now  are  these  daring  lions,  like  innocent  sheep, 
hurrying  on  to  their  slaughter  apace,  their  number  being 
now  reduced  to  six  hundred,  the  rest  of  them  being  slain  in 
several  former  battles ;  though  on  their  arrival,  and  for 
several  months  after,  they  were  treated  after  a  seeming 
friendly  manner,  giving  them  every  day  fair  promises,  still 
drilling  them  on  to  meet  with  (if  they  could  on  their  side) 
a  careless  opportunity  whereby  they  might,  with-  the  less 
danger  to  themselves,  perform  their  so  bloody  order.  But 
Jerrory  kept  his  small  number  in  so  good  order,  that  they 
could  not  even  at  the  last  find  an  opportunity  to  their 

This  vigilance  of  these  few  troops  not  a  little  disturbing 
them,  they  now  order,  for  the  better  execution  of  the 
bloody  tragedy,  great  numbers  of  armed  men  to  be  with 
the  greatest  privacy  raised  in  several  places,  and  in  the 
night-time  those  several  troops  to  march  and  join  at  a 
certain  place  in  one  body ;  and  which,  though  they  were 
in  all  thirty  thousand  men,  was  managed  with  so  much 


secrecy,  that  had  not  Jerrory  kept  a  good  look  out,  they 
had  no  doubt  so  surrounded  him  as  to  have  performed 
their  orders  to  a  tittle.  But  he  having  some  small  time 
to  rally  his  little  army,  put  himself  into  as  good  a  posture 
as  he  could  to  receive  them  after  the  most  advantageous 
manner,  his  troops  behaving  like  gallant  soldiers,  and  in  a 
very  short  time  killing  thousands  of  the  enemy. 

But  alas  !  poor  men,  what  could  they  do  against  so  much 
odds?  To  conquer  was  even  impossible,  and  to  save  their 
lives  by  flight  very  hazardous  and  uncertain ;  however, 
either  that  was  to  be  attempted,  or  death  must  inevitably 
attend  them ;  therefore,  after  he  had  of  his  six  hundred  lost 
.  almost  two-thirds,  he  turned  his  horse  and  cried  aloud, 
**  Follow  me !  "  cutting  himself  a  passage  through  the 
enemy,  and  with  two  hundred  and  two,  besides  himself  and 
his  lieutenant,  in  spite  of  all  they  could  do,  got  off  to 
Mequinez.  Which,  indeed,  was  no  more  than  too  truly  an 
escape  out  of  the  frying-j)an  into  the  fire,  or  the  sheep 
running  to  the  old  wolves  to  tell  that  they  would  not  suffer 
their  young  ones  to  worry  them ;  though  had  they  known 
the  threads  of  their  lives  to  be  so  near  being  cut  by  the 
accursed  treachery  of  a  bloody  tyrant,  they  had  no  doubt 
sold  their  lives  at  a  much  dearer  rate. 

Immediately  on  their  arrival  into  the  city,  even  before  they 
could  of  themselves  have  the  power  to  appear  before  the 
tyrant,  the  two  commanders  were  ordered  before  him,  he 
demanding  of  them  in  an  angry  tone  if  they  had  brought 
him  what  he  had  sent  them  for.  They  told  him  no ;  for  that 
the  Draughians,  after  receiving  them  in  seeming  friend- 
ship, and  for  a  long  time  putting  them  off,  and  drilling 
them  on  with  fair  promises,  had  basely  and  treacherously 
fallen  upon  them  with  thirty  thousand  men,  and  that  they 
only,  with  about  two  hundred  more,  were  miraculously 
escaped  to  tell  him  the  most  unhappy  news.     "News," 


said  he,  "  you  dogs,  of  what  ?  "  "  Why,  sir,"  said  Jerrory, 
**  that  they  fell  upon  us  all  at  once  with  thirty  thousand 
men."  "Very  well,"  said  he,  **and  I  don't  in  the  least 
doubt  but  that  you,  like  dastardly  cowards,  ran  away 
without  fighting,  to  the  utter  disgrace  of  me,  only  for  the 
sake  of  living  a  little  longer  and  coming  home  to  die  by 
the  sword  of  justice ;  and  which,"  said  he,  swearing  by  the 
life  of  Mahomet,  "  you  shall  do  this  same  hour."  They 
told  him  that  they  hoped  he  would  first  inquire  better  into 
the  merits  of  their  actions,  telling  him  that  they  had  first 
killed  their  thousands.  **  Your  thousands,"  said  he,  "  you 
dogs  !  Pray  why  had  not  you  stood  it  to  the  last  and  killed 
your  ten  thousands  ?  "  When  drawing  his  sword,  Bendoo- 
bash  cried  out  for  mercy ;  at  which  Jerrory  told  him  that 
after  so  many  brave  actions  he  had  seen  him  to  perform, 
he  thought  it  beneath  him  and  a  disgrace  to  beg  his  life 
of  such  a  damnable  villain ;  for  that  he  then,  though  too 
late,  saw  the  traitor,  who,  he  said,  had  as  good  take  his 
life  then  as  at  another  time  ;  for  that  he  would,  no  doubt, 
at  last  murder  all  his  loyal  subjects,  unless  he  was  by  the 
true  sword  of  justice  prevented,  and  therefore  he  scorned 
to  beg  his  life  on  any  terms  of  such  a  bloodthirsty 
damnable  villain.  On  which  the  tyrant  at  one^blow  struck 
off  his  head,  and  that  of  Bendoobash  at  another. 

Then  he  asked  for  the  remainder  of  theii*  men,  and  being 
told  they  were  all  on  horseback  without  the  gate,  waiting 
their  commanders'  orders  where  to  set  up,  after  giving  his 
guards  secret  instructions,  he  with  a  good  body  of  them 
went  directly  out  to  them;  and  after  telling  them,  after  his 
deceitful  manner,  that  he  was  glad  to  see  them  come  home 
safe  again,  that  they  had  had  of  it  a  very  troublesome 
time,  that  their  horses  looked  very  thin,  and  the  like,  he 
•ordered  them  to  alight,  in  order  to  their  being  sent  to  his 
fitables ;   when  they  answered  him   that  they  would,  if 



he  pleased,  ride  them  thither  themselves.  "  No,  no,  poor 
hearts,"  said  he,  "get  off,  that  I  may  see  how  you  can 
stand  on  your  own  legs  ; "  at  the  same  time  ordering  them 
to  deliver  their  arms  and  draw  up  into  one  rank ;  which 
they  instantly  obeying,  and  he  riding  forward  and  backward 
as  if  the  better  to  view  them,  they  were  all  on  a  sudden 
and  in  a  moment  shot  by  his  guards,  saving  one  only,  who, 
seeing  through  the  tyrant's  intentions  at  his  ordering  them 
to  alight,  rode  off  to  one  of  their  churches.  The  tyrant, 
lest  the  victims  might  not  be  dead  enough,  ordered  his 
guards  to  prepare  to  give  them  a  second  round,  which, 
before  they  could  make  ready,  the  tyrant  standing  pretty 
near  the  fallen  victims,  one  of  them  being  still  in  a 
capacity  of  rising,  and  having  about  him  a  long  knife,  got 
so  near  him,  that  had  not  a  lad  standing  by  very  unluckily 
perceived  it,  he  had  no  doubt  therewith  given  him  his 
just  reward  by  ending  his  days. 

They  were  then  again  all  shot  at,  and  all  their  heads 
being  cut  of,  the  bodies  laid  on  their  backs,  and  the  head 
of  each  man  laid  on  his  breast,  they  were  for  ten  days  (as 
none  daring  to  carry  them  off)  exposed  in  the  open  street 
to  public  view,  and  at  last  stunk  to  that  degree  that  none 
could  endure  to  come  near  them  ;  but  the  smell  even  reach- 
ing the  tyrant's  apartments,  they  were  all  at  last,  saving 
what  the  dogs  had  eaten,  carried  by  his  order  into  the  fields 
and  buried.  And  so  ended  this  so  horrid  and  barbarous 
murder,  which  I  was  a  witness  of ;  though  the  first  part,  as 
I  said  before,  I  being  then  on  the  coast  of  Guinea,  is  only 
hearsay,  which  even  as  then  sounded  but  harshly  to  his 
credit,  and  was  soon  after,  by  the  Black  Army  in  general 
— most  of  the  late  victims  being  their  countrymen — in  a 
great  measure  revenged,  by  driving  him  out. 

Immediately  after  the  perpetration  of  this  so  horrid  and 
premeditated  murder,  I  was  with  my  comrades  sent  to  the 


castle  of  Boossacran,"  distant  from  Mequinez  about  four 
leagues ;  where  I  had,  as  to  my  own  particular  part,  little 
else  to  do  than  to  hunt,  fish,  and  fowl  for  myself  and 
comrades,  having  free  toleration  from  the  Emperor, 
making  amongst  us  a  very  good  hand  of  it.  Several 
of  us  chiefly  employed  our  time  that  way,  and  killing 
great  plenty  of  game,  to  our  general  satisfaction,  though 
not  to  be  supposed  in  any  way  equal  to  that  of  the 
Emperor.  We  went  out,  I  say,  but  a  few  of  us  together, 
without  any  dogs,  and  him  with  a  great  many,  and  several 
hawks,  as  having  at  the  least,  though  never  a  hunter,  a 
hundred  greyhounds,  or  long-dogs,  and  on  horseback  and 
on  foot  as  many  moors  and  negroes,  by  way  of  starters, 
with  their  long  poles  in  their  hands,  spreading  abreast, 
still  beating  the  cover  as  they  went  on.  Thus  the  game 
sheltering  therein  were  either  on  foot  or  on  wing,  it  being 
almost  impossible  for  any,  saving  very  young  birds  or 
leverets  lying  very  close,  to  escape  them,  having  very  often 
on  foot  together  four  or  five  hares,  and  on  wing  twice  as 
many  partridges,  and  dogs  and  hawks  all  at  one  and  the 
same  time  at  work;  and  with  the  very  great  speed  and 
force  the  dogs  ran,  they  being  divided  into  as  many  parties 
as  were  hares  on  foot,  and  often  meeting  on  the  turn, 
struck  against  one  another  to  that  degree  that  they  at 
the  best  became  useless,  and  many  times  fell  quite  dead 
on  the  spot.  After  the  Emperor  spent  the  forenoon  in 
those  exercises,  and  his  stomach  putting  him  in  mind  of 
bis  dinner,  he  generally  rode  off  to  a  pleasure-house  he 
had  about  a  mile  or  two  off,  according  to  the  part  of  the 
country  he  was  then  in,  to  his  dinner,  though  when  the 
maggot  bit  him  he  had  it  brought  him  into  the  field. 

Near  the  walls  of  our  castle  ran  a  very  fine  river,  and 
plentifully  stocked  with  many  sorts  of  very  excellent  fish, 
*  Bou  Sacran. 


and  as  I  for  two  reasons  very  much  admired  fishing,  as 
first  for  the  amusement,  and  next  the  gratifying  myself 
and  comrades  with  the  fruits,  seldom  a  day  passed  without 
my  taking  little  or  more. 

One  day,  as  I  and  one  of  my  comrades  (a  Frenchman) 
were  fishing,  he  with  a  casting-net  and  myself  with  a  rod, 
and  had  between  us  both  taken  a  large  basketful,  the 
Emperor  with  one  of  his  brothers,  before  we  saw  them, 
were  on  our  backs,  and  instead  of  giving  us  any  dis- 
content, he  in  a  seeming  pleasing  way  asked  if  we  had 
taken  any  fish.  I  told  him  yes,  showing  him  to  the 
basket ;  and  after  he  had  looked  at  them  for  some  time, 
he  told  us  that  he  had  not  to  his  mind  of  a  long  time  seen 
finer,  ordering  us  to  carry  them  directly  to  his  pleasure- 
house — and  which,  it  being  from  the  place  we  were  then  at 
no  more  than  a  mile,  we  did  in  a  very  little  time;  and  just 
as  we  were  entering,  the  Emperor  and  his  brother  alighted 
at  the  gate,  and  very  unexpectedly  gave  us  twenty  gold 
ducats,  which  cheerfully  carried  us  back  again  to  the  river, 
and  we  again  filled  our  basket,  and  went  home  to  our 
castle  as  rich  as  emperors. 

About  this  time  the  Emperor  having  two  or  three 
expresses  on  the  back  of  one  another  from  Itewoossey,* 
about  four  days'  journey  from  Mequinez,  intimating  that 
a  great  body  of  malecontents  were  there  gathered, 
behaving  after  a  most  insolent  manner,  and  that  they 
were  still  increasing  their  numbers,  he  ordered  all  the 
light  horse  he  could  pick  up  to  be  in  readiness  to  go  with 
him  in  person  to  correct  them,  and  in  three  days  and  one 
night  we  got  to  the  foot  of  the  mountain  wherein  they  had 
sheltered  themselves,  ourselves  and  horses  sufficiently 
tired,  before  the  rebels  were  apprised  of  our  coming. 
However,  after  some  short  refreshment,  we  marched  on 
*  Ait  Wassou,  a  Berber  tribe  ? 


foot  up  to  their  nests,  though  of  the  birds  we  found  but 
few,  most  of  them,  on  notice  of  our  coming  up  the 
mountain,  being  flown.  Yet,  we  there  found  some, 
and  some  of  them  we  took  by  pursuit ;  but  their  ways 
being  in  a  manner  past  finding  out  to  those  therewith 
unacquainted,  it  would  have  been  altogether  as  dangerous 
as  in  vain  for  us  to  follow  them  any  further.  Therefore, 
after  two  days'  pursuit,  we  again  returned  to  their  nests, 
stripped  them  of  all  their  furniture  and  provision,  then  set 
them  on  fire,  and  taking  with  us  all  their  cattle  returned 
again  down  to  our  horses,  where,  after  two  days'  refresh- 
ment, and  disposing  of  the  cattle,  &c.,  for  what  we  could 
get,  we  in  four  days  followed  the  Emperor  to  Mequinez, 
to  which  he,  being  mounted  on  the  finest  mare  I  ever 
saw,  rode  without  any  attendant  in  the  space  of  twelve 
hours,  being  140  miles  from  the  place  where  we  then  were. 
This  mare  was  about  fifteen  hands  in  height,  and  she  was 
all  over  (except  her  eyes,  which  were  of  a  fiery  red,  and 
eyelids,  which  were  red  hairs  pinked)  as  white  as  snow; 
and  notwithstanding  the  Emperor  knew  himself  to  be  as 
hated  by  his  subjects  as  a  serpent,  yet  did  he  put  so  much 
confidence  in  this  mare  as  not  to  fear  when  he  was  on  her 
back  for  any  to  come  after  him,  for  he  often  rode  by 
himself  in  this  manner. 

Now  am  I,  after  this  short  tour,  again  at  Boossacran, 
and  every  day  employed  in  shooting,  fishing,  or  hunting, 
either  for  the  Emperor  or  ourselves ;  and  as  he  had 
allotted  us  round  the  castle  sufficient  quantities  of  land, 
with  oxen,  husbandry  implements,  and  seed  corn,  many 
of  our  company  set  themselves  at  work,  ploughed  the 
ground,  tilled  it,  and  had  plentiful  crops.  Though,  as  to 
my  own  part,  I  being  never  in  that  way  instructed,  and 
having  others  to  work  for  me,  I  never  troubled  my  head 
about   it,  but   acted   by   general   consent   as   a  purveyor 


during  the  time  of  tillage,  weeding,  or  harvest ;  and  at  all 
intervals  from  our  farming  affairs,  excepting  those  of 
mounting  the  guard,  we  were  generally  all  hands  on  the 
game.  And  this  was,  I  think,  except  my  intervals  at 
Tamnsnah,  the  most  agreeable  of  all  the  time  of  my  living 
in  Barbary  ;  though  during  this,  scarce  a  day  passed  with- 
out seriously  reflecting  with  myself  on  escape,  which  I  then 
found  to  be  very  hazardous.  Therefore,  as  I  found  the 
ruin  of  the  country  every  day  more  apparently  approaching, 
and  plainly  foresaw  that  it  could  not  be  long  e'er  the 
tyrant  was  driven  out,  and  that  all  would  be  in  the 
utmost  confusion,  I  for  the  time  lived  as  comfortably  as 
I  could,  and  with  Christian  patience  waited  the  event. 


Tlie  tmce  between  England  and  Morocco  broken  by  the  Sallee  men 
capturing  an  English  ship — A  Jewish  interpreter  burnt  for 
daring  to  advise  the  Emperor — Mr.  Pellow  meets  with  an  old 
school-fellow  in  misfortune  like  himself — The  flight  of  Muley 
Abdallah  to  Tamdant — Another  reverse  in  the  fortunes  of  war — 
Muley  Ali  deposed  and  Muley  Abdallah  again  Emperor — The  fate 
of  a  rebellious  chief — How  the  Fez  deputation  was  treated  by 
Abdallah,  and  how  the  blind  man  sp'ared  utilized  his  freedom — 
Oiir  author  once  more  meditates  escape  in  the  confusion  of  the 
civil  war — A  native  fortune-teller  prophecies  fair  things  for  the 
future — He,  at  last,  makes  a  burst  for  freedom. 

ABOUT  this  time  was  the  truce  again  broken  between 
the  English  and  the  Moors  on  the  following  occasion : 
The  Moors  having,  as  they  thought,  strongly  provided 
themselves  with  shipping,  sent  to  sea  the  following  four, 
viz.,  Anjour,  their  Admiral,  carrying  twenty-four  guns; 
Cassam  Bcnisha*  a  new  ship  never  before  at  sea,  carrying 
twenty  ditto,  EUe  02iad,f  of  twenty  ditto,  and  Ahsolem 
Candccl,l  of  sixteen  ditto;  and  Candeel  falling  in  with 
Captain  Shelley,  of  Plymouth,  then  commander  of  an  Eng- 
lish ship,  though  freighted  by  the  Portuguese,  he  having 
on  board  seventy  Portuguese  passengers,  and  amongst 
them  six  friars,  made  prize  of  him,  and  carried  him  into 
Mamora.  Of  which  complaint  being  made  to  the  British 
Consul    then  at    Sallee,  he  immediately  thereon   made 

*  Kassem  ben  Isha.         f  El  "Wad.  I  'Abd-es-Slam  Kandel. 


application  to  Candeel,  to  set  tbem  again  at  liberty ;  and 
which,  finding  he  could  not  do  according  to  his  hope  there, 
they  being  sent  all  prisoners  to  Mequinez,  he  was  thither 
resolved  to  follow  them,  in  order  to  make  his  complaint 
to  the  Emperor.  And  thither  indeed  he  went,  taking  with 
one  Solomon  Namias,  a  Jew,  as  his  interpreter,  and  was 
soon  introduced  to  the  tyrant,  who  asked  him  what  he 
would  have.  To  which  he  answered  by  the  Jew,  that  he 
was  come  to  acquaint  his  Excellency  with  the  breach  of 
the  truce  which  had  so  lately  been  punctually  concluded 
on  both  sides  between  his  subjects  and  them  of  his  royal 
master ;  who,  he  said,  intended  nothing  less  than  giving 
him  or  any  of  them  the  least  uneasiness,  by  way  of  any 
hostilities,  as  Candeel  had  very  lately  done  on  him  and  his  ; 
therefore  he  humbly  hoped  that  his  Highness  would  be 
pleased  to  order  the  ship  and  prisoners  to  be  again  restored. 
To  which  the  tyrant  told  him,  that  the  prisoners  were 
subjects  to  the  King  of  Portugal,  his  bitter  enemy,  and  not 
to  the  King  of  Great  Britain,  his  master,  and  therefore 
lawful  prize.  When  the  Jew  told  him  that  he  thought  it 
very  hard  that  the  English  should  not  be  allowed  to  carry 
in  their  own  ships  passengers  of  any  nation  in  peace  with 
them ;  however,  he  humbly  hoped  that  if  he  was  not  then 
disposed  to  set  the  Portuguese  at  liberty,  he  would  at  least 
set  at  liberty  all  the  English  and  their  ship. 

But  Candeel  being  present,  he  asked  the  tyrant  if  he  knew 
with  whom  he  had  been  so  long  talking.  "  Talking  with," 
said  he,  "  with  an  Englishman."  "  No,  sir,"  said  Candeel, 
"but  with  a  Jew."  "  Indeed  !  "  said  he,  "  with  a  Jew ! "  and 
calling  aloud  to  his  guards,  "  Here,"  said  he,  "  take  away 
Mr.  Jew  and  burn  him  directly;  "  and  then  the  soldiers 
laying  hold  on  him,  he  cried  out  to  the  Emperor  to  save 
his  life,  and  he  would  give  him  two  hundred  cantles  of 
silver ;  nay,  that  he  would  give  it  only  to  be  admitted  to 


speak  a  few  words.  "  No,  thou  dog,"  said  the  tyrant,  "  all 
the  silver  in  Barbary  shall  not  excuse  thee  ;  therefore, 
I  say,  take  him  away  and  burn  him ; "  which  they 
instantly  did,  laying  him  flat  on  his  belly,  heaping  in  a 
most  cruel  manner  the  wood  upon  him  alive,  and  in  a 
little  time  he,  with  grievous  shrieks,  and  no  doubt  in 
very  great  agonies,  expired.  His  house  was  afterwards 
ransacked  of  an  immense  sum  of  money,  and  other  riches. 
On  which  the  consul,  seeing  no  likelihood  of  better  success, 
departed,  as  I  was  informed,  for  England.  However,  I 
know  he  was  back  again  in  a  little  time,  and  met  with 
better  success,  as  you  shall  by  and  by  hear. 

Not  long  after  Shelley's  captivity,  the  piratical  villains 
being  all  hands  at  sea  in  taking  and  making  prize  of  all 
Christian  nations,  there  were  brought  to  Mequinez  the 
men  which  belonged  to  four  other  English  ships ;  and  I 
having  information  of  their  coming,  and  liberty  when  I 
pleased  to  go  to  the  city,  I  set  out  from  my  castle  very 
early  in  the  morning  to  see  if  any  of  them  belonged  to  or 
near  Falmouth ;  and  a  little  before  sunrising,  I  within 
a  league  of  the  city  met  with  a  great  many  of  the  foremost 
of  them.  Inquiring  of  them  what  parts  of  England  they 
were  of,  and  if  any  one  of  them  belonged  to  or  near  the 
above-said  place,  they  told  me  yes,  there  was  one  coming  up, 
named  George  Davies,  of  Flushing,  a  small  seaport  town 
within  that  harbour  ;  and  with  whom  I  soon  joined,  asking 
him  if  he  knew  me.  He  told  me  no.  "  Why,"  said  I,  "  you 
and  I  were  once  schoolfellows  together  at  the  church-town 
of  Milor."  "Indeed ! "  said  he,  "I  cannot  imagine  who  you 
should  be,  unless  you  are  Thomas  Pellow,  who  I  have  of  a 
long  time  heard  was  in  his  childhood  carried  with  his 
uncle  into  Barbary."  '*  Indeed,"  said  I,  "  I  am  that  un- 
happy person,"  telling  him  I  was  very  glad  to  see  him 
again,  though  very  sorry  it  should  be  in  that  part  of  the 


world,  under  such  unhappy  circumstances.  He  told  me 
it  was  his  hard  fate,  but  he  must  endeavour,  as  well  as  I 
had  done  before  him,  to  bear  it  with  patience. 

And  after  they  were  all  entered  the  city,  and  according  to 
custom  carried  before  the  Emperor,  and  sent  to  the  Canute, 
I  went  to  him,  and  cheered  him  up  in  the  best  manner  I 
could,  and  afterwards  visited  him  as  often  as  opportunity 
would  permit,  he  being  with  the  rest  of  his  comrades  put 
to  hard  labour,  and  so  kept  for  the  space  of  three  or  four 
months;  when  the  consul  returned  from  England  again  with 
the  character  of  ambassador,  and  full  power  to  treat  with  the 
tyrant  for  the  redemption  of  all  the  English  slaves  ;  which, 
notwithstanding  his  so  late  ill  success,  and  no  doubt  no 
little  fright  at  the  barbarous  usage  af  the  Jew,  he  managed 
so  weU,  that  he  procure  their  freedom  in  a  very  little  time, 
being  in  all  148  in  number ;  and  they  were  by  him  and 
old  Hammet  Benelly  *  conducted  to  Tetuan,  there  to  be 
kept  till  better  security  should  be  given  for  their  ransoms, 
though  they  were  at  last,  on  the  ambassador's  offering 
himself  to  remain  there  for  them  as  an  hostage  till  it 
arrived,  all  by  the  Bashaw's  consent  shipped  off. 

And  happy  indeed  was  it  for  them,  for  they  had  but  a 
short  time  departed  before  the  tyrant  was  driven  out  by  the 
Black  Army,  and  Muley  Aly  set  up  in  his  room,  and  a 
peremptory  order  sent  by  him  to  Tetuan  to  send  them  all 
back  again  to  Mequinez,  These  released  slaves,  on  their 
marching  off  from  Mequinez,  had  leave  (for  the  better 
performance  of  their  march  to  Tetuan)  to  refresh  them- 
selves for  eight  days  at  Cassavah-hartan,  t  where,  at  their 
request,  I  undertook  to  carry  them  some  brandy,  and  got 
thither  for  the  first  time  in  safety  with  several  gallons  in 
bullocks'  bladders  :  and  they  desiring  me  to  come  again 
the  next  day  with  some  more,  I  told  them  it  was  a  very 
*  Hamid  Ben  Ali.  f  Kasbah  Hartan. 


dangerous  undertaking.  However,  to  oblige  them,  I  would 
try  what  I  could  do,  and  had  accordingly  got  my  bladders 
again  filled  and  tied  up  round  my  waist  within  my 
blanket.  But  alas  !  in  going  without  the  city,  I  was  very 
unhaj^pily  surprised  by  some  of  the  Emperor's  people ; 
who,  on  their  finding  the  bladders  about  me,  laid  hold  on 
me  and  committed  me  to  close  prison  in  irons ;  though 
not  altogether,  I  believe,  so  much  on  account  of  the 
brandy,  as  of  a  jealousy  they  had  (as  I  was  so  great  with 
my  countrymen)  of  my  endeavouring  an  escape  with  them. 
So  that  in  all  likelihood  (unless  they  were  by  some  Jews 
going  to  Hartan,  who  knew  how  it  was  with  me,  informed 
to  the  contrary)  my  countrymen,  no  doubt,  thought  that  I 
did  not  use  them  kindly ;  but  whether  it  was  one  or  the 
other,  I  know  that  I  suffered  by  it  very  severely,  insomuch 
that  had  not  Muley  Abdallah,  through  his  so  frequent  ill 
usage  of  his  subjects,  been  every  moment  in  danger  and 
fear  of  being  driven  out,  I  should  in  all  likelihood  have 
there  taken  up  my  quarters  for  a  much  longer  time  ;  but  I 
was,  at  the  end  of  twelve  days,  again  set  at  liberty. 

Now  might  you  hear,  even  in  all  places,  the  Blacks 
threatening,  "  A  new  master,  a  new  master,  or  none  ! " 
being  the  general  cry ;  which,  and  on  certain  advices  of  a 
great  body  of  them  gathered  at  Shoarumlah,  about  two 
days'  march  from  Mequinez,  and  that  they  were  soon  about 
to  pay  him  a  visit,  put  him  into  such  a  fright,  that  he,  by 
way  of  sugar-plum,  sent  them  220,000  ducats  of  silver ; 
and  whilst  they  were  disputing  about  their  respective 
dividends,  he  packed  up  all  the  rest  of  his  treasure  and 
fled  with  twelve  thousand  horse ;  but  he  was  in  a  short 
time  to  that  degree  forsaken  by  them,  that  before  he 
reached  Morocco  he  had  not  more  than  five  hundred  of 
them  remaining.  Yet,  notwithstanding  their  daily  falling 
off  from  him,  he  still  took  special  care  to  destroy  all  the 


stores  of  corn  as  he  went  on,  so  as  the  Blacks  might  not 
be  the  better  for  it ;  and  which,  as  they  followed  him, 
they  too  soon  found,  to  their  very  great  dissatisfaction. 
However,  they  still  hurried  on  the  pursuit,  till  they  came 
up  within  two  days'  march  of  him ;  of  which  being  ac- 
quainted by  his  spies  (after  being  at  Morocco  ten  days),  he 
with  his  small  number  hurried  thence  four  days'  long 
journey  by  a  round-about  way  towards  Sallee,  and  settled 
at  a  place  called  Bolowan,  where  he  had  also  vast  stores 
of  grain  laid  up,  all  which  he  freely  gave  to  the  inhabitants, 
with  liberty  to  carry  off  at  their  discretion  anywhere 
but  to  the  enemy.  And  here,  as  I  could  not  yet  venture 
on  escape,  and  foreseeing  the  scale  would  soon  again  turn 
to  his  side,  notwithstanding  his  cruel  and  bloody  nature, 
I,  only  by  myself,  joined  him  ;  and  which  proved,  indeed, 
according  to  my  own  sentiments,  of  two  evils  to  be  choosing 
the  best. 

The  second  day  after  my  joining  him,  on  notice  from  his 
spies  that  the  Black  Army  were  again  within  two  days' 
march  of  him,  he  with  his  small  number  (which  was 
then  reduced  to  four  hundred  horse,  excluding  his  beasts 
of  carriage)  moved  thence  three  days'  smart  journey  to 
Shishrah ;  where,  on  certain  notice  of  the  Blacks  not 
following  him,  we  settled  sixteen  days,  and  at  the  end  of 
which,  on  hearing  they  were  again  within  two  days'  march 
of  us,  he  moved  also  thence,  and  in  three  days'  and  one 
night's  tedious  journey  we  got  to  the  mountain  of  Iminta- 
noot ;  and  there  falling  all  that  night  a  very  heavy  snow, 
we  were  by  the  morning  almost  dead  with  cold.  However, 
we  were  soon  after  daybreak,  by  way  of  warming  our 
blood,  attacked  by  a  great  body  of  mountaineers,  who 
killed  several  of  our  small  number,  and  of  the  mules  laden 
with  Muley  Abdallah's  treasure  they  took  and  carried  off 
at  least  forty.     All  which,  notwithstanding  our  few  could 


have  beat  them,  did  we  (as  fearing  a  far  greater  danger 
to  be  at  our  heels)  think  ourselves  obliged  to  suffer,  and 
to  hurry  on  till  we  thought  ourselves  to  be  better  secured 
from  their  rage.  And  that  evening  we  got  to  Immintackca- 
most,  between  two  huge  mountains,  ourselves  and  cattle 
almost  spent,  where  we  rested  till  midnight,  and  afterwards 
travelled  on  between  the  mountains  till  daybreak,  and  till 
four  o'clock  that  afternoon ;  at  which  time  we  got  to 
Umcest  Elcashib,*  at  the  foot  of  another  very  high  moun- 
tain, called  Bebown,t  settling  there  that  night,  and  the 
next  day  over  this  high  mountain  to  Terrident,  where  he 
was  most  kindly  received  by  the  inhabitants,  and  directly  by 
them  put  in  possession  of  a  strong  castle  ;  where  the  Black 
Army,  as  thinking  their  families  at  home  to  be  greatly 
exposed  in  their  absence  amidst  such  distracting  commo- 
tions, did  not  think  proper  to  follow  him. 

Now  is  the  tyrant  again  breathing  in  security,  remaining 
here  about  eighteen  months,  though  not  altogether  in 
peace  ;  for,  notwithstanding  all  our  neighbouring  districts 
(saving  that  only  that  of  Howorrah)  on  his  summons  came 
in  to  his  assistance,  yet  they  being  a  pack  of  daring 
thieves,  living  all  together  on  the  spoil  of  their  neighbours, 
would  not  on  any  terms  obey  him,  but  plainly  told  his 
messengers,  that  whereas  they  had  so  long  depended  on 
their  own  strength,  they  were  then  so  resolved  to  continue, 
and  not  to  submit  themselves  to  him,  or  anybody  else,  be 
the  consequence  what  it  would,  and  that  they  cared  not 
for  him  a  rush. 

Now  is  the  tyrant,  notwithstanding  his  haughty  and 
cruel  nature,  at  a  stand  how  to  behave,  such  affronts  being 
never  before  put  upon  him.    However,  as  his  affairs  now 

*  Umseet  el-Kashib. 

I  Bibaouan,  or  Bitoutouan,  where  there  is  a  pass  across  the  Atlas 
aboiit  4,200  ft.  high. 


stood,  he  thought  himself  obliged  to  temporise  and  win 
them  to  his  party,  if  he  could,  they  being  about  six  thou- 
sand daring  fellows  ;  and  his  own  army  being  so  very 
small,  he  knew  if  he  could  by  fair  persuasions  get  them 
over  to  him,  it  would  be,  as  his  desperate  fortune  then 
stood,  of  very  great  advantage  to  him ;  and  therefore  he 
sent  to  them  again,  though  he  was  answered  to  the  same 
purpose,  gaining  nothing  but  a  more  fancy  confirmation  of 
their  insolence,  which  nettled  him  to  that  degree,  that  he 
was  resolved  to  watch  all  opportunities  to  be  up  with  them. 
He  being  also  solicited  by  the  honest  party  (to  whom  these 
thieves  had  of  a  long  time  been  a  grievous  nuisance)  to 
correct  them,  he  went  out  against  them  with  two  thousand 
horse  and  four  thousand  foot,  marching  directly  to  Umce- 
derrah,  a  little  walled  town,  where  many  of  their  chiefs 
resided,  and  where  there  was  then  about  six  hundred  of 
them ;  who  shutting  the  gates  against  us,  in  an  insolent 
manner  bid  us  defiance. 

The  main  body  of  them  was  then  abroad  on  the  plunder. 
And  now,  on  my  seeing  many  of  our  people  to  have  raised 
themselves  on  the  top  of  the  wall,  and  not  being  willing 
to  be  behind  any  of  them,  I  was  soon  wounded  by  two 
musket  shots  in  my  left  shoulder  and  the  small  of  my 
left  leg,  and  by  some  of  my  comrades  holpen  off  the 
wall,  many  others  of  them  soon  sharing  the  same  fate, 
and  were  with  me  carried  off  to  our  camp.  There  we 
were  by  far  in  the  better  situation,  for  as  they  were 
carrying  us  thither,  we  saw  the  main  body  of  the  rebels 
coming  back  to  the  relief  of  their  town  and  comrades ; 
and  our  main  body  being  between  the  town  and  them, 
there  was  soon  betwixt  them  a  smart  engagement,  our 
people  receiving  their  first  fire,  and  then  instantly  falling 
on  them  sword  in  hand  ;  which  way  of  fighting  they  not  at 
all  liking,  like  dastardly  villains  turned  their  backs  and 


fled.  However,  their  flight  was  not  so  prosperous,  but  that 
we  slackened  the  pace  of  a  great  many  of  them,  killing  at 
least  two  thousand ;  and  our  party,  saving  about  a  thou- 
sand, who  were  sent  to  plunder  and  burn  the  town,  returned 
with  fifteen  hundred  of  their  heads  to  Terrident,  to  the 
very  great  joy  of  the  inhabitants,  and  with  the  loss  only 
on  our  side  of  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  men,  and  about 
sixty  wounded. 

Now  is  the  tyrant,  after  subduing  those  insolent  thieves, 
in  very  high  esteem  at  Terrident,  and  treated  by  the 
country  round  as  their  Emperor  indeed,  heaping  in  their 
presents  upon  him  in  great  abundance ;  and  those  who 
were  not  thereof  so  mindful  as  he  thought  they  ought  to 
be,  he  failed  not  to  quicken  their  memories  by  a  party  of 
horse  ;  though,  in  short,  he  had  no  very  great  occasion  of 
using  hostilities,  all  (or  at  least  the  much  greater  part  of 
them)  readily  conforming  to  his  demands,  and  his  army, 
very  much  to  his  satisfaction,  by  the  end  of  eighteen 
months  was  increased  to  eight  thousand  brave  soldiers. 
At  which  time,  on  advice  from  his  mother  of  the  Blacks 
being  also  highly  disgusted  with  the  proceedings  of  Muley 
Ali,  and  that  she  had  again  gained  the  greatest  part  of 
them  to  his  interest  and  restoration  to  the  throne,  and  that 
she  would  have  him  to  hasten  with  all  diligence  to  Mequinez, 
he  with  his  army  left  Terrident,  and  in  twenty  four  days 
arrived  at  and  sat  down  before  Tedlah,  where  the  Alcaydes 
Mulootjibbilly  and  Mahomet  Belchouse  were  with  four 
thousand  soldiers  closely  shut  up,  and  denied  him  entrance 
after  a  most  insolent  manner,  which  to  that  degree  nettled 
him,  that  he  was  thoroughly  resolved  to  get  in  by  force,  or 
not  to  give  out  so  long  as  he  saw  any  probability  remain- 
ing. And  there  was  for  three  days  very  hot  work  on  both 
sides,  when  the  rebels  finding  they  could  not  with  all  their 
strength  keep  him  from  entering,  they  gave  us  up  the  town 


in  possessioD,  and  retired  into  the  castle,  where  they  held 
us  at  bay  for  the  space  of  thirty-three  days,  and  then, 
though  they  had  not  all  this  while  killed  of  us  above  a 
hundred,  they  surrendered  themselves  to  the  Emperor's 

Now  are  they  ordered  to  march  out,  and  thirty- seven  of 
their  chiefs  (but  without  Mulootjibbilly)  instantly  appearing, 
they  were  by  the  Emperor  (who  was  then  sitting  on  horse- 
back on  the  other  side  of  a  river  which  ran  between  him 
and  the  town,  out  of  musket  shot)  commanded  before  him, 
asking  them  in  a  furious  manner  if  they  did  not  think 
themselves  to  be  very  insolent  fellows,  not  only  to  deny 
their  sovereign  entrance  into  his  own  town,  but  impudently 
to  murder  his  body-guards  before  his  face,  as  no  doubt  they 
would  him  had  it  been  in  their  power ;  that  he  thought  they 
might  think  it  enough  for  him  to  be  driven  from  his  own, 
and  to  make  such  hard  shift  as  he  had  done  for  the  last 
two  years,  to  content  them  for  all  the  injuries  he  had  ever 
done  them,  for  that  he  had  undergone  a  very  hard  and 
unjust  exile.  Yet  had  fortune  again  put  it  in  his  power  to 
revenge  his  own  injuries,  and  that  they  should  be  the  first 
sacrifices  to  his  just  rage. 

Then  looking  at  them  very  fiercely,  he  commanded  of 
them  aloud  where  was  Jibilly.  They  told  him,  that  as  he 
had  been  for  some  time  before  in  his  dishabille,  he  was 
then,  in  order  to  appear  with  the  greater  decency  before 
his  sovereign,  putting  on  his  clothes.  **  A  dog,"  said 
he,  **  has  he  a  mind  to  die  in  state !  "  looking  at  our 
people.  "Go,"  said  he,  "bring  the  dog  before  me!" 
but  hearing  soon  after,  as  all  thought,  the  report  of  a 
musket,  a  messenger  came  to  tell  him  that  he  had  shot 
himself  with  a  pistol.  "A  dastardly  dog,"  said  he,  "  shot 
himself  !  Go  run,  fly,  bear  his  body  to  the  top  of  the  walls, 
throw  it  down,  and  drag  it  hither  ;  "  which  was  instantly 


done,  and  his  head  as  their  grand  ringleader  cut  off,  and 
after  his,  those  of  all  the  rest,  and  their  bodies  thrown  into 
the  river  ;  when  he  also  ordered  to  be  brought  before  him 
all  Jibilly's  servants,  in  number  thirty-seven,  who  were  all 
used  after  the  same  manner ;  and  all  the  heads  were  set 
up  on  a  little  watch-tower,  just  within  the  drawbridge  ; 
after  which  he  pardoned  all  the  rest,  and  then  we  were 
again  at  liberty  to  refresh  ourselves. 

However,  as  our  army  was  by  this  time  very  much 
increased  from  Mequinez  and  divers  other  places,  he  did 
not  think  fit  to  go  into  the  town,  but  encamped  with 
them  on  the  further  side  of  the  river,  where  he  had 
before  received  the  victims ;  and  where  in  a  very  short 
time  after,  came  to  him  Howmead  Losmee,*  and  with 
him  six  thousand  Blacks,  to  acquaint  him  from  the  Black 
Army  in  general,  that  they  w^ere  all  again  entirely  in 
his  interest,  and  that  he  was  come  by  their  orders  to 
reconduct  him  to  his  former  possessions.  To  which  he 
answered,  that  as  he  had  so  lately  received  at  their  hands 
such  ill  usage,  it  was  very  much  to  be  doubted  if  their 
hearts  and  tongues  wagged  together,  for  that  he  had 
through  their  means  already  undergone  most  unspeakable 
hardships,  therefore  he  hoped  they  could  not  take  it  ill 
(considering  it  to  be  very  natural  for  a  burnt  child  to  dread 
the  fire)  for  him  to  insist  on  nine  of  their  principals  to  be 
first  delivered  into  his  hands,  as  a  pledge  of  their  sincerity, 
and  after  naming  who  they  should  be,  as  first  Selam  Ducul- 
lee,t  their  head  Bashaw,  and  four  of  his  sons,  Elly  I  Ducullee 
their  kinsman,  Abderheem,§  Coddoorlasseree,,i  and  Ab- 
dallah  Bememsoddeel ;  H  on  which  Howmead  Losmee  went 
directly  back  again  to  Mequinez,  and  at  the  end  of  ten  days 

*  Hamid  Losmee.  \  Salem  Eddoukkali.  j  AJi. 

§  'Abd-el-krim.  ||  Kadoor  Lasiree. 

^  'Abd-Allah  Ben-es-SoddeeL 



again  returned  with  them,  when  he,  notwithstanding  his 
slippery  footing,  ordered  four  of  them,  viz.,  the  two  elder 
Ducullees,  Adberheem,  and  Coddoorlasseree  to  be  instantly 
on  the  spot  beheaded ;  and  the  four  sons  after  beholding 
the  deaths  of  their  fathers,  to  be  with  Bememsoddeel  con- 
ducted by  the  army  to  Mequinez,  where  the  tyrant  at  the 
head  of  his  old  army  and  the  so  scarcely  reconciled  blacks 
intermixed,  got  safe  in  six  easy  days'  march ;  and,  after  his 
long  absence  of  twenty-two  months,  again  in  possession  of 
the  empire ;  though  by  the  blacks,  nor  they  by  him,  no 
further  trusted,  than  one  enemy  might  another. 

Now  is  Muley  Abdallah,  notwithstanding  his  so  late  and 
grievous  exile,  again  about  Mequinez,  beginning  again  to 
butcher  his  subjects,*  sending  the  five  surviving  hostages 
in  chains  to  Boossacran,  where  the  four  brothers  were  in  a 
very  short  time  strangled,  and  Bememsoddel  (to  show  the 
tyrant's  very  extraordinary  clemency)  pardoned,  and  sent 
back  again  to  Mequinez  to  rejoice  with  his  friends.  The 
tyrant,  not  content  with  murdering  his  subjects,  treated 
the  poor  Christians  at  Boossacran  after  a  most  grievous 
and  cruel  manner,  setting  them  at  work  in  digging  a  deep 
and  wide  ditch  through  a  hard  rock  round  his  pleasure- 
house,  himself  with  his  severe  eye  being  their  overseer. 
One  day  came  thither,  with  their  presents  and  excuses  for 
not  waiting  on  him  at  Tedlah,  twenty -five  of  the  principal 
inhabitants  of  old  Fez,  telling  him  in  great  humility,  that 
notwithstanding  they  had  not  waited  on  him  there,  yet 
were  they  nevertheless  his  Majesty's  most  dutiful  and 
obedient  servants  altogether  as  much  as  those  that  had, 
and  that  he  might  be  assured  that  it  should  in  all  their 
future  actions  be  made  most  evidently  appear.  At  which 
the  tyrant,  smiling,  answered,  "  My  most  rebellious  Fasees, 
I  mean  my  masters  and  governors,  or  at  least  I  know  it 

*  Note  25. 


would  be  were  it  in  your  power,  which  I  am  resolved  shall 
never  be." 

Then  calling  to   his  guards,  "  Here,   take   these  dogs 
and  call   the    headsman,"   who    instantly  appearing,  he 
ordered  him  to  cut  ofif  all  their  heads ;  and  the  victims 
being  placed  in  a  row,  he  struck  oflf  twenty-four  of  them, 
at  as  many  strokes,  and  then  the  tyrant  ordered  him  to 
hold  his  hand,  for  that  he  had  taken  notice  of  the  survivor 
to  be  blind  in  one  eye,  and  therefore  as  he  could  then  see 
more  than  all  the  rest,  he  would  send  him  back  to  his 
fellow-citizens  to  reform  their  errors,  and  to  tell  them  if 
they  did  not  he  would  not  in  a  very  short  time  leave  a 
head  upon  the  shoulders  of  any  one  of  them.    Although  in 
that,  indeed,  he  was  very  much  mistaken,  he  being  himself 
in  a  very  little  time  after,  by  the  Black  Army  and  then  of 
Fez,  through  the  instigation  of  this  narrow-escaped  blink- 
ard,  a  second  time  driven  out,  and  Mahomet  Woolderriva 
(one  of  his  brothers)  '•'  set  up  in  his  room.     And  now  the 
tyrant  wanting  money,  horses,   arms,   &c.,   I  am,  with 
Bashaw  Cossam  Bereezom  t  and  several  thousand  others, 
sent  to  Belearge's  old  garrison  of  Stant  (or  rather,  indeed, 
my  own),  I  being  after  his  death  put  in  possession  of  it 
by  old  Muley  Smine.t     Then  the  inhabitants  were  directly 
ordered  to  bring  in  all  they  had,  and  which  I  believe  many 
of  them  did,  and  others  were  about  to  do,  as  they  would 
no  doubt  all  done,  had  not  the  tyrant  fled  with  a  few  into 
the  mountains,  sending  a  letter  to  the  Bashaw  at  Stant 
for  him  to  follow  him  with  all  his  people,  for  that  on  him 
was  his  sole  dependence,  and  therefore  as  his  affairs  were 
then  at  the  lowest  ebb,  he  desired  that  he  would  be  as  expe- 
ditious in  it  as  possible  he  could ;  yet  notwithstanding  he 
was  very  inclinable  thereto,  and  used  all  possible  arguments 
with  his  people,  he  could  not  prevail  with  more  (though 
*  Note  26.  f  Kassam  Bereezoon.  +  Note  27. 


our  whole  army  then  was  in  all  15,000)  than  800  to  go 
with  him.  And  as  to  my  own  part,  I  thought  I  had  followed 
him  and  his  evil  genius  too  far  before,  and  therefore  as  I 
saw  a  likely  prospect  for  escape,  was  resolved  to  follow  him 
no  further,  but  with  all  my  might  to  pursue  it ;  and  in 
order  thereto  I  directly  went  back  in  company  of  14,000 
of  my  fellow-soldiers  to  Mequinez,  and  went  directly  to  the 
Black  Army,  where  we  found  Mahomet  Woolderriva  as 
Emperor  at  their  head,  offering  him  our  service,  and  directly 
joining  them,  and  as  at  that  time  our  number,  by  way  of 
falling  from  one  party  and  joining  the  other,  was  very  con- 
siderable, we  were  by  him  most  courteously  received. 

Now  before  I  can  bring  my  marks  to  bear,  I  find  myself 
obliged  to  make  a  short  tour  or  two,  and  after  my  so  long 
and  many  good  services  in  the  armies  of  the  tyrant,  am 
now  about  to  fight  against  him,  as  indeed  I  could  always 
(and  especially  after  his  cruel  usage  of  my  deliverer  from 
the  bloody  knife  at  Assamoor)  have  found  in  my  heart  to 
have  done ;  for  notwithstanding  I  followed  him  and  his  evil 
genius  so  long,  yet  did  I  always  hate  him,  and  now  to  that 
degree,  that  I  was  resolved  to  hazard  the  last  drop  of  my 
own  blood  to  sacrifice  that  of  the  tyrant  to  Simmo  Hamet's 
ghost.  And  in  order  thereunto  I  am  now  one  in  an  army  of 
100,000  well-appointed  soldiers  following  him  with  a  zealous 
resolution  of  revenge  into  the  mountains,  and  though  we 
made  all  imaginable  speed  and  searched  the  lurking-places 
as  hunters  for  their  game  for  the  continuance  of  three 
days,  yet  could  not  we  light  on  him;  therefore  as  the 
weather  was  excessive  cold,  the  snow  prodigious  deep,  and 
still  more  falling,  we  by  the  general  consent  for  that  time, 
and  till  a  more  convenient  season,  left  him  there  with  his 
few  attendants  to  cool  his  ungovernable  passions,  and 
returned  almost  dead  with  cold  to  Mequinez.* 
*  Note  28. 


Now  am  I  again  all  on  fire  for  escape,  and  notwithstand- 
ing my  former  miscarriages  and  miraculous  preservations 
that  way,  why  might  not  I  once  be  so  lucky  to  get  clear  ? 
I  was  twice  before  within  an  ace  of  it ;  and  therefore,  why 
might  not  my  chance  the  third  time  turn  up  that  ace  also  ? 
However,  I  thought  it  highly  necessary,  that  before  an 
affair  of  that  nature  was  again  to  be  undertaken,  it  ought 
to  be  with  myself  seriously  debated,  and  therefore  I  seriously 
considered  thereof,  and  proposed  several  ways  to  myself. 
As  first,  that  notwithstanding  my  so  narrow  escape,  on 
failure  of  escaping  at  Marcegongue,  why  might  not  I  now 
be  by  that  way  successful  ?  To  which  I  was  by  myself  soon 
answered,  Eemember  the  murdering  knife  at  Assamoore 
bow  narrowly  I  missed  it,  and  that  my  deliverer  was  then 
dead,  and  very  probably  many  of  my  cruel  persecutors 
still  living  ;  why  might  I  not  fall  again  into  their  hands  ?  " 
And  therefore  it  was  a  most  hazardous  and  dangerous 
undertaking.  "Then,"  said  I,  "why  may  not  I  get  off 
from  Sallee  ?  "  I  was  again  by  myself  answered,  "  Con- 
sider the  story  of  the  sloop,  and  Alcayde  Ambork  Foolan, 
the  Black  Governor."  "  That,"  said  I,  "  can  be  no  obstacle 
to  my  designs,  he  being  to  my  knowledge  long  since  dead ; 
and  as  to  the  Moors,  they  knew  nothing  of  the  matter ; " 
and  therefore  set  it  down  in  probability  number  one. 

And  next  came  in  question,  that  in  case  I  could  not  suc- 
ceed there  to  my  mind,  what  likelihood  might  there  be  by  way 
of  Santa  Cruz  ?  To  which  I  was  again  by  myself  answered, 
that  Santa  Cruz  was  a  very  long  and  dangerous  journey ; 
however,  if  I  took  care  to  manage  with  caution,  it  might 
be  the  most  likely  of  the  two.  So  I  for  the  time,  without 
settling  my  resolutions,  left  it  to  hang  between  them  both 
till  the  morning,  and  so  well  as  I  could  settled  myself  for 
the  night  to  sleep,  and  I  being  therein  very  much  disturbed 
by  dreams,  as  how  I  should  get  up  and  be  going,  &c.     I 


at  my  awaking  made  a  thorough  resolution  with  myself  to 
go  first  to  Sallee,  and  if  I  could  not  there  perform  to  my 
mind,  to  proceed  for  the  latter  place. 

My  resolutions  thus  settled,  I  made  all  the  necessary 
preparations  in  my  power  for  my  departure ;  and  then, 
to  my  very  great  dissatisfaction.  I  was,  on  some  advices 
brought  to  Mequinez  from  the  mountain  Ceedehamsoe, 
directly  again  summoned  to  arms,  and  with  the  army 
(consisting  of  one  hundred  thousand  Blacks  and  fifty 
thousand  Moors)  obliged  to  march  thither ;  for  that  Muley 
Abdallah  was  there,  and  that  he  had  there  about  him 
a  vast  army  of  the  mountaineers,  which  indeed  we  soon 
found  far  to  exceed  our  numbers.  But  the  weather 
being  exceeding  wet,  as  we  had  almost  continual  rains  for 
sixteen  days,  we  could  not,  so  soon  as  we  would,  attack 
them  ;  however,  at  last  the  rains  ceasing,  we  fell  upon  them 
sword  in  hand,  and  after  a  shrewd  skirmish,  wherein  many 
thousands  were  slain  on  both  sides,  we  put  them  to  flight, 
the  tyrant  (soon  after  the  commencement  of  the  engage- 
ment) with  a  few  showing  the  rest  the  way.  And  as  they 
were  well  acquainted  with  those  secret  haunts,  and  we  on 
the  other  hand  altogether  unacquainted,  we  thought  it  by 
no  means  proper  to  follow  them,  but  returned  again  to 
Mequinez  ;  and  though  we  had  of  it  for  two  months  a  very 
hard  time,  and  lost  a  great  many  thousands  of  our  men, 
yet  I  am,  thank  God,  as  to  my  own  part,  to  my  very  great 
satisfaction  unwounded,  and  which  did  (thank  the  Divine 
Majesty)  in  a  wonderful  manner  confirm  my  former  resolu- 
tions; and  on  the  eighth  day  following  I  set  out.  But 
before  I  proceed,  I  shall  first  beg  leave  to  acquaint  you, 
that  on  the  seventh  day,  or  day  before  my  departure,  I 
happening  to  be  in  company  with  two  .of  my  old  acquaint- 
ance, a  German  and  a  Spaniard,  there  came  in  a  black 
woman,  who  looked  very  hard  at  me,  desiring  I  would  give 


her  a  blankeel.  "  A  blankeel !  "  said  I.  "  Yes,"  said  she, 
**  and  then  I  will  tell  you  all  the  secrets  of  your  heart." 
I  told  her  I  would  with  all  my  heart  give  her  a  blankeel ; 
but  as  to  my  fortune,  as  being  no  doubt  but  a  foolish  whim, 
I  had  much  rather  it  should  be  left  alone,  and  therefore  she 
should  not  trouble  her  head  any  further  about  it.  **  Fob," 
said  she  ;  **  but  I  must,  that  you  may  (when  you  are  got 
off  safe  to  your  own  country)  think  upon  me."  **  To  my 
own  country !  "  said  I,  in  a  seeming  surprise.  "  What  in 
God's  name  can  you  mean  by  that  ?  Prithee  talk  no  more 
of  such  impossibilities."  "  Oh,  no,  no,"  said  she  ;  "it  is 
not  impossible,  and  that  you  will  soon  find." 

Then  putting  one  end  of  a  piece  of  green  cane  she 
had  in  her  right  hand  into  the  fire,  taking  it  out,  and 
therewith  crossing  the  palm  of  her  left  hand,  she  told 
me  my  real  fortune  indeed ;  as  how  I  had  of  a  long 
time,  and  was  then  resolved  within  myself  on  escape, 
that  I  had  more  than  once  before  endeavoured  it,  though 
without  success,  even  to  the  hazard  of  my  life.  How- 
ever, I  should  not  then  fear,  for  I  should  actually  be 
successful.  "  Therefore,"  said  she,  "  let  not  your  courage 
be  cast  down,  for  you  shall,  though  with  much  toil 
and  many  hazards,  get  safe  home,  and  find  your 
father  and  mother  (who  have  for  many  years  suffered  a 
great  deal  on  your  account)  still  living."  "Oh,"  said  I, 
**  you  are  in  that  very  much  mistaken,  my  father  and 
mother  having  for  many  years  ago  been  in  their  graves  ; 
and  had  they,  as  you  say,  been  still  living,  they  would 
never  have  been  by  me  seen  more.  Therefore,"  said  I, 
"  pray  talk  no  further  on  this  subject,  for  if  it  should  be 
carried  any  further,  it  might  be  taken  for  fact,  and  prove 
to  me  of  very  dangerous  consequence."  **  No,  no,"  said 
she,  "  keep  but  a  good  heart  and  your  own  secrets,  and  aU 
the  devils  in  Barbary  shall  not  have  power  to  frustrate  your 


intentions,  for  to  Christian  land  are  you  bound,  and  thither 
again  are  you  destined  to  go." 

To  lean  on,  or  to  give  any  credit  to  such  fopperies  as 
these,  was  what  I  could  never  before  chime  in  with ;  yet, 
as  she  had  so  far  told  me  my  intentions  hitherto,  I  could 
not  but  entertain  of  what  was  to  come  more  than  a  common 
notion,  and  that  Enseph  Haunsel's  magic  doings  heretofore 
at  Mequinez  were  more  than  imaginary ;  and  therefore  I 
was  very  much  encouraged  herewith.  And  now  am  I  about 
to  lay  me  down  for  the  last  time  to  sleep  in  Mequinez, 
where  I  had  so  often  before  had  an  aching  heart ;  and  as  I 
could  not  now  take  any  rest,  I  seriously  reflected  with 
myself  how  wonderfully  I  had  been  hitherto  (through  the 
goodness  of  God)  preserved  from  so  many  perils  and 
dangers,  how  many  thousands  I  had  seen  slain  in  the 
field  of  battle,  and  why  it  might  not  have  been  my 
unhappy  fate  as  well  as  theirs ;  then  humbly  offering  up 
my  most  unfeigned  thanks  to  God  for  all  His  mercies 
hitherto  received,  and  earnestly  imploring  His  future 
protection,  got  me  up,  and  soon  with  an  eager  resolution 
set  myself  in  order  for  my  march.  And  as  all  my  trans- 
actions under  any  of  their  emperors  end  here,  I  shall  (and 
I  think  very  properly)  call  the  following  part  of  my  history 
my  wonderful  escape  and  happy  return. 


On  the  road  to  freedom — At  Sallee  the  fugitive  meets  with  Muley 
El  Mustadi,  afterwards  Emperor  of  Morocco — He  is  suspected  and 
arrested,  but  is  permitted  to  go — Leaves  for  Mequinez  as  a  bUnd, 
but  actually  makes  for  Tedla — Meets  a  band  of  conjurers,  and,  as 
the  result  of  being  in  bad  company,  is  robbed  by  a  rival  gang — 
Falls  in  with  two  Spanish  quack  doctors,  and  takes  up  their  trade 
— He  meets  an  old  friend,  and  practises  physic  with  indifferent 
success — Fish  without  fish-hooks — In  peril  from  wild  beasts — 
Food  without  lodgings — How  a  Moorish  highway  robber  is 
chowsed — An-ives  in  Morocco  city,  and  is  succoured  by  a  friend — 
Sets  out  for  Santa  Cruz — Doctoiing  on  the  way. 

NOW,  after  my  so  long  and  grievous  captivity,  cruel 
hardships,  wonderful  and  miraculous  preservations 
in  the  wars  of  the  Infidels,  &c.,  I  am,  you  see,  again  fully 
bent  on  escape.  In  which,  as  all  was  then  in  the  utmost 
confusion,  and  I  was  so  very  well  acquainted  with  the 
country,  I  flattered  myself  with  a  pleasing  prospect  of 
success ;  though  you  will  find  my  travels  to  be  attended 
with  many  grievous  troubles  and  hazardous  incidents ;  and 
which,  could  I  have  foreseen,  would  no  doubt  in  a  great 
measure  have  frustrated  my  designs.  However,  as  these 
afilictions  happened  to  me  unlooked  for,  I  no  doubt  bore 
them  with  a  braver  and  more  steadfast  resolution. 

Now  am  I  soon  about  to  encounter  with  this  so  hazardous 
and  painful  undertaking ;  and  at  the  end  of  the  eighth  day, 
after  my  return  to  Mequinez  from  pursuing  Muley  Abdallah 


the  second  time  into  the  mountains,  I  set  out  thence  about 
midnight  with  myself  only  for  Sallee.     There   in   three 
days,  and  the  latter  part  of  that  night,  I  safely  arrived, 
and  notwithstanding  I  made  all  diligent  inquiry  after  a 
ship,  yet  could  I  not  there  to  my  mind  find  any  for  my 
purpose  in  three  days,  and  therefore  I  was  resolved  to  push 
my  way  for  Santa  Cruz  so  well  as  I  could ;  and  the  next  day, 
at  my  going  out  of  the  town,  I  was  surprised  by  some 
soldiers,  who  laid  hold  on  me,  and  carried  me  before  Muley 
Mataddy,*  the  Governor,  and  brother  to  the  then  Emperor, 
who  asked  them  who  I  was,  and  for  what  reason  brought 
before  him.     To  which  he  was  answered  that  they  could 
not  tell.     "  No  !  "  said  he  ;  "  are  you  not  then  very  pretty 
fellows  to  stop  a  man  for  you  not  what  ?  "  asking  me  who 
I  was,  and  whither  I  was  going.     I  told  him  I  was  one  of 
his  brother's  soldiers,  and  that  as  I  very  lately  returned 
to  Mequinez  from  following  Muley  Abdallah  a  second  time 
into    the    mountains,   and  correcting    the    mountaineers 
gathered   there   in  his  favour,   I  was    by  his    brother's 
permission  come  thither  to  visit  my  old  acquaintance,  and 
that  I  was  then  again  going  back  to  Mequinez ;  on  which 
he  gave  the  soldiers  orders  to  set  me  at  liberty.     Yet  did 
they  thus  treat  me  a  second  and  a  third  time,  at  my  going 
out  of  the  town,  still  carrying  me  before  him,  telling  him 
at  last  that  I  was  a  Christian,  and  that  I  was  about  to 
make    my   escape    to    Christian    Land.     "  To   Christian 
Land!"  said  he,  staring  me  in  the  face.     "Sir,"  said  I, 
*'  as  to  that  they  may  say  as  they  please ;  however,  before 
your  Excellency  gives  any  credit  to  it,  I  humbly  desire  you 
will  ask  them  their  reasons  for  suspecting  me ;  "  and  they 
being  able  to  give  none,  he  told  them  that  they  were  a  pack 
of  insolent  fellows,  that  they  should  let  me  go,  and  if  to 
Christian  Land,  what  was  that  to  them  ? 

*  Note  29. 


Now  am  I  again  at  liberty,  and,  as  a  blind,  again  on  my 
road  towards  Mequinez,  but  out  of  which  I  soon  turned 
towards  Tedlah,  wherein  I  had  not  travelled  very  far 
before  I  fell  in  company  with  one  of  their  noted  conjurers, 
having  with  him  about  four  hundred  of  the  poor  credulous 
inhabitants,  going  also  that  way.  But  his  conjurations 
did  not  find  out  my  intentions,  as  to  whither  I  was 
travelling,  no  more  than  that  himself  and  followers  should 
be  that  evening  by  a  greater  party  plundered  and  stripped, 
as  indeed  they  were,  together  with  myself,  to  our  skins ; 
which,  though  a  grievous  misfortune,  I  was  with  Christian 
patience  obliged  to  bear,  and  to  travel  on  in  this  condition 
full  three  days  in  very  cold  weather,  before  I  could  get  any 
thing  even  to  cover  my  nakedness,  and  then  I  was  so  happy 
to  get,  through  very  great  chance,  a  piece  of  old  matting  ; 
and  afterwards  in  that  condition  sufifering  extreme  cold  and 
hunger,  it  was  eight  days  before  I  reached  Tedlah,  though 
there  I  did  not  enter,  but  directly  crossed  the  river  running 
at  the  foot  of  the  high  mountain  Summough,  and  where  I 
most  opportunely  met  two  Spaniards  straggling  the  country, 
by  way  of  deceiving  the  credulous  inhabitants  with  their 
quack  medicines. 

However,  be  that  as  it  will,  it  was  for  them  good 
enough,  and  the  same  Spaniards  were  to  me  very  kind 
and  true  friends  in  necessity,  giving  me  a  piece  of  an 
old  blanket,  filling  my  belly  with  such  as  they  had, 
giving  me  friendly  advice,  six  blankeels,  several  of  their 
medicines,  and  an  old  lancet  and  burning  iron,  to  set  up 
for  myself ;  and  which  indeed  I,  the  better  to  conceal  my 
intentions  in  my  travels  through  the  country,  directly  put 
in  practice.  And  now  am  I  asking  every  one  I  meet,  if 
they  had  any  work  for  the  doctor ;  and  the  day  after  my 
parting  from  my  benefactors,  I  happened  to  see  a  woman 
standing  at  the  entrance  of  a  tent,  of  whom  (after  giving 


her  the  country  salute)  I  asked  if  she  had  any  occasion  or 
business  for  the  doctor.     "Yes,"  said  she,  "I  have,  and 
more  I  doubt  than  you  are  able  to  perform,"  calling  to  her 
daughter  to  help  her  father  forth  to  the  light ;  and  which, 
whilst  the  girl  was  about,  the  good  wife  asked  me  what  I 
did  with  those  things  in  my  hand ;  and  where,  indeed,  as 
I  had  no  pocket,  I  was  obliged  to  carry  them.     "  Do  with 
them?"  said  I,  looking  her  full  in  the  face;  "the  one  is  for 
letting  blood,  and  the  other  used  in  many  distempers  for 
burning,  they  being  in  my  way  of  business  two  of  the  most 
necessary  instruments."   **  Oh,  then,"  said  she,  "  I  suppose 
you  are  an  experienced  doctor?"     "Yes,"  said  I,  "instead 
of  a  better."     "  Alas  !  "  said   she,  "  I  wish  with  all  my 
heart  you  may  cure  my  husband,  for  he  is  so  very  drowsy, 
that  I  fear  he  will  die  in  his  sleep."     By  this  time  his 
daughter  had  brought  him  forth  to  the  door  of  the  tent. 
"Now,  doctor,"  said  the  wife,  "is  he  not  a  sad  object?" 
"  Indeed,"  said  I,  "  he  is,  and  I  could  wish  with  all  my 
heart  I  had  for  all  our  sakes  seen  him  sooner,  for  that  his 
distemper  was  then  gone  very  far,  and  his  condition  very 
dangerous ;  however,  I  would  try  what  I  could  do  on  him, 
there  being  but  two  ways  of  saving  his  life,  and  if  one  of 
them  (which  was  bleeding)  would  not  do,  I  must  be  also 
obliged  to  practice  the  other,  which  was  burning." 

So  I  went  directly  to  work  in  binding  up  his  arm,  and  to 
that  degree  tied  it  with  a  strong  hempen  cord,  that  he  com- 
plained of  it  very  much.  And  now  I  am  at  a  stand  and  a 
very  great  loss  (had  the  instrument  been  never  so  well  in 
order)  how  to  perform,  and  in  the  condition  it  then  was, 
much  more  so,  for  it  was  really  very  blunt,  and  extremely 
rusty ;  however,  as  I  found  myself  obliged  to  make  the  best 
use  I  could  of  a  bad  market,  I  in  or  near  the  vein  gave  him 
a  very  hearty  prick,  asking  him  if  he  felt  it.  "  Feel  it !  " 
said  he,  "yes,  yes."     "Well,"  said  I,  "best  of  all."     And 


little  or  no  blood  appearing,  I  twice  repeated  it,  and  though 
I  pricked  him  much  deeper  than  at  first,  yet  could  not  I 
for  my  life  (though  I  made  him  twist  like  an  eel)  make  him 
bleed ;  and  then  I  told  him  that  I  feared  I  should  also  be 
obliged  to  burn  him.     "  Burn  me  !  "  said  he  in  a  very  great 
surprise.     "Yes,"  said  I,  "  burn  you."     "  No,  I  hope  not," 
said  he.     "Oh,  but,"  said  I,  "  I  do  not  mean  by  putting 
you  into  the  fire,  but  with  a  pretty  little  iron  I  have  for 
that  purpose,  in  the  head."     **  And  do  you  think,  doctor, 
that  will  do  me  any  good?  "    "That,"  said  I,  "I  cannot  tell; 
but  if  you  will  be  conformable  to  my  rules,  either  that  will 
do  you  good,  or  nothing."     "  Oh,  then,  good  doctor,  burn 
me,  burn  me ; "  and  which,  indeed,  after  heating  my  iron 
red-hot,  I  did  in  three  several  places  very  smartly,  till  I 
made  him  (as  well  he  might)  to  twist  and  cry  out  after  a 
most  piteous  manner.     "  Well,"  said  I,  "  you  are,  I  think, 
considering  your  so  very  dangerous  condition,  a  very  faint- 
hearted soldier,"  desiring  him  to  look,  if  he  could,  at  my 
forehead,  and  to  tell  me  if  he  did  not  think  it  to  be  much 
more  burnt  than  I  had  burnt  him.     **  Yes,"  said  he,  "  and 
it  was,  no  doubt,  very  painful  to  you."     "  Yes,"  said  I, 
"  that  it  was,  and  yet  my  doctor  did  not  think  so,  nor  that 
he  had  burnt  me  enough.    But  come,"  said  I,  "  have  a  good 
heart,  take  this  small  paper  of  powders  about  ten  o'clock 
at  night,  and  if  you  cannot  sleep,  it  will  be  as  I  desire. 
For  as  your  distemper  is  what  we  call  a  lethargy,  sleep  will 
incessantly  steal  on  you;   and  therefore,  when  you  find 
yourself  pretty  much  inclined  to  it,  and  your  wounds  are 
not   painful  enough  to  keep  you  waking,  order  the  good 
woman  to  rub  them  up  afresh  with  her  fingers,  and  never 
mind  the  pain ;  "  telling  him  further,  that  as  I  was  obliged 
to  go  that  night  to  a  patient  about  a  league  off,  I  could  for 
that  time  stay  with  him  no  longer,  and  that  by  the  time  I 
came  back,  I  did  not  doubt  but  to  hear  of  his  being  much 


easier."  And  after  I  had  filled  my  belly  with  cuseassoe, 
and  for  my  doctorship  received  six  blankeels,  as  an  earnest 
penny,  and  a  cake  of  white  bread,  I  left  them  to  their 
prophet  Mahomet,  and  their  country  doctors ;  and  though 
I  had  the  good  fortune  to  go  no  more  back  to  inquire  into 
the  success  of  the  operations,  yet  had  I  an  account  of  it  by 
one  of  his  sons  soon  after,  to  my  very  great  surprise,  as 
you  will  by  and  by  hear. 

Now  am  I  again  on  the  tramp ;  and  that  evening,  instead 
of  one  league,  I  travelled  five,  ascending  up  to  the  top  of 
a  high  mount  called  Itatteb,  where  I  found  several  in- 
habited tents,  but  no  admittance.  However,  I  with  much 
ado  got  out  of  one  of  them  a  pretty  large  billet  of  fire; 
and  with  which,  after  I  had  gathered  good  store  of  dry 
wood,  and  laid  a  good  parcel  of  it  in  a  heap,  I  kindled  a 
fire,  and  before  the  darkness  came  on  I  had  gathered  wood 
enough,  as  I  thought,  to  continue  my  fire  all  night ;  which 
no  sooner  approached,  than  I  plainly  heard  a  great  many 
jackals  coming  yelping  towards  me,  and  still  drawing 
nearer  and  nearer,  which  gave  me  sufficient  reason  to 
suppose  I  should  be  soon  surrounded  by  far  more  dangerous 
companions,  as  indeed  I  soon  was  by  lions,  tigers,  leopards, 
panthers,  &c.,  in  abundance,  making  such  a  hideous  and 
frightful  noise  as  was  enough  to  terrify  a  more  courageous 
man  than  myself. 

Though  I  cannot  say  I  was  altogether  void  of  fear, 
yet  was  I  thoroughly  persuaded  with  myself  that,  so 
long  as  my  fire  continued,  they  would  not  ofier  to  approach 
me  so  near  as  to  do  me  any  harm,  I  almost  continually 
holding  a  firebrand  well-lighted  at  one  end  in  my  hand, 
twirling  it  round  my  head,  and  sometimes  throwing 
it  amongst  them ;  and,  at  the  approach  of  daylight,  they, 
without  taking  their  leave,  like  unmannerly  guests  left  me, 
though  I  must  confess  I  was  much  better  pleased  with 


their  absence  than  with  their  company.    I  then  began  to 
set  forward  on  my  journey;  and  though  I  was  very  hungry, 
and  had  most  of  my  cake  still  remaining,  yet  would  not  I 
venture  to  break  my  fast  till  I  was  got  clear  out  of  this 
mountain.    And  well  was  it  for  me,  in  all  likelihood,  that  I 
did  not,  for  in  a  very  short  time,  as  I,  instead  of  eating, 
was  with  a  watchful  eye  looking  sharp  round  me,  I  saw  a 
large  tiger  lying  on  his  belly,  with  his  legs  under  him  in  a 
proper  posture  for  leaping,  within  twenty  feet  of  the  little 
path  I  was  walking  in ;  when  I,  instantly  taking  my  eyes 
off  him,  passed  nimbly  by,  so  that  I  received  from  him  no 
further  hurt  than  the  fright ;    and  in  less  than  half  an 
hour  after,  I  got  up  within  thirty  yards  of  the  largest  lion 
I  had  ever  seen  before,  sitting  on  his  breech  just  in  my 
road — though  this  did  not,  I  declare,  in  comparison  with 
the  tiger,  at  all  terrify  me,  walking  up  towards  him  with 
a  fierce  look,  hollowing  at  him,  and  threatening  him  all  I 
could  ;  at  which  he  got  him  upon  his  legs,  severely  lashing 
his  loins  with  his  tail,  and  roaring  after  a  most  terrible 
manner,  went  out  of  my  sight  in  a  very  little  time,  though 
I  again  met  him  a  second  and  a  third  time,  and  then  he, 
after  like  usage,  left  me  entirely.     And  in  an  hour  after  I 
got  to  the  foot  of  the  mountain  on  the  other  side,  where 
lived  Alcayde  Woldlattabbee,*  one  of   Muley  Abdallah's 
old  soldiers,  and  my  very  particular  friend,  whither  I  went, 
and  was  by  him  most  kindly  received ;  and  on  his  asking 
me  what  business  had  called  me  that  way,  I  told  him  that 
I  was  in  pursuit  of  our  distressed  master ;  and  which,  as 
the  Blacks  had  most  severely  used  me  on  his  account,  I 
could  do  no  sooner ;  therefore  I  hoped  that  it  was  not  then 
too  late  for  me  to  be  by  him  instructed  how  to  proceed 
further.     '*  That,"  said  he,  "  I  cannot  very  well  tell,  yet 
did  I  very  lately  hear  a  rumour  as  if  he  should  be  gone  to 
*  Al  Kaid  Oold-et-Tabee. 


Santa  Cruz."  "  That,"  said  I,  **  I  heard,  and  thither  was 
resolved  to  follow,  but  first  to  call  on  you  in  my  way,  in 
order  to  its  further  confirmation."  "Well,  my  old  friend," 
said  he,  "  but  what  need  have  you  to  be  in  so  much  hurry? 
Stay  with  me  first  three  or  four  days  to  refresh  yourself, 
during  which  we  may  chance  to  hear  further  of  him." 
And  this  offer,  indeed,  I  was  very  glad  of,  as  well  as  that 
my  story  was  so  well  taken.  And  on  his  asking  me  by 
what  way  I  got  thither,  I  told  him,  together  with  all  the 
difficulties,  hardships,  and  transactions  I  had  gone  through, 
as  how  I  was  plundered  and  stripped,  how  I  was  obliged  to 
practice  by  way  of  doctor,  how  I  had  met  with  a  sick,  or 
rather  indeed  a  dead  man,  for  that  all  the  doctors  in  the 
world  could  not  cure  him ;  however,  with  what  I  did  for 
him  he  was  so  well  pleased,  that  he  ordered  his  wife  to 
give  me  six  blankeels,  my  bellyful  of  cuscassoe,  and  a 
cake  of  white  bread  to  carry  with  me  ;  how  I  had  been  all 
that  night  surrounded  by  wild  beasts,  and  how  I  had  met 
with  in  the  morning  a  tiger  and  a  lion,  and  what  means  I 
had  made  use  of  to  escape  them. 

Then  I  consented  to  stay  with  him  for  two  or 
three  days.  And  the  third  day,  a  little  before  my 
departure,  who  should,  to  my  very  great  surprise,  hap- 
pen to  come  there  to  tell  the  Alcayde  that  his  father 
was  dead,  but  one  of  my  old  lethargic  patient's  sons  ? 
"  Dead  !  "  said  the  Alcayde.  "  Pray  of  what  distemper  ?  " 
"  That,  sir,"  said  he,  "I  cannot  tell,  though  one  of  the 
straggling  doctors  told  him  when  I  was  from  home  that 
it  was  a  letchery;  and  notwithstanding  he  had  six 
blankeels,  his  bellyful  of  cuscassoe,  and  a  huge  great 
cake  of  white  bread  to  carry  with  him  for  his  pains, 
yet  did  he  letcher  him  out  of  his  life."  "  Poor  man !  " 
said  the  Alcayde,  "  then  our  old  friend  is  actually  dead  at 
last !  "     "  Yes,  sir,"  said  he,  **he  is,  for  my  brothers  and 


I  threw  him  into  his  grave."  "  Well,  my  friend,"  said  the 
Alcayde,  "  that  was  the  last  good  office  you  could  do  him, 
and  as  he  was  so  long  languishing  under  such  torments,  it 
was  by  far  the  "best  place  for  him."  '*  As  to  that,"  said 
the  young  man,  "  we  cannot  tell :  not  that  I  believe  he 
could  by  course  of  nature  have  lived  much  longer,  yet  no 
doubt  the  doctor  hastened  his  end,  for  he  cut  him  and 
burnt  him  to  that  degree,  that  he  never  enjoyed  one 
moment's  ease  after  the  operation ;  and  could  I  light  on 
him,  I  would  soon  spoil  his  doctorship." 

All  this  did  I  with  my  ears  hear,  and  with  my  eyes 
often  saw  the  Alcayde  tipping  me  the  wink,  insomuch 
that  I  could  not  be  easy  any  longer  there ;  but  soon 
after  finding  an  opportunity  to  take  my  leave,  I  took 
my  way  thence  for  the  river  Tennet;*  and  as  I  travelled 
all  night,  I  got  the  next  morning  to  the  foot  of  the 
mountain  Dimminet,!  a  very  plentiful  part  of  the 
country,  the  mountains  round  being  in  the  seasonable 
times  of  the  year  plentifully  stored  with  many  sorts  of 
delicious  fruits,  and  especially  grapes  in  abundance, 
yielding  great  store  of  very  excellent  wine.  It  was,  before 
I  could  get  free  of  these  parts,  full  sixteen  days ;  during 
which  I  sold  a  great  many  of  my  medicines,  such  as  small 
papers  of  bitter  apples  powdered,  of  which  were  in  these 
woods  great  plenty,  and  are  a  prodigious  purgative ;  white 
dog's  date,  ellebore,  and  red  pepper  mixed,  by  way  of 
clearing  the  brain  and  eyes,  and  which  made  them  to  weep 
and  sneeze  gallantly ;  and  with  my  pretty  little  iron  I 
burnt  a  good  number,  one  of  them  in  particular  in  the 
belly  for  a  dropsy ;  and,  to  the  very  great  content  of 
himself  and  wife,  I  took  thereout  a  very  large  quantity  of 
yellow  water,  and  received  for  it  a  gold  ducat.  On  which  I, 
with  a  Spaniard  I  had  there  procured  to  go  with  me,  hurried 

*  WadTe99aout?  f  Demnat. 



thence  twelve  leagues  to  the  river  of  Tessout,  still  further 
on  towards  Morocco ;  and  as  we  travelled  all  that  night, 
we  got  the  next  evening  to  the  riverside  in  good  season,  so 
as  we  had  time  enough  before  night  to  catch  a  dish  of  fish 
for  oui'  suj)pers. 

But  alas  !  how  could  we  catch  any  without  tackle  ? 
We  had  neither  hook  nor  line.  However,  we  were  through 
great  chance  and  a  good  deal  of  trouble  soon  furnished 
with  the  latter  through  means  of  some  hairs  we  got 
from  a  horse's  taiL  But  now  what  must  we  do  for  a 
hook?  When  it  came  into  my  mind,  if  I  could  get  a  needle 
it  might  soon  be  turned  into  the  like  shape ;  but  as  to  my 
own  part,  I  very  well  knew  I  had  none.  However,  I  asked 
my  comrade,  who,  to  my  very  great  satisfaction,  happened 
to  have  a  great  many ;  and  in  turning  the  first  of  them,  as 
not  very  well  understanding  the  temper  of  the  metal,  I 
snapped  it  off  in  the  middle,  as  indeed  I  did  a  second. 
But  now,  considering  within  myself,  that  as  they  had  been 
hardened  by  throwing  them  red  hot  into  a  seasoning  liquid, 
unless  I  should  again  reduce  them  by  fire  to  their  natural 
temper,  I  should  soon  break  all  the  rest.  Therefore,  whilst 
I  was  making  my  line,  my  comrade  having  gathered  some 
wood  and  kindled  a  fire  (as  fully  intending  to  take  up  our 
quarters  there  for  that  night),  I  put  two  of  them  between 
two  coals,  made  them  red-hot,  and  after  they  were  cold 
enough  to  put  my  fingers  to,  I  turned  them  into  what 
shape  I  pleased,  so  as  I  made  two  tolerable  good  hooks ; 
and  then  again  laying  them  between  the  coals  and  making 
them  red-hot,  I  threw  them  into  water,  and  taking  them 
out  again,  to  work  I  went,  and  in  a  little  time  caught  a 
tolerable  dish  of  fish,  broiled  them  on  the  coals,  and  with 
some  green  figs,  of  which  there  were  abundance  there,  we 
made  a  very  good  supper. 

Now,  perceiving  the  night  to  draw  on  apace,  are  we  busy 


at  work  in  laying  on  and  getting  more  fuel,  so  as  in  a  very 
short  time  we  bad  raised  a  huge  fire,  and  fuel  enough,  by 
way  of  reserve,  to  continue  it  for  the  night ;  when  I  told 
my  comrade  that  I  in  a  little  time  expected  more  company, 
but  such  I  feared  as  he  would  not  by  any  means  like. 
However,  I  would  not  have  him  to  be  over  afraid,  for  that 
as  we  had  wood  sufficient  to  continue  our  fire  all  night, 
they  would  not  dare  to  approach  so  nigh  as  to  do  us  any 
harm,  I  having  very  lately  sufficiently  tried  the  experiment. 
**  Experiment !  "  said  he  ;  "  of  what  ?  "  "  Of  what  ?  " 
said  I;  "of  our  fire  preserving  us  from  the  wild  beasts." 
"  Lord !  "  said  he.  What,  are  there  any  of  them  in 
these  parts  ?  "  "  Yes,  yes,"  said  I ;  "  and  that  you  will 
quickly  both  hear  and  see."  And,  indeed,  in  less  than 
half  an  hour  after,  we  plainly  heard  a  great  many  of  the 
forerunners  coming  yelping  towards  us.  "  Pray,"  said  he, 
"  what  are  they  ?  "  "  They,"  said  I,  **  are  jackals,  and 
the  lions,  tigers,  &c.,  are  not  far  ofif,  and  will  no  doubt  be 
soon  here ; "  as  indeed  they  were,  roaring  and  growling 
after  a  terrible  manner. 

Upon  which  I  ordered  my  comrade  to  take  a  large 
firebrand  in  his  hand,  and  to  keep  twirling  it  round  his 
head,  and  now  and  then  to  throw  it  amongst  them. 
This  did  he  (being  not  a  little  terrified)  continue  to  do 
all  that  night,  our  furious  guests  sometimes  approach- 
ing so  near  us  as  we  could  plainly  distinguish  them  as 
to  their  species,  and  many  times  see  them  engaged  with 
one  another ;  insomuch  that,  had  not  an  old  stately  lion, 
to  whom  all  the  rest  seemed  to  be  under  subjection, 
decided  their  quarrels,  there  had  no  doubt  been  bloody 
work  amongst  them ;  but  wherever  he  interfered,  they  sub- 
mitted to  him  in  seeming  obedience,  instantly  giving  him 
place,  and,  in  short,  all  that  quarter  of  the  fire  to  himself. 
As  to  my  comrade,  notwithstanding  his  being  seized  with 


SO  very  great  fear,  yet  did  he  seldom  or  never  cease  to 
twirl  his  firebrand,  unless  when  he  was  disposed  to  throw 
it  amongst  them,  and  to  take  up  a  fresh  one  out  of  the 
fire ;  insomuch  that,  after  our  unwelcome  companions  had 
at  the  approach  of  daylight  left  us,  he  all  that  day  com- 
plained of  a  grievous  pain  in  his  shoulders;  though  which, 
he  said,  he  was  exceedingly  well  pleased  to  compound  with, 
for  rather  than  run  the  hazard  of  such  another  night  he 
should  be  glad  to  endure  the  loss  of  a  leg  or  an  arm.  And 
now  are  we,  indeed,  both  better  pleased ;  for,  to  be  plain, 
I  did  not  care  for  their  company  no  more  than  he  did. 

Now,  after  recovering  ourselves  of  our  fright,  we  cheer- 
fully travelled  on,  though  guilty,  I  think,  of  a  very  great 
omission,  and  to  ourselves  very  much  wanting,  for 
though  we  were  so  very  near  the  river  and  had  nothing 
for  our  breakfast,  yet  we  did  not  stay  to  catch  any  fish, 
which  no  doubt  we  might  have  done  in  a  very  little  time ; 
but  depending  on  our  meeting  with  something  better  on 
the  road,  we,  instead  thereof,  were  for  that  day  obliged  to 
fast  and  to  content  ourselves  without  any  the  least  re- 
freshment. However,  we  travelled  on  with  courage,  and, 
without  anything  else  remarkable,  we  got  that  night, 
exceeding  hungry,  to  Ceedeachall,*  directing  our  course  to 
some  inhabited  tent,  where  we  at  the  least  promised 
ourselves  some  small  refreshment.  But  alas !  to  our  very 
great  dissatisfaction,  we  could  get  none,  unless  than  being 
admitted  to  lodge  in  one  of  them;  and  with  which,  not- 
withstanding my  hunger,  I  thought  myself  by  far  better 
off  than  I  did  the  night  before,  and  though  I  saw  the  dogs 
eating  cuscassoe  before  my  face,  yet  could  not  I,  notwith- 
standing I  offered  to  pay  for  it,  and  my  stomach  was  in 
an  uproar,  get  one  pellet  of  it,  and  which  was  quite  the 
reverse  of  the  Moorish  manners  of  all  I  had  ever  seen 
*  Sidi  Ea'hal. 


before.  Therefore  we  very  early  in  the  morning,  being 
bravely  refreshed  by  moderate  sleep,  set  out  towards 
Morocco  to  seek  our  breakfast,  and  which  being  but  six 
leagues,  and  travelling  at  a  good  pace,  we  had  by  sun- 
rising  got  over  three  of  them,  when  we  met  a  very  well- 
dressed  genteel  Moor,  accoutered  in  martial  order,  having 
by  his  side  a  very  fine  scimitar,  and  in  his  belt  a  pair  of 
pistols.  He  in  a  haughty  manner  demanded  who  we  were, 
from  whence  we  came,  whither  bound,  our  business,  &c. 
I  told  him  we  came  that  morning  from  Ceedeachall,  were 
going  to  Morocco,  and  that  we  were  by  profession  Chy- 
rurgeons.  "  ChjTurgeons  !  "  said  he,  "  what  do  you  mean 
by  that  ?  "  "  That,  sir,"  said  I,  "is  as  much  as  to  say 
surgeons,  or,  if  you  please,  doctors."  "Very  well,"  said 
he,  "  and  do  you  think  you  can  cure  my  eyes  ?  "  Which 
indeed  seemed  to  be  very  much  inflamed.  "  Cure  them," 
said  I,  "  yes  to  be  sure,  though  I  really  think  them  to  be 
very  far  gone,  and  therefore  I  hope  you  won't  take  it  ill 
if  we  ask  your  honour  how  much  you  are  willing  to  give 
us  •?  "  "Give  3'ou  ?"  said  he ;  "a  very  handsome  fee  if  you 
cure  me  :  if  not,  nothing,  unless  it  be  to  cut  your  throats." 
"  So  then,"  said  I,  "  I  find  you  are  for  no  purchase  no  pay, 
or  rather,  indeed,  what  is  a  great  deal  worse ;  however,  I 
dare  venture  it." 

To  be  plain,  I  knew  if  I  could  but  once  get  a  little  of 
mv  powders  into  his  eyes,  it  would  be  suflficiently  arming 
me  against  him  and  his  weapons,  had  they  been  never 
so  many  ;  but  to  be  too  eager  upon  him  for  the  opera- 
tion I  thought  might  not  be  so  proper,  therefore  I 
left  him  alone  to  make  the  first  advance.  "  Well,  well, 
then,"  said  he,  "  since  I  must  be  doctored  by  you,  I 
desire  to  see  first  if  you  have  any  money  about  you," 
feeling  and  peering  into  our  tattered  garments,  and 
rummaging  a  little  knapsack  the  Spaniards  had  to  carry 


a  few  medicines  in ;  and  though  I  had  therein,  at  the 
bottom  of  one  of  my  pots  of  famous  ointment,  a  gold 
ducat  and  several  blankeels,  yet  had  he  only  his  labour  for 
bis  pains,  telling  us  "  that  he  thought  our  doctorship  had 
been  to  us,  so  far  as  he  could  see,  of  but  very  little 
advantage  hitherto ;  but  if  it  had  been  otherwise,  and 
which  for  our  sakes  he  should  have  been  glad  of,  not- 
w'ithstanding  what  he  had  done  to  satisfy  his  curiosity, 
he  had  no  design  of  taking  anything  from  us."  "  Alas  ! 
sir,"  said  I,  "  you  cannot,  I  hope,  suppose  we  could  be 
under  any  such  apprehensions.  What !  to  be  under  any 
apprehension  of  that  nature  from  a  gentleman  of  your 
presence  !  "     **  No,  no,"  said  he,  "  I  hope  not." 

Now  am  I  to  contrive  how  to  be  up  with  him.  However, 
it  soon  came  into  my  noddle,  telling  my  comrade  in 
Spanish  (and  which  I  knew  the  Moor,  as  having  before 
tried  him,  did  not  understand)  that  he  should  be  sure  to 
be  very  observant  of  all  I  told  him  ;  and  then  I  told  this 
knight  of  the  road  (as  being,  no  doubt,  one  of  those  who 
make  their  fortunes  on  the  ruin  of  others)  Anglice,  a 
highwayman,  that  we  were  sent  for  in  all  haste  to  visit 
some  patients  at  Morocco,  and  thither  we  were  obliged  to 
hasten,  and  therefore  I  wished  him  well,  and  his  ejea  a 
better  doctor.  "  A  better  doctor  !  "  said  he  in  a  very  great 
passion  ;  "  a  better  doctor  !  Pray  what  do  you  mean  by 
that  ?  Did  not  you  say  you  would  cure  me  ?  and  I  expect 
you  do,  or  I  will  soon  spoil  your  doctorship."  **  Cure  you, 
sir,"  said  I ;  **  how  can  that  be,  when  you  will  not  give  me 
leave  to  apply  my  medicines  ?  "  "  You  dog,"  said  he,  "  I 
never  told  you  so,"  laying  his  hand  upon  one  of  his 
pistols.  "Good  sir,"  said  I,  "be  not  offended,  for  I  am 
ready,  when  you  please,  to  perform  the  operation  and  to 
use  the  best  of  my  skill."  "But  do  you  think  my  eyes 
are  not  past  cure?"     "Why,  sir,"  said  I,  "as  to  that, 


I  will  engage  to  make  on  you  a  most  sudden  alteration,  or 
I  will  give  you  leave  to  shoot  me  with  one  of  your  pistols 
through  the  head."  "Then,"  said  he,  "you  dog,  why 
don't  you  do  it,  or  hy  God,  if  you  will  not,  you  shall  have 
both."     "  Sir,"  said  I,  "  with  all  my  heart." 

Then  I  opened  the  knapsack,  and  after  I  had  taken  out 
of  it  a  paper  of  the  powder  of  elebore  and  cod -pepper 
mixed,  and  therewith  filled  two  quills,  giving  one  of  them  to 
the  Spaniard,  I  ordered  my  gentleman  to  sit  down  on  the 
ground  ;  when  I  told  the  Spaniard,  that  when  I  had  got 
fast  hold  on  one  of  his  eyelids,  he  should  be  sure  to  take 
fast  hold  of  the  other  and  hold  it  open,  blow  in  his  quill 
of  powder  with  all  his  might.  And  when  we  were  both 
ready  I  gave  the  word  "  Blow,"  which  he  readily  observing, 
and  I  blowing  also  at  the  very  instant,  we  to  that  degree 
filled  both  his  eyes  as  had  our  knapsack  been  full  of  gold 
ducats  we  might  have  given  him  leave  to  peer  therein. 
The  powders  performed  to  admu-ation,  he  rubbing  with 
both  his  hands,  twisting  and  turning,  and  from  his  eyes 
flowed  a  little  fountain  of  water.  When  I  asked  him  how 
he  did,  "Do,"  said  he,  "you  dogs,  you've  blown  out  my 
eyes !  "  "  See  now,"  said  I,  "  how  men  be  abused  for 
their  good  will."  "Oh,  bum  your  good  will!"  said  he. 
"Very  well,  sir,"  said  I,  "be  that  as  it  will,  I  am 
thoroughly  resolved  to  extend  it  a  little  further."  Then 
laying  hold  on  his  sword  and  pistols,  after  giving  him  two 
or  three  very  hearty  cuts  by  way  of  bleeding,  I  left  him, 
and  with  my  comrade  in  all  possible  haste  travelled  on, 
and  about  noon  got  to  Morocco,  where,  would  his  present 
circumstance  have  permitted  him,  I  thought  he  dared  not 
to  come  after  us. 

Now  am  I,  after  two  months'  very  hazardous  and  painful 
travel  from  Mequinez,  safely  arrived  at  Morocco,  where, 
though  I  had  a  great  many  acquaintances,  yet  would  I  not 


venture  to  trust  more  than  one  of  them ;  and  finding  my 
comrade  did  not  care  to  encounter  with  any  more  suchlike 
adventures,  and  he  had  also  there  many  friends,  we,  after 
his  giving  me  the  knapsack  and  medicines,  and  after  most 
courteously  bidding  each  other  farewell,  and  having  on 
both  sides  agreed  with  ourselves  what  friends  to  call  upon, 
separated.    And  then  I  directly  went  to  my  friend's  house, 
and  very  luckily  found  him  at  home,  and  I  met  with  a 
kind  reception;  and  he  asking  me  what  business  I  was  come 
upon,  and  if  I  thought  it  to  be  in  his  power  to  do  me  any 
service,  desiring  I  would  not  be  upon  the  reserve,  for  that 
I  was  to  him  very  heartily  welcome,  and  that  he  would 
serve  me  even  to  the  hazard  of  his  life,  I  with  a  small 
alteration  told  him  the  old  story,  as  how  that  since  Muley 
Abdallah's  second  driving  out  (who,  said  I,  you  know  was 
very   cruel,   yet,   between    you  and  I,   I  think    there  is 
altogether  as  bad  come  in  his  room,  the  Blacks  being 
become  so  insolent  that  they  persuade  him  even  to  what 
they  please)  I  was  between  them  both  really  in  a  very 
great  strait,  and  therefore  I  was  come  thither  to  consult 
him  how  to  act.     "  Indeed,  my  friend,"  said  he,  "  I  am  as 
well  as  you  in  this  affair  at  a  very  great  loss ;  however, 
between  friends,  I  know  not  which  barrel  of  the  two  is  the 
better  herring,  and  therefore,  as  you  are  now  got  so  far 
out  of  the  power  of  them  both,  was  your  case  mine,  I 
would  depend  on  neither  of  them  no  longer,  but  take  care 
of  myself  so  well  as  I  could."     "  Indeed,"  said  I,  "  that  is 
a  very  natural  case,  and  so  would  I  also  do,  could  I  tell 
how ;  for,  to  be  more  plain,  I  as  little  esteem  them  as  you 
do,  yet  I  cannot  deny  but  it  has  been  in  my  mind  to  follow 
Muley  Abdallah,  and   so   I  told  my  old  friend,  Alcayde 
Woldlattabbee,  in  my  way  hither,  with  whom  I  stayed  three 
days."     "As  to  that,"  said  he,  "you  did  not  amiss;  but 
what  said  the  Alcayde  to  it  ?  "     "  Why,"  said  I,  "  when  I 


had  told  him  my  inclination,  and  asked  him  which  way  he 
would  advise  me  to  proceed,  he  told  me  that  a  rumour  very 
lately  ran  thereabout  that  the  tyrant  was  actually  gone  to 
Santa  Cruz." 

To  which  I  answered  him,  that  I  had  heard  the  same, 

and  that  I  was  thither  resolved  to  follow  him.     *'  Very 

well,"  said  he,  **  and   let  your  intentions  be  what  they 

would,  I  think  you  answered  him  very  well ;   and  once 

more,  my  old  friend,  I  cannot  help  telling  3-0U,  that  was 

it  my  own  case,  and  you  were  therein  sincere,  I  would 

not   follow  him   one   step  further."      "  Indeed,"   said  I, 

"  the  Alcayde  did  not  so  plainly  tell  me  to  do  it,  neither 

did  he,   my   friend,   give   me   any   great   encouragement, 

though  he  in  a  friendly  manner  told  me  that  I  need  not  be 

in  so  great  a  hurry,  for  that  I  should  first  stay  with  him 

three  or  four  days  to  refresh  myself;  and  which,  indeed,  I 

did,  and  found  myself  thereby,  after  the  many  misfortunes 

I  met  with  in  my  journey  thither,  very  much  refreshed." 

**  Well,  my  friend,"  said  he,  *'  I  am  very  glad  the  Alcayde 

was   so  very  kind  to  you,   and   that   you   so  prudently 

behaved  with  him ;  for  give  me  leave  to  tell  you,  the  times 

are  now  so  ticklish  that  a  man  cannot  tell  who  to  trust, 

and  in  some  cases  it  is  altogether  unsafe  for  a  man  to  lay 

himself  open  even  to  his  own  brother  ;  therefore  I  shall  be 

no  further  inquisitive  with  you,  and  be  your  intentions 

what  they  will,  you  are  to  me  very  sincerely  welcome. 

And  now,"  said  he,  **  I  think  it  is  -high  time  to  ask  you 

how  your  stomach  may  agree  with  a  dinner."     I  told  him 

as  to  that  he  need  not  fear  our  falling  out,  for  that  as  I 

had  not  ate  anything  all  that  day,  nor  the  day  before,  it 

would  be  to  me,  next  himself,  the  best  friend  I  could  meet 

with,  and  therefore  I  did  not  care  how  soon  I  was  at  it ; 

when  he  called  to  his  wives  (as  ha^'ing,  though  a  Spaniard, 

no  less  than  three)  to  order  up  the  cuscassoe,  and  come 


and  take  part  with  us:  "for,"  said  he,  "though  it  is  not 
the  country  custom,  yet,  as  this  is  my  brother,  I  hope  you 
will  so  far  oblige  me ;  "  which,  I  assure  you,  was  a  very 
extraordinary  favour. 

Then  our  dinner  was  by  the  three  good  wives  directly 
ushered  in  and  set  in  the  middle  of  the  floor,  which  we 
soon  surrounded  and  fell  to  it;  and,  as  to  my  own  part, 
I  in  a  very  short  time  made  good  my  leeward  way,  and 
made  an  excellent  dinner  indeed.  And  after  the  women 
were  gone  off,  my  friend  brought  in  a  bottle  of  excellent 
good  wine  to  wash  it  down,  desiring  me  not  to  spare  it, 
for  that  that  bottle  had  a  great  many  fellows,  and  there- 
fore he  hoped  I  would  be  as  merry  as  he  wished  me. 
"Alas!  my  friend,"  said  I,  "how  can  a  man  be  merry 
under  my  unhappy  circumstances  ?  However,  I  will  force 
my  inclinations  to  be  as  merry  as  I  can."  And  indeed 
we  passed  the  evening  in  taking  our  glass  and  talking 
over  old  stories,  without  on  either  side  mentioning  any- 
thing touching  my  future  intentions;  and  as  I  was  with  my 
journey  somewhat  weary,  we,  at  my  request,  separated  for 
the  night  to  our  rest. 

Very  early  in.  the  morning  he  came  into  my  apart- 
ment, asking  me  how  I  had  taken  my  rest,  and  telling 
me  that  I  had  forgot  the  last  night  to  go  to  supper. 
"  That,"  said  I,  "  as  you  were  so  often  pleased  to  ask  me, 
was  not  yours,  but  my  own  fault."  "  Well,"  said  he, 
"but  can  you,  do  you  think,  eat  a  piece  of  a  sheep  for 
your  breakfast  ?  "  "  Yes,"  said  I,  "  with  all  my  heart;  " 
on  which  he  brought  me  in  a  very  little  time  a  good  piece 
of  a  leg  broiled  on  the  coals,  and  after  we  had  finished  he 
desired  I  would  give  him  an  account  of  my  journey,  and 
how  long  I  had  been  on  it.  "  Do  you  mean,"  said  I, 
"after  a  methodical  manner?"  "Yes,"  said  he,  "if  you 
don't  think  it  too  tedious  for  you."     "Alas!  my  friend," 


said  I,  "  I  hope  you  do  not  think  there  can  be  anything  in 
my  power  too  tedious  for  me  to  oblige  you  in."  Then  I, 
from  Mequinez  to  my  burnt  and  scarified  patient,  gave  him 
a  very  particular  account,  and  when  I  came  to  him  I 
seemed  a  little  to  mince  the  matter ;  however,  as  I  had 
promised  him  to  tell  him  the  truth,  so  I  did,  and  when 
I  came  to  the  torturing  part  he  asked  me  how  I  could  be  so 
cruel.  "Cruel,"  said  I,  "just  so  (were  it  in  my  power) 
I  would  use  most  of  the  Moors  in  Barbary."  **  Ha,  ha," 
said  he,  "  now  do  I,  without  your  telling  me  plainly,  see 
through  your  intentions  ;  but  go  on." 

Then  I  told  him  what  a  terrible  fright  I  was  in  on  one  of 
his  sons  coming  to  the  Alcayde's  house,  whilst  I  was  there, 
to  tell  him  his  father  was  dead,  that  the  doctor  had  killed 
him,  and  that  could  he  catch  him  he  would  soon  spoil  his 
doctorship ;  which  made  him  laugh  very  heartily.  And 
when  I  was  come  to  my  taking  up  my  quarters  amongst 
the  wild  beasts,  he  altogether  as  heartily  mourned  my  con- 
dition ;  however,  I  soon  put  him  again  in  good  humour  by 
my  telling  him  the  dialogue  between  me  and  my  scour-road 
sore-eyed  patient,  and  which  really  pleased  him  very  much, 
laughing  as  though  he  had  been  tickled  (though  I  told  him 
then  never  a  word  of  my  bringing  off  his  sword  and  pistols), 
telling  me  that  by  the  description  I  gave  of  him  he  must 
be  actually  the  same  who  had  infested  the  roads  for  a  long 
time  back,  insomuch  as  very  few  travellers  escaped  him. 
"  But,"  said  he,  "  did  not  the  villain  cry  out  ?  "  "  Yes, 
yes,"  said  I,  "  so  well  as  he  could  ;  and  now,  sir,  give  me 
leave  to  ask  you  what  you,  through  your  very  gi-eat 
clemency,  would  have  done  by  him  had  it  been  your  own 
case."  "  Done  by  him  ?  "  said  he  ;  "  with  his  own  sword 
cut  his  throat."  "  Indeed,  sir,"  said  I,  "  that  is  what  you 
might  soon  have  done,  it  being  actually  a  very  good  one, 
and  the  pistols  not  at  all  inferior  to  it ;  and  which,  if  you 


will  not  believe  me,  be  your  own  eyes  the  judge,"  taking 
them  from  underneath  my  old  blanket. 

At  which  he  said  he  was  very  much  surprised,  for  that  he 
had  not,  to  his  mind,  of  a  long  time  seen  finer,  and  that  he 
thought  them  to  be  of  considerable  value.  I  told  him  that 
I  was  very  glad  he  liked  them  so  well,  and  that  if  he  was 
pleased  to  accept  of  anything  which  formerly  belonged  to  a 
highwayman,  they  were  very  heartily  at  his  service ;  and 
as  to  their  late  masters  finding  them  upon  him,  he  needed, 
not  to  be  under  the  least  apprehension.  With  much  ado  he 
took  them  as  his  own,  though  first  indeed  he,  by  way  of  old 
friendship,  compelled  me  to  accept  of  three  gold  ducats, 
and  which,  he  said,  he  was  determined  to  give  me  had  he 
not  seen  the  sword  and  pistols  at  all.  And  after  dinner, 
and  drinking  a  hearty  bottle,  I  told  him,  just  as  I  was 
going  to  lie  down,  that  I  would  not  by  any  means  have  him 
to  take  it  ill,  for  that  I  was  fully  determined  with  myself  to 
pursue  my  journey  early  in  the  morning ;  and  getting  up 
accordingly  I  (after  a  good  breakfast,  and  receiving  from 
him  three  cakes  of  bread,  some  snuff,  and  very  friendly 
advice,  telling  me  he  was  fully  apprised  of  my  intentions, 
that  he  sincerely  wished  me  well  to  my  own  country,  and 
that  God  would  be  to  me  therein  aiding  and  assisting, 
taking  me  in  his  arms,  and  giving  me  a  very  hearty  and 
I  dare  say  sincere  kiss,  which  I  without  any  further  answer 
as  sincerely  returning)  departed ;  and  as  I  travelled  at  a 
pretty  smart  rate  I  got  that  forenoon  about  ten  of  the 
clock  to  Tamslaught,*  where  I  rested  me  so  long  as  to  eat 
a  few  grapes  with  some  of  my  bread  for  my  dinner,  and, 
travelling  on,  I  got  about  one  that  afternoon  to  a  part  of 
the  river  Waddenfeeze,  where  I  sat  me  down  again,  and 
began  to  consult  myself  if  I  should  go  directly  on  or  stay 
there  so  long  as  to  catch  a  few  fishes  ;  for  notwithstanding 
*  Tamsaloaht,  a  -village  about  10^  miles  S.S.W.  of  the  city. 


I  had  SO  lately  dined,  yet  methought  I  could  (as  the  grapes 
had  but  whetted  my  stomach)  find  in  my  heart  to  make 
another  dinner.  Therefore  I  went  to  work,  and  caught  a 
brace  of  tolerable  size  in  a  very  short  time,  and  on  my 
seeing  some  Moors  coming  to  the  riverside  I  hailed  one  of 
them  (as  being  loath  to  be  too  profuse  of  my  tinder),  and 
asked  him  if  he  could  help  me  to  a  coal  of  fire;  and  which, 
whilst  he  was  fetching  from  one  of  their  tents,  I  had 
gathered  a  few  dry  sticks  and  laid  them  in  order,  and 
whilst  I  was  cleaning  my  fish  he  came  with  the  fire  and 
kindled  the  wood,  and  then  I  laid  my  fish  thereon  and 
made  a  very  hearty  meal,  and  some  to  spare  to  my 

And  I  being  surrounded  by  this  time  with  several  other 
Moors,  they  were  soon  very  inquisitive  with  me  to  know 
the  guts  of  my  knapsack.  Alas !  thinks  I,  these  are 
not,  I  hope,  some  of  the  under-strappers  of  my  late  sore- 
eyed  patient ;  but  indeed  I  was  soon  given  to  understand 
the  contrary,  for  on  my  being  asked  a  second  time  I  told 
them  medicines  for  curing  the  sick  ;  when  I  was  asked  by 
one  of  them  if  I  could  cure  sore  eyes.  "  Sore  eyes  ?  "  said 
I ;  "  yes,  I  think  I  have  hitherto  cured  a  great  many,  and  a 
gentleman  in  particular,  about  three  days  ago,  of  a  very 
great  inflammation  therein,"  **  An  inflammation,"  said 
be  ;  "  pray  what  do  you  mean  by  that  ?  "  "  Why,"  said  I, 
"  that  is  when  the  eyes  are  attended  with  a  hot  scalding 
pain,  and  look  of  a  very  red  colour."  "  Then  as  sure  as 
daylight,"  said  he,  "  my  brother's  are  just  so."  "  And  so 
are  my  sister's,"  said  another.  "And  my  wife's,"  said 
another.  "  But,"  said  they,  *'  do  you  really  think  you  can 
cure  them  ?  "  "  That,"  said  I,  "  I  cannot  say ;  first  let  me 
see  them,  and  then  I  will  tell  you  more  of  my  mind,  for  the 
gentleman  the  other  day  was  also  very  inquisitive,  and 
asked  me  much  the  same  questions,  and  notwithstanding 


his  eyes  were  really  very  much  inflamed,  yet  did  I  make  on 
him  so  great  an  alteration  as  to  leave  him  quite  another 
man  in  a  very  little  time."  "  Will  you  then,  doctor,  he 
pleased  to  go  with  us  to  yonder  tents  ?  "  said  they.  **  Yes," 
said  I,  "if  you  please,  with  all  my  heart ;  "  and  at  our 
coming  up  were  brought  out  of  two  of  them  a  man  and  two 
women,  having  in  their  eyes  what  I  had  often  heard  in  my 
childhood  called  amongst  the  old  women  in  England  a 
"  blast." 

"  Alas  ! "  said  I,  "  how  came  you  to  suffer  this  in- 
veterate disease  to  reign  on  you  so  long  ?  "  "  Indeed, 
doctor,"  said  they,  "  to  tell  you  the  truth,  we  thought  (as 
well  as  a  great  many  of  our  neighbours  who  had  the  same 
distemper)  to  be  well  again  in  a  very  little  time,  as  indeed 
they  were  in  less  than  a  fortnight."  "  Why,"  said  I, 
"yours,  or  I  am  very  much  mistaken,  has  been  coming  on 
you  more  than  a  month."  "Yes,  doctor,"  said  the  man, 
"more  than  six  weeks."  "Very  well,"  said  I,  "and  are 
you  resolved  to  make  trial  of  my  medicines,  or  suffer  it  to 
run  on  longer  ?  If  you  are  resolved  to  put  yourselves 
under  my  care,  tell  me  directly,  for  I  am  obliged  to  go  this 
evening,  or  to-morrow  early,  to  a  patient  about  two  leagues 
off,  and,  as  far  as  I  can  tell,  when  I  come  back  it  may  be 
too  late.  However,  as  to  that,  as  your  eyes  are  your  own, 
you  may  do  as  you  please  by  them."  "Good  doctor," 
said  they,  "don't  be  uneasy,  for  you  shall  try  your  skill  on 
us  before  you  go."  "Very  well,"  said  I,  "but  before  I 
meddle  with  your  eyes  I  design  to  give  you  a  small  matter 
of  my  purging  powders,  the  better  to  prepare  you  for  the 
operations ;  and  as  the  eyes  are  at  this  time  of  day  very 
dangerous  to  meddle  with,  I  will  give  you  the  physic 
directly,  and  take  in  hand  your  eyes  in  the  morning,  for, 
to  be  plain  with  you,  in  many  cases  of  the  eyes  the  light 
cannot,   no  more  than  our    tempers,   be  too  calm  and 


serene."  **  That,"  said  they,  "  doctor,  you  kuow  better 
than  we  do,  and  therefore  we  are  very  willing  to  conform 
ourselves  to  your  rules."  "  Very  well,"  said  I  (as  having 
a  very  great  mind  to  a  good  supper),  "  and  have  you  then 
in  either  of  your  tents  any  fresh  mutton  ?  In  short,  if  you 
have  not,  you  must  look  out  for  some  ;  "  when  a  messenger 
was  sent  to  a  neighbouring  tent,  and  soon  returned  with  a 
fore-quarter,  asking  me  how  I  would  have  it  dressed. 
*' Dressed,"  said  I ;  "I  suppose  now  you  think  I  ordered 
this  only  for  myself;  be  that  as  it  will,  I  heartily  thank 
you,  and  set  the  pot  over  directly,  for  I  shall  want  the 
broth  for  working  the  physic  ;  but,"  said  I,  "  be  sure  you 
put  in  all  the  meat,  for  the  stronger  it  is  I  think  it  will  be 
far  the  better." 

So  when  I  saw  the  mutton  under  sail  I  gave  to  each 
of  them  a  small  dose  of  my  bitter  apples  in  some  honey, 
which  I  knew  to  be  sufficient,  and  that  it  could  in  no 
wise  hurt  them,  charging  them  to  keep  continually  walk- 
ing and  stirring  their  bodies ;  and  whilst  the  physic  was 
performing  its  several  parts  came  in  a  woman,  to  whom 
the  people  of  the  family  spoke  very  courteously,  asking 
her  how  she  did.  "Do,"  said  she,  "neighbours,  very 
bad,  and  really  I  think  very  bad  indeed."  "Alas!  poor 
woman,"  said  they,  "pray  how  long  have  you  been  so, 
and  what  may  your  distemper  be,  for  we  have  observed 
you  ailing  for  a  long  time  ?  "  "  That,"  said  she,  "  is  what 
I  cannot  very  well  tell,  though  I  am  almost  persuaded  by 
some  people  that  it  is  what  the  doctors  call  a  dropsy.  It 
has  been  coming  on  me  now  almost  twelve  months,  and  is, 
instead  of  the  least  appearance  of  amendment ,  I  think  still 
growing  worse  and  worse,  insomuch  that  I  am  to  that 
degree  swelled  that  my  skin  is  ready  to  burst  ;  but  neigh- 
bours, I  am  told  you  have  a  doctor  in  the  house,  and  to 
whom  I  am  come  to  ask  him  if  he  can  do  me  any  good." 


Then  one  of  the  family  told  her  there  was  the  doctor, 
pointing  at  me — of  which  I  seemed  to  take  no  notice, 
though  you  may  suppose  I  heard  every  word  they  said ; 
neither  did  I  till  she  came  to  me  so  well  as  she  could,  and 
asked  me  if  I  thought  I  could  do  her  any  good.  "  Any 
good,"  said  I,  looking  her  full  in  the  face,  "  pray  what  ails 
you?  "  "  Ail  me,"  said  she,  "  enough  I  think."  "  Pray," 
said  I,  **  give  me  your  hand,"  and  after  I  had  felt  her 
pulse,  and  looked  at  her  legs,  felt  her  chest,  &c.,  I  told  her 
that  I  thought  it  a  most  unaccountable  thing  that  people 
should  be  so  very  careless  of  their  health,  and  only  for  the 
sake  of  saving  a  little  money  to  suffer  such  inveterate  dis- 
tempers to  reign  so  long  upon  them ;  which,  said  I,  is  just 
the  same  with  breaking  your  necks  only  for  the  humour  of 
trying  the  skill  of  the  doctor  to  set  it.  "  However,"  said  I, 
"  I  will  do  for  you  all  in  my  power."  **  All  in  your  power," 
said  she.  "Yes,"  said  I,  "all  in  my  power.  You  would 
not  have  me  to  promise  you  further  than  I  think  may  be 
performed  by  second  means  ;  and  that,  I  say,  I  am  ready, 
if  you  please,  to  put  in  practice."  "  Pray,"  said  she, 
"what  do  you  think  my  distemper  to  be  ?  "  "To  be?" 
said  I ;  "a  dropsy,  an  old,  confirmed,  inveterate  dropsy." 
"  Indeed  !  "  said  she,  "  and  so  I  did  suppose  it."  "  Why," 
said  I,  "  I  warrant  it  has  been  coming  on  you  now  more 
than  twelve  months."  "Why  really,  doctor,"  said  she, 
"  you  are  very  much  in  the  right  of  it ;  and  was  I  as  sure 
of  a  cure  as  that  you  have  hit  my  distemper,  I  would  with 
all  my  heart  give  you  twenty  gold  ducats."  "Well,"  said 
I,  "  have  a  good  heart,  take  this  evening,  by  way  of  pre- 
paring the  body,  a  small  paper  of  my  purging  powder,  and 
to-morrow  morning  early  I  will  take  from  you  some  water, 
of  which,  let  me  tell  you,  you  have  in  your  body  not  a 
little."  So  I  gave  her  a  paper  of  my  powders,  ordered  her 
to  go  home  and  take  it  in  a  little  honey,  and  to  work  it 


with  water  gruel,  for  that  broth  was  by  no  means  fit  for 

And  then  indeed  my  stomach  put  me  in  mind  of  my 
own  supper,  and  after  my  patients  had  pretty  well  thrown 
off  their  physic,  and  the  mutton  was  fully  boiled,  I  ordered 
each  of  them  a  large  dish  of  the  broth,  when  I  also  fell  at 
it  myself,  and  between  the  broth  and  the  meat  I  soon  made 
a  very  hearty  supper ;  and  then  I  told  my  patients  they 
might  also  eat  a  little  of  the  meat  if  they  would,  and  that 
they  should  immediately  after  it  go  to  their  rest,  for  that  I 
intended  to  rouse  them  very  early  in  the  morning,  and  that 
in  order  thereto  I  would,  if  they  pleased,  also  lay  me  down 
and  take  a  nap.  And  at  daybreak  I  got  up  and  went  to  my 
dropsy  patient,  asking  her  how  she  did,  and  if  she  found 
herself,  after  her  physic,  for  the  better  or  the  worse.  **  As 
to  that,"  said  she,  "  it  has  made  on  me  no  great  matter  of 
alteration ;  however,  I  am  fully  satisfied  it  has  done  me  no 
harm."  "  Very  well,"  said  I,  "  and  as  I  am  just  now 
obliged  to  be  going  away,  I  desire  you  will  tell  me  if  you 
are  willing  I  should  touch  you  first  in  two  or  three  places 
in  the  stomach  with  a  hot  iron."  "Good  doctor,"  said 
she,  **  cannot  you  cure  me  by  any  other  means  ?  "  "  No," 
said  I,  "there  is  no  other  means  that  I  know  of,  unless  you 
will  give  me  leave  to  make  a  large  hole  in  your  stomach 
and  put  in  a  tap."  "  Well,"  said  she,  "  burning  will  no 
doubt  be  very  painful  to  me  ;  however,  I  had  rather  suffer 
that  than  the  boring  a  hole  through  my  belly."  **  Very 
well,"  said  I,  "  and  I  think  you  are  very  much  in  the  right 
of  it,  for  I  would  have  you  to  consider  if  it  is  not  better  for 
you  to  smart  once  than  always  to  ache ;  besides,  you  know 
very  well  that  a  desperate  disease  must  have  a  desperate 
cure."  "Indeed,  doctor,"  said  she,  "all  you  say  is  very 
true,  therefore  do  by  me  just  as  you  please." 

Then  I  put  my  iron  into  the  fire,  made  it  hot,  and  burnt 



her  in  the  stomach  in  three  several  places,  and  there  actually 
came  out  a  great  deal  of  yellow  water,  and  after  I  had  given 
her  a  piece  of  my  plaster,  and  directed  her  how  to  use  it,  I 
told  her  I  must  be  going,  and  that  if  she  wou]d  spare  me  a 
small  matter  of  money  to  defray  my  expenses  till  I  came 
back  I  shouM  think  myself  very  much  obliged  to  her. 
"Pray,"  said  she,  "how  long  do  you  think  you  maybe 
wanting  ?  "  "  Eeally,"  said  I,  "  that  I  cannot  very  well 
tell ;  it  may  be  one,  two,  or  three  days,  according  to  the 
condition  I  find  my  patients  in."  "  Alas  !  "  said  she,  "  and 
what  shall  I  do  in  your  absence  ?  "  "  Do  !  "  said  I,  "  was 
I  here  I  could  do  no  more  for  you  for  three  or  four  days 
than  keep  drawing  plasters  to  the  burnt  part,  and  that  you 
may  do,  or  anybody  else  for  you,  as  you  may  see  occasion 
to  change  them,  and  by  the  time  I  come  back  I  do  not 
doubt  but  there  will  be  on  you  a  very  great  alteration." 
Then  she  gave  me  a  gold  ducat,  with  which,  after  bidding 
her  for  the  time  farewell,  I  went  directly  to  my  sore-eyed 
gentry,  who  were  all  waiting  my  coming,  and  ready  to 
undergo  the  operations  ;  however,  before  I  took  them  in 
hand,  as  not  thinking  it  convenient  for  me  to  stay  there 
any  longer  after  I  had  doctored  them,  and  having,  before  I 
left  them,  a  very  great  mind  to  a  good  breakfast,  I  asked 
them  if  they  had  ate  anything  for  the  morning.  They  told 
me  no,  for  that  notwithstanding  they  were  after  their 
physic  extremely  hungry,  yet  would  they  not  venture  to  eat 
anything  till  I  came.  *'  Very  well,"  said  I,  "  as  to  that  I 
cannot  blame  you ;  however,  if  you  have  any  cold  meat 
left,  I  would  by  all  means  have  you  to  eat  a  little  before  I 
take  you  in  hand,  for,  to  be  plain  with  you,  you  will  not 
for  some  time  after  the  operation  be  able  to  see  so  well  how 
to  go  about  it."  ^ 

Then  the  remains  of  our  last  night's  supper  was  directly 
brought  forth,  and  when  I  had  filled  my  belly  I  told  them 


I  was  ready  as  soon  as  they  pleased.     They  directly  left 

eating,  and  according  to  order  sat  themselves  all  down 

on  the  floor,  and  then  I,  in  a  little  time  (it  being  my 

masterpiece,  and  I  having  several  quills  of  my   powders 

ready  at  my  hands),  filled  all  their  eyes  to  that  degree 

as  to  set  them  a  wallowing  and  getting  upon  their  legs, 

capering  and  dancing  like  so  many  fairies ;  when  I  told 

them  that  they  must  have  patience,  for  that  the  violent 

smarting  would  soon  pass  off,  and  that  as  I  was  obliged, 

as  I  told  them  the  last  night,  to  go  to  a  patient  about 

two  leagues  off,  I  could  then  tarry  with  them  no  longer; 

therefore,  said  I,  if  you  will  be  pleased  to  help  me  to  a 

little  money  to  bear  out  my  expenses  till  I  return  you 

will  very  much  oblige  me ;  and  if  I  did  not  at  my  return 

make  on  them  a  perfect  cure,  I  would  on  my  honour  give  it 

them  back  again.     Then  they  ordered  one  of  the  women  to 

give  me  a  gold  ducat ;  and  which,  indeed,  they  could  not 

do  themselves,  they  being  by  that  time  on  the  rubbing  and 

twisting  order,  and  such  abundance  of  tears  falling  from 

their  eyes,  that  had  it  been  by  way  of  a  natural  cause,  and 

in  contrition  for  their  past  sins,  it  must,  no  doubt,  have 

been  accounted  a  very  happy  introduction  to  their  future 


'■  Note  80. 


On  the  road  to  liberty — Another  old  friend — An  awkward  meeting,  but 
a  former  enemy  is  luckily  not  recognized — Bobbed  of  everything, 
Mr.  PeUow  reaches  Tarudant  in  a  woeful  pUght — Re-equipped,  he 
arrives  at  Santa  Cruz,  and  as  a  measure  of  precaution  takes  up 
his  quarters  in  a  cave,  where  he  meets  with  strange  company — 
Dreams,  and  their  interpretation — Enters  into  a  new  partnership — 
Takes  to  duck  kilUng  for  a  livelihood — A  new  partner  of  the 
faint-hearted  order— Being  again  stripped,  he  "  borrows  a  point 
of  the  law  "  in  order  to  exist — He  takes  refuge  in  the  Kasbah  of 
Ali  ben-Hamedush  at  the  Tensift  River — At  WiUadia  he  falls  in 
with  an  old  schoolfellow,  and,  worse  luck,  meets  the  mother  of 
Muley  Abdallah — Plays  the  courier,  escapes  from  robbers,  and 
passes  the  night  in  a  tree,  surrounded  by  wild  beasts. 

NOW  I  am  again  on  the  tramp,  and  in  pocket  (or  at 
least  tied  up  in  one  corner  of  my  blanket,  at  the 
bottom  of  one  of  my  pots  of  ointment)  six  gold  ducats,  and 
in  blankeels  to  the  value  of  two  more.  So  travelling  merrily 
on  at  a  good  rate,  I  got  that  evening  to  the  foot  of  the 
mountain  Mosmeeth*  where  on  a  former  expedition  we  left 
our  horses,  whilst  we  travelled  on  foot  up  the  mountain, 
and  returned  there  from  subduing  the  castle  of  Ehiah 
Embelide,  t  and  the  four  little  towns  on  the  top  of  the 
mountain,  as  is  before  mentioned ;  and  where  I  called  now 
on  Tolbhammet  Mesmeesey,!  who  very  courteously  received 
me,  and  asked  me  after  a  very  friendly  manner  what  wind 

*  Amsmiz  ?  f  Note  31. 

I  Taleb  (Interpreter  of  the  Law)  Hamid  Ams-mizi. 


had  blown  me  thither  ;  when  I  answered  him  with  the  old 
story.  In  answer  to  which  he  told  me  that,  so  far  as  he 
could  learn  thitherto,  Muley  Abdallah  was  at  Taffilet. 
"  Sir,"  said  I,  **  you  are  certainly  therein  very  much  im- 
posed on,  for  I  am  credibly  informed  he  is  at  Terrident,  and 
I  am  thither  fully  determined  with  myself  to  follow  him, 
for  I  shall  not  be  at  peace  with  myself  till  I  have  found 
him,  or  at  least  heard  a  further  certainty  where  he  is." 
"  Very  well,"  said  he,  "but  I  would  have  you  to  tarry  here 
first  some  time  with  me,  to  refresh  youi-self,  during  which 
we  may  chance  to  hear  of  him  further."  I  told  him  that  I 
was  very  much  obliged  to  him  for  his  civility,  and  that  as 
he  was  pleased  to  be  so  very  kind  as  to  offer  me  so  great  a 
favour  in  my  distress,  I  was  ready  with  all  my  heart  (as  I 
was  through  my  great  travel  very  much  harassed)  to  accept 
of  it ;  and,  in  short,  I  stayed  with  him  three  days,  during 
which  (he  being  very  inquisitive  after  my  journey)  I  gave 
him  an  account  of  it,  so  far  as  I  thought  proper  to  let  him 
know,  and  practised  on  several  patients  by  his  permission, 
and  amongst  them  all  rose  to  the  value  of  twenty  shillings 

The  third  following  morning  very  early  (I  having  over- 
night acquainted  him  with  my  intentions,  and  received 
from  him  a  gold  ducat  to  help  me  forward,  and  his  most 
hearty,  and,  as  he  said,  sincere  obedience  and  good  wishes 
for  Muley  Abdallah,  all  which  he  desired  me  to  make  ac- 
ceptable to  him,  so  far  as  it  might  be  in  my  power)  I  took 
my  departure  thence,  and  travelled  up  the  mountain  as  fast 
as  I  could,  though  seriously  considering  with  myself  if  it 
might  be  proper  or  not  for  me  to  rest  myself  at  the  castle 
of  Ehiah  Embelide,  where  I  had  been  before  to  the  then 
inhabitants  a  very  bitter  enemy.  Therefore  I  had  with 
myself  a  very  great  debate  for  some  time  concerning  it ;  as 
how  (many  years  having  since  passed)  they  might  be  all 


then  dead,  thence  removed,  or  their  remembrance  of  me 
■quite  worn  out ;  to  which  I  was  by  myself  answered,  what 
occasion  had  I  to  run  any  such  hazard  ?  For  that  I  was 
then  fresh,  and  very  well  able  to  perform  without  it ;  and 
therefore  I  agreed  to  give  the  castle  the  go  by,  and  to  travel 
on  till  I  had  gained  the  height ;  and  I  climbed  up  as  fast  as 
I  could,  till  I  had  got  within  sight  of  the  four  little  towns 
we  had  formerly  destroyed,  together  with  all  the  men  in- 
habitants ;  when  I  had  again  with  myself  for  some  short 
time  another  debate,  if  it  might  not  be  hazardous  for  me  to 
pass  through  them. 

However  (on  considering  the  men  then  there  to  be 
all  strangers,  or  at  least  to  be  grown  up  during  my 
absence,  those  formerly  there  being  all  to  my  knowledge 
dead,  that  the  children  then  spared  there  did  not  exceed 
ten  years  of  age,  and  that  the  women  who  were  then 
also  spared  must  no  doubt  be  then  under  so  grievous 
and  terrifying  a  consternation  as  not  to  be  capable  of 
taking  any  notice  of  faces,  by  way  of  their  making  future 
reprisals,  or  of  my  sweet  phiz  in  particular),  I  passed 
through  without  saluting  any  of  the  inhabitants,  no  further 
than  my  asking  a  lad  whom  I  saw  there  with  some  almonds 
and  raisins  in  a  basket,  how  he  sold  them,  and  buying  a 
halfpennyworth  of  them,  I  travelled  on  down  the  mountain 
on  the  other  side,  and  about  sunset  got  clear  of  it,  getting 
to  another  part  of  the  river  Waddonfeese,  where  I  was  for 
the  night  tolerably  well  entertained  in  a  Moor's  tent,  though 
I  had  from  him  a  very  deplorable  account  concerning  the 
very  late  state  of  that  neighbourhood,  as  how  the  country 
was  to  that  degree  destroyed,  and  in  such  confusion,  that 
they  and  they  only  who  happened  to  be  of  the  strongest 
party  were  accounted  the  happy  people,  and  of  whom  I 
soon  found  he  had  been  so  happy  to  be  one.  "  Then,"  said 
I,  "it  is  no  doubt  very  dangerous  for  a  stranger  to  be 


amongst  you."  "  That  indeed,"  said  he,  **is  according  to 
his  behaviour,  and  the  nature  of  his  business  which  calleth 
him  thither,  or  which  party  he  sides  with."  "  Why^  sir," 
said  I,  "  as  to  my  part  I  have  no  further  business  here 
than  to  sell  a  few  medicines  amongst  you,  if  I  can,  for  the 
benefit  of  you  all,  without  meddling  with  your  quarrels  on 
either  side."  **  Why  really,"  said  .he,  "  you  say  very  well, 
and  I  wish  you  success  with  all  my  heart ;  but,  to  be  plain 
with  you,  we  have  been  of  late  so  far  involved  in  a  civil 
war,  that  one  parish  was  up  against  another  in  arms, 
destroying  the  fruit  of  each  other's  labour,  and  cutting  one 
another's  throats  so  fast  as  they  could."  "  Alas !  "  said  I, 
"  a  very  unhappy  case  indeed  !  "  To  which  he  answered 
me,  that  I  should  not  be  under  any  uneasiness  at  it,  but 
endeavour  to  compose  myself,  for  that  he  would  in  the 
morning  put  me  into  the  best  method  he  could. 

However,  I  could  not  (notwithstanding  his  fair  promises, 
and  though  I  was  prodigious  weary)  take  any  rest  for  the 
first  part  of  the  night,  still  wishing  myself  further  off;  when 
I  told  myself,  that  as  it  was  my  chance  to  come  there,  it 
would  be  in  vain  for  me  to  vex  myself,  but  endeavour  to  get 
thence  again  as  well  as  I  could.  So  I  fell  into  a  sound  sleep, 
and  slept  till  sunrising ;  then  I  got  up,  and  saluting  my  host 
with  a  good-morrow,  and  telling  him  that  I  thought  myself 
very  much  obliged  to  him  for  my  kind  welcome,  and  if  he 
was  pleased  to  accept  of  any  of  my  medicines,  they  were 
very  heartily  at  his  service.  "  No,  no,"  said  he,  **  you  are 
very  welcome  to  what  you  have  had  here  ;  and  as  to  physic, 
I  never  took  any  in  my  life,  and  unless  I  may  happen  to 
have  more  occasion  for  it  than  I  have  had  hitherto,  I  never 
will  take  any.  But  what  makes  you  in  so  much  hurry  ?  If 
I  want  none,  there  are  those  amongst  us  to  my  knowledge 
that  do,  and  who,  no  doubt,  when  they  hear  you  are  come, 
will  be  very  glad  of  it ;  and  as  to  your  safety  amongst  us 


(as  our  civil  dissensions  are  now  at  an  end)  here  is  my 
band,"  giving  it  in  a  very  friendly  manner  into  mine,  and 
asking  me  where  I  intended  to  go. 

*'  As  to  that,  sir,"  said  I,  "  I  am  not  very  well  deter- 
mined whether  to  Terrident  or  Taffilet."  **  Then,"  said 
he,  "I  tell  you  on  my  honour  that  both  those  roads  are 
very  unsafe,  and  dangerous  to  travel  in  at  present,  for 
after  our  several  conflicts  in  these  parts,  they  are  now, 
by  our  example,  acting  the  same  in  them  :  therefore  stay 
with  me  till  those  bickerings  are  over,  till  which  you 
shall  be  very  welcome  in  my  house  to  such  as  I  have." 
"Sir,"  said  I,  "I  most  humbly  thank  you,"  and  which, 
indeed,  I  was  obliged  to  accept  of ;  for  that  very  day  came 
thither  repeated  advices  that  there  was  in  and  throughout 
both  those  provinces  (which  are  much  the  same  with 
our  counties)  very  grievous  doings,  insomuch  that  they 
were  killing  and  plundering  all  they  could  lay  their  hands 
on.  So  that  I  was  obliged  to  take  up  my  quarters  with  this 
hospitable  infidel  during  the  space  of  twenty-four  days ; 
during  which  I  had  several  patients,  and  amongst  them  all 
got  about  forty  shillings  sterling,  acting  after  a  most 
cautious  manner,  in  giving  such  small  doses  of  my  purging 
powder  as  I  knew  could  do  them  no  harm ;  and  as  I  was  so 
lucky  to  perform  nothing  by  way  of  curing  the  eyes,  I  gave 
general  satisfaction.  In  short,  got  amongst  them  so  famous 
a  name,  as  I  presume  none  of  the  quack  fraternity  had 
ever  done  before  me.  They  really  had  so  good  an  opinion 
of  me,  that  on  another  of  the  fraternity's  coming  one  day 
there,  and  though  he  might,  for  anything  as  I  knew  to  the 
contrary,  have  been  a  very  able  man,  yet  did  they  (on  my 
seeming  indifference  of  him)  directly  drive  him  thence, 
threatening  him,  that  in  case  they  ever  caught  him  there 
again,  they  would  cut  off  his  ears. 

Now  am  I,  by  the  general  approbation  and  consent,  on 


promise  of  my  being  back  again  in  three  weeks,  and  on 
their  hearing  the  roads  were  again  passable,  permitted  to 
depart,  taking  my  way  for  Arhallah,  in  the  plain  of  Souz  ; 
and  without  anything  remarkable,  I  arrived  the  second 
following  evening  at  a  place  called  in  their  language  Ros- 
selelwad,  or  the  head  of  the  old  river,  thoroughly  resolving 
to  get  that  night,  if  I  could,  to  Terrident.  And  which, 
indeed,  had  not  that  part  of  the  journey  proved  most  un- 
fortunate to  me,  I  should  have  reached  before  the  gates 
were  shut,  I  being  about  ten  o'clock  at  night  within  half  a 
mile  of  it ;  when  I  was  surprised  by  three  ruffian  Moors, 
knocked  down,  plundered,  and,  in  short,  deprived  of  every- 
thing I  had  in  the  world,  stripping  me  quite  naked ;  and 
rummaging  into  my  blanket,  they  soon  found  my  blankeels, 
which,  as  the  moon  was  then  at  the  full,  and  the  horizon 
very  clear,  I  saw  to  my  very  great  dissatisfaction. 

When  I  saw  them  ransacking  my  knapsack,  I  was  really 
terrified  a  great  deal  more,  I  having  hid  all  my  gold  at  the 
bottom  of  one  of  my  pots  of  ointment,  in  all  to  the  value  of 
six  pounds  sterling.  But  I  had  so  far  the  presence  of 
mind  as  to  tell  them  that  they  could  not  be  anything  the 
better  for  the  few  medicines  I  had  in  it,  but  (as  they  did 
not  know  how  to  use  them)  rather  the  worse,  though  they 
would  be  to  me,  by  way  of  my  getting  a  small  matter  for 
my  subsistence,  of  very  great  service.  And  as  my  life  de- 
pended thereon,  I  hoped  they  would  be  pleased  to  give  me 
my  blanket,  knapsack,  and  few  medicines  back  again, 
which,  as  they  had  taken  from  me  all  my  money,  would  in 
all  likelihood  keep  me  from  starving.  "  No,  no,"  said 
they,  "  you  have  got  your  life,  and  go  therewith  about 
your  business."  Then  I  very  much  complained  of  the  cold, 
and  of  the  many  wounds  I  had  about  me,  desiring  them 
that  if  they  would  not  give  me  back  my  medicines,  they 
would  at  least  give  me  a  pot  of  my  ointment.     "  No,  no," 


said  they,  "  for  if  your  ointment  is  so  very  excellent  for 
your  wounds,  pray  why  is  it  not  for  ours  ?  "      *'  However," 
said  one  of  them,  "  here  take  your  blanket,  and  be  packing 
about  your  business,  or  you  will  oblige  us  to  be  very  angry 
with  you."     To  which  another  of  them  added,  that  I  was 
an  unconscionable  dog,  and  if  I  said  another  word,  he 
would  take  my  blanket  from  me  again.     "  Then  pray,  gen- 
tlemen," said  I,  "if  you  will  not  give  me  a  whole  pot,  give 
me  a  small  matter  of  the  ointment  at  the  bottom  of  one  of 
them."     "You  dog,"  said  they,  "you  shall  have  none  ;  and 
if  you  dare  speak  another  word,  we  will  cut  off  your  ears." 
At  which  they  went  directly  from  me,  and  without  speaking 
another  word  on  either  side,  left  me  to  consider  the  folly  of 
heaping  up  riches,  as  not  knowing  who  shall  gather  them. 
And   now    am    I   obliged  to   travel  empty    away     for 
Terrident,   as  you  may  suppose,  iu  a    very  disconsolate 
manner;  and  in  walking  but  a  slow  pace,  I  got  in  half  an 
hour's  time  to  the  gates  of  the  city,  which  I  found  to  be 
shut,  and  all  within  very  silent,  therefore  I  found  myself 
obliged  to  lay  me  down  in  one  of  their  burying-places, 
amongst  the  graves,  where  I  continued  till  daylight,  re- 
flecting on  my  so  late  misfortune.    Then  I  got  me  up,  and 
kept  walking  till  the  sun  was  up,  and  the  gates  were  opened, 
when  I  marched  in,  and  went  directly  to  a  friend's  house,  a 
Frenchman,  we  being  formerly  fellow-soldiers,  and  always 
very  intimate  with  one  another.     I  was  directly  admitted 
entrance,  and  very  courteously  received  by  him,  telling  me 
that  he  was  very  glad  to  see  me,  but  to  see  me  there  at 
that  time   very  sorry.      "Why,"  said   I,    "what    is   the 
matter?    I  hope  there  are  not  more  evils  soon  about  to 
befall  me ;  if  so,  I  think  it  will  be  a  very  unhappy  time 
indeed,"  telling  him  of  my  so  late  misfortunes.     "Alas  ! 
my  friend,"  said  he,  "  that  is  what  I  did  not  dream  of,  and 
I  am  sincerely  sorry  for  you ;  but  what  I  meant  by  saying 


80,  was  tending  to  matters  of  another  nature,  and  which  is 
indeed  quite  different."  "  Pray,"  said  I,  "  what  may  it 
be  ?  "  **  Be  ?  "  said  he  ;  "  you  must  know  that  here  is  now 
in  the  town  Abdallah  Mahomet,  one  of  old  Muley  Smine's 
natural  sons,  who  hath  lately  gained  to  his  interest  at  least 
one  hundred  thousand  of  the  mountaineers,  and  was  with 
them  about  two  months  ago  at  Santa  Cruz,  took  it,  and, 
with  a  good  part  of  the  country  round,  brought  it  under  his 
subjection,  and  is  now  forcing  all  able-bodied  men,  who  will 
not  voluntarily  come  into  his  service.  Therefore  I  think 
it  (till  he  is  departed  hence)  highly  necessary  for  you  to 
remain  secretly  in  my  house  ;  for  should  he  or  any  of  his 
people  happen  to  see  you,  you  would  no  doubt  be  obliged 
to  follow  him."  "  And  whither,"  said  I,  "  does  he  design 
to  go,  or  what  may  be  his  intentions  ?  "  "  That  indeed," 
said  he,  "I  cannot  particularly  tell  you,  but  first  you  may 
suppose  he  will  strengthen  his  party  all  he  can,  and  then 
most  likely  make  a  bold  push  against  Mahommet  Wol- 
derriva,  and  the  Black  Army,  for  the  Empire."  "  Indeed  !  " 
said  I ;  "  then  I  find  my  wishes  are  still  every  day  more  and 
more  coming  about,  for  if  natural  sons  thus  presume,  where 
there  are  so  many  born  under  wedlock,  there  will  be  no 
doubt  amongst  them  all  (as  they  are  so  many  hundreds) 
rare  work  in  a  very  little  time.  Therefore  all  I  shall  say 
further  to  it  for  the  present  is,  '  May  God  increase  their 
animosities,  and  send  me  from  amongst  them.'  "  "  In- 
deed, my  friend,"  said  he,  "  happy  are  those  who  are  out  of 
it ;  and  as  to  us,  we  have  already  acted  our  parts  very  suffi- 
ciently in  their  bloody  enterprises." 

Then  I  returned  again  to  my  late  misfortune,  telling 
my  friend,  that  in  regard  to  my  future  proceedings,  I 
thought  the  loss  of  my  knapsack  and  medicines  to  be 
(amongst  all  my  losses)  the  greatest.  "Well,"  said  he, 
"I  suppose  I   guess  what  you   mean,  and  it  shall   go 


very  hard,   if  I  do   not   in    a   very  little    time    procure 
you  some   other,"  which  indeed  he  did   the   next    day, 
and  then  he  also  told  me  that  he  had  been  credibly  in- 
formed that  morning,  that  Abdallah  Mahomet  was  fully 
determined  to  march  the  day  after  with  all  his  people  for 
Morocco."     "  Very  well,"  said  I,  "  and  I  the  next  for  Santa 
Cruz."  "  Prithee,"  said  he,"  don't  be  so  very  hasty  ;  we  may 
not  perhaps  see  one  another  again  of  a  long  time,  therefore 
pray  oblige  me  with  your  company  now  as  long   as  you 
can."     "  Very  well,"  said  I,  "  and  so  I  will ;  "  as  indeed  I 
did  till  the  third  morning,  when,  after  our  taking  our  leave 
of  each   other,   I   departed  with    my    knapsack,    a    few 
medicines,   and    six    blankeels.     And    it    being    a    very 
dangerous    part    of   the    country    to   travel    through,    I 
travelled  on  all  day  without  intermission,  and  got  about 
sunset  to  Terroost,  a  village  in  the  parish  of  Gisseemah, 
near  the  river  Souz,  about  three  leagues  short  of  Santa 
Cruz,  where  luckily  meeting  with  two  of  my  old  acquaint- 
ance,  I  was  entertained  by  them  very  friendly  all  that 
night ;  and  setting  out  thence  very  early  the  next  morning, 
I  about  ten  o'clock  that  forenoon  got  well  to  Santa  Cruz, 
where  being  before  well  acquainted,  I  was  kindly  received 
by  the  inhabitants,  and  treated  for  two  days  after  a  most 
friendly  manner.     Yet  I  did  not  think  fit  to  lodge  in  the 
town,  but  retired  at  nights  to  a  cave  about  a  musket-shot 
without,  where  I  had  several  Moors  and  two  Blacks  for  my 
companions ;   and  returning  again  at  sunrising  into  the 
town,  where,  as  not  altogether  caring  to  rely  myself  on  my 
friends,  I  sought  out  an  employ,  and  was  hired  by  a  baker 
to  carry  his  bread  round  the  town  to  his  customers,  through 
which  means  I  got  a  sufficient  subsistence,  all  this  time 
looking  sharp  out  for  a  vessel ;  and  though  I  found  several, 
yet  could  I  not  meet  with  any  so  Christian-like  commander 
as  on  any  terms  to  carry  me  with  him. 


However,  I  did  not  despair,  for  notwithstanding  my 
present  state,  and  no  hopes  of  a  vessel  at  that  time,  yet  did 
my  mind  daily  tell  me  that  my  captivity  was  running  out 
apace,  and  my  nocturnal  imaginations  were  sufficiently 
stufifed  with  foolish  idle  fancies  and  dreams  about  it,  inso- 
much that  I  was  not  a  little  afraid  that  I  should  thereby  let 
my  companions  know  my  designs.  For  they  often  told  me 
how  I  cried  out  in  my  sleep,  and  mentioned  Gibraltar 
(where,  indeed,  there  was  scarce  a  night  passed  without 
my  dreaming  of  my  being  safely  landed) ;  and  as  at  my 
awaking  I  very  particularly  remembered  it,  and  took 
notice  that  my  comrades  began  to  prate  amongst  them- 
selves concerning  it,  therefore  I  one  day,  as  it  were  acci- 
dentally, began  the  following  discourse  with  them.  "  Pray, 
gentlemen,"  said  I,  "  is  any  one  of  you  a  good  interpreter 
of  dreams  ?  "  "  Not  I,"  said  one ;  **  Nor  I,"  said  another ; 
and,  in  short,  so  said  they  all.  "However,  lay  them  before 
us,"  said  they,  "  for  if  we  cannot  come  up  to  the  true  inter- 
pretation, it  will  be  still  doing  no  harm." 

And  I  having  before  duly  considered  my  story,  I  told  them 
that  I  had  for  several  nights  past  been  strangely  hurried  in 
my  sleep  by  dreams,  as  how  that  Muley  Abdallah  should  be 
fled  to  Gibraltar,  that  he  was  there  kindly  received  by  the 
Christians,  and  that  we  were  all  going  with  Mahomet 
Wolderriva  to  bring  him  back.  Nay,  further,  that  we  went, 
and  that  at  our  arrival  we  were  met  by  one  of  the  most 
stately  lions  I  had  ever  seen  before,  and  by  him  driven 
back  again,  threatening  Mahomet  after  a  high  rate,  that  in 
case  he  ever  caught  him  or  the  Spaniard  there  again,  he 
would  send  them  in  chains  to  his  royal  master,  to  be  ex- 
posed to  public  view  amongst  the  other  outlandish 
monsters  in  the  Tower  of  London.  This,  I  hope,  though 
altogether  false,  my  readers  will  not  impute  to  my  love  for 
romance,  and  disregard  for   truth,  when  they  have  duly 


■weighed  the  circumstances  that  induced  me  to  it,  but 
consider  it,  as  it  was  really  intended,  to  take  off  the  edge 
of  those  inquisitive  wretches  from  talking  any  further 
about  what  I  talked  in  my  sleep  ;  and  having  told  them  this 
strange  fiction,  they  said  they  could  not  tell  what  to  make 
of  it,  and  could  not  but  allow  it  to  be  a  very  extraordinary 
and  most  unaccountable  dream. 

Now,  being  still  without  any  likelihood  of  meeting  with 
a  ship,  I  am  thoroughly  resolved  to  forsake  my  cave,  and 
seek  farther,  telling  my  comrades  that  as  I  was  somewhat 
apprehensive  I  had  worn  out  my  welcome  at  Santa  Cruz, 
I  would  first  go  thither  to  thank  them  for  all  past  favours, 
and  then  travel  farther  by  way  of  serving  the  country  with 
my  medicines.  The  second  following  morning,  meeting 
there  in  the  street  a  German,  one  of  the  quack  fraternity, 
I  soon  insinuated  myself  so  far  into  his  favours  as  to  get 
him  to  promise  me  to  go  with  me;  and  the  next  morning 
we  accordingly  set  out,  and  travelled  back  the  three  leagues 
to  Terroost,  on  the  river  Souz,  where  I  lodged  the  night 
before  I  came  into  Santa  Cruz.  Now  we  begun  to  open 
the  many  strange  and  wonderful  cures  we  had  performed 
by  way  of  our  doctorship,  insomuch  that  we  had  at  the 
village  of  Terroost,  and  up  and  down  the  parish  of  Gissee- 
mah,  great  business  for  a  week's  time.  But,  alas !  what 
could  all  that  avail  me.  Indeed,  it  was  with  much  hazard, 
present  bread.  But  on  my  duly  considering  the  many 
hazards  and  difficulties  I  had  undergone  to  get  thither,  and 
that  my  former  practices  that  way  were  altogether  on 
account  of  the  better  concealing  my  escape,  and  that  as 
I  had  behaved  with  so  much  caution  in  my  travels  through 
so  many  dangerous  and  roundabout  tiresome  ways,  inso- 
much that  I  was  obliged  from  Mequinez  to  Santa  Cruz  to 
make  of  it  more  than  six  months'  journey.  Whereas  I  might 
by  travelling  the  direct  road  have  performed  it  in  thrice  as 


many  days,  and  all  for  the  better  keeping  my  intentions 
from  suspicion  therefore  as  I  had  thereby  so  far  accom- 
plished my  desired  ends,  I  really  thought  my  business  now 
to  be  of  a  quite  different  nature  than  practising  physic,  and 
that  notwithstanding  there  was  no  ship  for  my  purpose 
whilst  I  was  at  Santa  Cruz,  yet  I  could  not  tell  how  soon 
there  might. 

I  had  been  from  thence  a  week,  during  which  there 
might  happen  to  come  in  several,  therefore  I  plainly 
told  myself  that  where  I  was  then  1  had  no  business, 
and  therefore  it  was  by  no  means  consistent  with 
my  unhappy  condition,  and  that  I  ought  to  make  the 
best  of  my  way  to  Santa  Cruz  again,  or  some  other  sea- 
port. However,  on  my  seeing  vast  troops  of  wild-fowl  on 
the  river,  I  thought  if  I  could  get  a  few  of  them  they  might 
be  to  my  friends  at  Santa  Cruz  a  very  acceptable  present. 
But  how  to  get  them  was  the  chief  point.  Gun  nor  ammu- 
nition I  had  none,  nor  where  to  get  any  I  did  not  know. 
However,  I  was  through  very  great  luck  provided  with  them 
both  in  a  very  little  time,  and  that  night  I  went  to  the 
riverside,  and  as  the  moon  shone  very  bright,  I  saw  a  vast 
number  of  them  swimming  on  the  water  in  a  still  part  of 
the  river ;  and  levelling  amongst  them  as  well  as  I  could, 
I  fired  and  killed  four  couple  of  ducks.  Then,  throwing  off 
my  blanket,  I  threw  myself  into  the  river,  and  soon  brought 
them  out,  and  I  retired  for  the  night  to  my  rest,  and 
lay  me  down  by  my  comrade,  telling  him  of  my  success, 
and  that  I  designed  in  the  morning  to  present  them  to  my 
friends  at  Santa  Cruz,  and  that  if  he  would  go  with  me 
I  would  dare  engage  to  make  him  very  welcome.  "  No," 
said  he,  "  I  am  fully  determined  in  the  morning  to  go 
another  way,  and  as  I  find  you  are  designed  to  leave  me, 
I  wish  you  very  well."  And  after  taking  a  short  nap,  and 
the  daylight  appearing,  we  started  up  and  set  out,  he  to 


seek  after  fresh  patients  one  way,  and  I  another  to  Santa 
Cruz  with  my  ducks  ;  where  I  was  very  kindly  received  by 
the  merchants,  and  handsomely  rewarded  for  my  fowl,  but 
finding  no  ship  for  my  purpose,  I  returned  again  to  the 
river,  killed  more  fowl,  carried  them  to  Santa  Cruz,  and 
sold  them  at  a  good  rate.  And  after  I  had  recruited  my 
ammunition,  I  went  back  again,  and  so  continued  in  going 
and  coming  for  several  weeks,  by  which  time  the  winter 
was  pretty  well  past — though  all  this  time,  to  my  very 
great  dissatisfaction,  no  ship. 

This  trade  of  duck-killing  I  found  to  turn  to  a  much 
better  account  than  my  former  business,  and  to  kill  them, 
rather  than  the  Moors,  much  the  safer  way;  though  it  was 
attended  with  some  hardships  and  very  severe  cold,  yet  as 
my  present  condition  was  so  very  unhappy  in  the  general, 
I  thought  myself  very  well  off  in  it. 

Now  is  the  spring  approaching  apace;  therefore,  as 
I  had  been  so  long  in  and  out  about  Santa  Cruz,  looking 
out  after  a  vessel,  and  all  to  no  purpose,  I  was  fully 
determined  with  myself  to  try  what  might  be  done  that 
way  at  Saphee,  and  in  case  I  could  not  be  there  successful 
to  travel  on  to  the  Willadea.  And  meeting  soon  after 
a  Spaniard,  one  of  my  old  acquaintance,  I  thought  if 
I  could  get  him  to  go  with  me  it  might  not  be  amiss  ;  but 
he  in  very  little  time  saved  me  that  trouble,  telling  me 
that  in  case  he  had  not  happened  to  meet  me  there,  he 
should  have  been  at  that  time  at  least  a  league  on  his  way. 
"On  your  way,"  said  I;  "pray  whither  may  you  be  going 
to?"  "Going  to?"  said  he;  "a  long  journey,  and  as  I 
hear  a  very  troublesome  one."  "  Pray,"  said  I,  "to  what 
part  of  the  country?"  "Why,"  said  he,  "to  Saphee." 
"  To  Saphee,"  said  I ;  "  that  is  a  place  I  have  had  very 
great  inclination  to  see  for  some  time,  therefore,  had  I  any 
business  there,  or  was  I  sure  to  get  by  it  but  one  single 


blankeel,  I  would  go  with  you.  "Why,  said  he,  "  if  you 
are  in  good  earnest,  and  your  business  will  permit  you, 
I  will  bear  out  your  expenses  on  the  road,  and  be  helpful 
to  you  in  everything  else  that  I  can."  "  Very  well,"  said 
I,  "  have  a  care  I  don't  take  you  at  your  word  ;  for  to  be 
plain  with  you,  you  don't  know  how  far  you  have  brought 
me  in  the  mind  of  it,  and  as  I  have  very  little  to  do  here, 
a  very  little  further  persuasion  may  prevail."  "Well 
then,"  said  he,  "  we  will  first  go  to  my  friend's  house,  and 
take  a  bottle  upon  it,  and  by  the  time  we  have  finished  it, 
your  resolutions  may  be  better  settled."  As  indeed  they 
were,  before  our  bottle  was  half  out,  giving  him  my  word  to 
go  with  him ;  at  which  he  seemed,  and  was  I  dare  say,  very 
glad,  telling  me  that  as  it  was  so  far  onward  in  the  after- 
noon, he  thought  it  would  be  the  best  way  for  us  to  set  up 
there  for  the  night,  and  so  set  out  early  in  the  moruing. 
Then  he  ordered  for  a  good  supper,  after  which  we  drank 
two  bottles  more,  and  went  to  our  rest. 

Now  am  I  really  better  pleased  than  I  had  been  of  a  long 
time  before,  and  as  soon  as  the  morning  light  appeared, 
I  got  up ;  and  by  the  time  I  had  stepped  to  the  door  to 
look  at  the  weather  and  in  again,  my  comrade  was  up  also, 
and  after  making  a  good  breakfast,  and  taking  with  us 
about  six  pounds  of  bread,  we  set  forward  together,  and 
got  that  evening  without  any  disaster  to  Agroot,  the  little 
fishing-coves  before  mentioned,  in  my  travel  with  the 
caravan  to  Guinea,  where  we  met  two  Moors  just  arrived 
before  us  from  Hahah,  a  parish  about  a  day's  journey 
in  our  way  farther  on  towards  Saphee,*  and  which  we 
must  be  obliged  to  pass  through  the  next  day,  who 
told  us  that  the  inhabitants  of  a  neighbouring  parish 
to  them  were  up  in  arms  against  them,  and  proving 
much  too  strong  for  their  parish  they  were  obliged  to  fly 

*  Note  81. 


for  their  lives,  the  greatest  part  of  them  being  destroyed, 
and  that  throughout  all  that  province  were  the  like  doings. 
This  so  terrified  my  comrade  that,  notwithstanding  his  so 
very  great  hurry  for  Saphee,  and  my  cheering  him  all  in 
my  power,  yet  could  not  I  persuade  him  to  go  with  me  but 
very  little  farther.  However,  I  so  far  prevailed  with  him 
as  to  continue  with  me  there  for  that  night,  and  then  I 
thought  it  high  time  to  look  about  me  for  something  for 
supper  ;  but  there  being  nothing  to  be  had,  we  took  out  our 
bread  and  fell  at  it,  and  whilst  we  were  eating  a  Moor 
came  up  to  us,  desiring  us  to  look  at  his  eyes.  "  Your 
eyes,"  said  I,  **  pray  what  ails  them  ?  "  and  laying  one  of 
my  fingers  on  one  of  his  eyelids.  "  So,  so,"  said  I,  "  you 
are  coming  blind  apace;  but,"  said  I,  "I  cannot  see 
what  encouragement  travellers  can  have  to  do  any  good, 
where  nothing  is  to  be  had  to  keep  them  from  starving." 
"Nothing!"  said  he;  "notwithstanding  my  eyes  are  so 
very  bad,  I  see  you  have  got  very  good  bread."  "Yes," 
said  I,  "  and  so  we  have,  but  without  any  thanks  to  you  or 
any  of  your  neighbours,  for  we  brought  it  with  us  from 
Santa  Cruz."  "  Indeed  !  "  said  he;  "  then  I  will  tell  you 
for  your  comfort,  if  you  will  look  at  my  eyes,  and  help  me 
all  in  your  power,  I  will  give  you  a  dried  haike  and  some 
very  good  oil."  "  Very  well,"  said  I ;  "  you  speak  like  an 
honest  man,  and  therefore  pray  hasten  and  show  yourself 
80,  and  after  supper  we  will  do  somewhat  for  you." 

And  which,  indeed,  he  did  in  good  earnest,  bringing 
us  a  middling  haike,  and  about  a  pint  of  oil,  and  making  us 
a  fire  broiled  the  fish,  and  we  soon  made  a  very  hearty 
supper  on  it;  when  we  gave  him  a  paper  of  our  purging 
powders  to  prepare  his  body  against  the  morning,  and  lay 
us  down  under  a  fig-tree  in  the  court  for  the  night.  At 
daybreak  we  got  up,  and  without  doing  any  further 
mischief  to  our  last  night's  benefactor,  we  set  out  and 


travelled  on  farther  together  about  two  leagues,  which 
brought  us  to  the  foot  of  the  mountain  Gorrasurnee,  where 
the  Spaniard's  heart  failing  him,  he  told  me  plainly  that 
he  would  not  for  that  time  travel  on  any  farther  in  that 
road,  was  he  sure  to  get  by  it  a  hundred  ducats,  but  that 
he  was  resolved  to  return  again  to  his  house  at  Terrident, 
till  the  country  was  again  a  little  better  settled,  and  if 
I  would  go  with  him  I  should  on  his  honour  be  very 
heartily  welcome,  I  told  him  that  I  altogether  as  heartily 
thanked  him,  but  as  I  was  got  over  my  journey  so  far 
I  was  thoroughly  resolved  to  see  it  out,  be  the  consequence 
what  it  would.  So  after  sharing  our  little  bread  and  few 
medicines  we  parted,  him  back  towards  Terrident,  and 
I  forwards  towards  Saphee,  travelling  up  the  mountain 
as  fast  as  I  could,  though  before  I  had  got  quite  at  the 
top  of  it,  I  very  unhappily  met  with  four  ruffian  Moors 
armed  with  muskets,  and  long  murdering  knives,  who 
immediately,  without  asking  me  any  the  least  question, 
fell  to  rifling  me,  stripped  me  quite  naked,  and  were  going 
ofif  with  my  knapsack  and  blanket,  when  I  earnestly 
intreated  them  to  give  me  them  back  again,  for  that  I  had 
nothing  else  to  depend  on  for  a  livelihood  but  a  few 
medicines  I  had  therein,  and  nothing  to  cover  me  from  the 
inclemency  of  the  air  but  that  old  garment.  "You  lie, 
you  rascal,"  said  one  of  them,  "  it  is  a  very  good  one,  and 
therefore  you  shall  not  have  it."  "  Pray  then,  sir,"  said 
I,  "  let  me  have  my  knapsack."  **  Ay,  ay,"  says  another, 
**  let  him  have  it,  for  it  can  be  of  no  benefit  to  us,  and 
may  very  likely  keep  him  from  starving." 

So  through  the  means  of  a  conscientious  thief  I  had 
my  knapsack  and  few  medicines  back  again.  I  then 
travelled  on  quite  naked  till  I  had  got  two  leagues 
farther  up  the  mountain,  where  1,  to  my  great  satis- 
faction, came  to  three  houses,  out  of  one  of  which  came 


an  old  woman,  who  seemed  to  pity  my  condition  very 
much,  and  gave  me  a  piece  of  an  old  blanket,  a 
dish  of  buttermilk,  and  some  "jerrodes"  or  locusts, 
with  which  they  are  visited  once  in  six  or  seven  years 
to  that  degree,  swarming  in  from  seaward  upon  them 
in  incredible  multitudes,  as  even  to  darken  the  air,  and 
at  once  overspreading  a  province,  eat  up  every  green 
leaf  and  herb,  so  that  the  fields  and  trees  look  all  one  as 
they  do  in  the  bleakest  winter.  These  insects  are  not  only 
innumerable,  but  of  a  large  size,  some  of  them  at  least 
two  inches  long,  and  about  the  bigness  of  a  man's  thumb. 
They  are  really  good  eating,  and  in  taste  most  like  shrimps, 
and  are  by  the  inhabitants,  first  purging  them  with  water 
and  salt,  boiled  in  new  pickle,  and  then  laid  up  in  dry  salt 
by  way  of  reserve. 

After  this  good  woman  had  thus  kindly  used  me,  and 
given  me  some  more  of  the  jerrodes  to  carry  with  me, 
one  of  her  neighbours  happening  to  come  by,  and  taldng 
also  some  pity  on  me,  gave  me  a  piece  of  another  old 
blanket,  so  as  I  was  between  them  both  pretty  well 
covered  again,  and  really  thought  myself  well  off,  travel- 
ling cheerfully  on  to  the  house  of  an  old  acquaintance, 
by  trade  a  shoemaker,  who  made  me  very  welcome,  took 
off  from  me  my  old  rags,  and  gave  me  a  very  good  blanket ; 
and  as  he  knew  I  fully  intended  to  stay  with  him  for  the 
night,  he  ordered  his  wife  to  get  ready  some  cuscassoe  for 
my  supper,  and  in  the  morning  for  my  breakfast  some 
**  Zumineeta,"  *  which  is  barley  roasted  in  a  pan  over  the 
fire,  much  in  like  nature  of  coffee,  then  it  is  ground  down 
by  a  hand-mill,  and  after  it  is  clean  from  the  bran  it  is 
mixed  with  water,  and  is  very  often  carried  with  them  in  a 
little  bag  to  their  labour  or  on  a  journey,  and  when  they 
are  disposed  to  refresh  themselves,  they  take  out  some  of 

■■'■  Zesomeeta,  or  Zummeeta. 


this  zumineeta  into  a  little  cup  they  generally  carry  with 
them  for  that  purpose,  mix  it  with  some  water,  and  drink 
it  oflf,  being  much  after  the  Scotch  fashion — with  this  only 
difference,  that  being  plain  oatmeal,  this,  barley  roasted ; 
and  on  this  I  travelled  all  that  day,  getting  towards  night 
to  the  parish  of  Idogurt,*  where  I  very  luckily  happened 
to  meet  with  a  very  friendly  and  hospitable  house,  getting  a 
good  supper  and  lodging,  and  the  next  morning  a  good 
breakfast.  I  travelled  merrily  on  all  that  day,  and  without 
any  accident  got  before  night  to  Shedemah,  which  I  found 
to  ^be  engaged  in  quarrel  with  Abdah,  a  neighbouring 
parish,  and  here  I  am  obliged,  on  account  of  those  civil 
dissensions,  to  lie  by  for  sixteen  days,  and  really  a  good 
part  of  it  in  a  miserable  condition,  being  obliged,  as  pro- 
visions were  scarce,  to  borrow  a  point  of  the  law  or  starve, 
living  altogether  on  raw  carrots ;  though  indeed  I  had 
them  for  the  first  three  days  with  permission,  but  wearing 
out  my  welcome,  I  was  afterwards  obliged  to  go  into  the 
gardens  at  nights,  and  take  them  after  a  clandestine 

And  this  should  I  have  been  obliged  to  have  con- 
tinued longer,  had  I  not  very  accidentally  happened  to 
meet  a  Moor  who  had  seen  me  somewhere  before  selling 
my  medicines,  who  earnestly  entreated  me  to  go  with  him 
to  his  house  to  see  his  wife,  who,  he  said,  was  very  much 
indisposed ;  as  indeed  she  really  was,  for  at  my  coming  I 
found  her  to  be  in  a  high  fever,  being  in  a  dry  burning 
heat  and  very  restless.  And  now  was  I  at  a  stand  for  some 
time  how  to  manage,  for  as  this  was  what  I  had  never 
practised  before  in,  I  knew  not  for  some  time  what  to  do 
with  her,  especially  as  I  had  lost  my  lancet  and  burning 
iron.  However,  I  thought  myself  obliged  to  do  something, 
and  therefore  I  was  resolved  to  put  her  to  sleep,  in  order 
'•=  District  of  Ida  (properly  Ait,  or  tribe)  ou  Gort. 


to  which  I  desired  the  man  to  send  somebody  directly  to 
gather  some  poppy  flowers,  which  being  soon  brought  in,  I 
boiled  a  handful  of  them  in  water,  strained  it  off,  sweetened 
it  with  honey,  and  gave  her  about  half  a  pint  of  it  to 
drink,  which  threw  her  in  a  very  little  time  into  a  great 
sweat,  and  sound  sleep ;  when  her  husband  and  I  fell  at  a 
good  bowl  of  cuscassoe,  filled  our  bellies,  and  went  to  sleep 

Early  in  the  morning  my  patient  and  I  happened  to 
wake  much  about  the  same  time,  which  was  indeed 
very  much  to  my  satisfaction,  for  to  be  plain,  I  thought 
she  would  have  slept  much  longer.  However,  be  that  as 
it  will,  she  was  revived  to  a  very  great  degree,  and  grew 
perfectly  well  in  a  few  days,  praying  for  the  doctor,  and 
nothing  she  had  was  too  good  for  him.  At  my  request  she, 
after  giving  me  two  gold  ducats,  desired  her  husband  to 
convey  me  safe  thence  to  the  castle  of  Allalben-Ham- 
medush,*  where  I  was  obliged,  on  account  of  a  report  there 
of  a  great  party  of  the  mountaineers  having  been  very 
troublesome  a  few  days  before  at  Saphee,  getting  over  the 
walls,  and  killing  the  sentinels,  &c.,  to  remain  seven  days ; 
during  which  I  was,  through  means  of  some  old  acquaint- 
ance I  met  with  there,  well  taken  care  of,  and  never 
failed  of  my  belly  full  thrice  every  day ;  and  there  being  a 
very  dangerous  wood  to  travel  through  between  that  and 
Saphee,  it  being  the  general  rendezvous  of  a  gang  of  merci- 
less thieves,  who  generally  stripped  and  murdered  all  that 
came  in  their  way,  insomuch  that  it  was  even  impracticable 
for  any  going  single,  or  but  a  few  together,  to  escape  them, 
therefore  when  any  of  the  people  had  occasion  to  go  that 
way,  they  gave  timely  notice  round  the  neighbourhood,  so 
that  they  might  muster  up  a  party  well  armed.  This  wood 
is  plentifully  stored  with  certain  trees  called  argon,  growing 

*  Note  36. 


to  a  very  large  size,  and  their  branches  spreading  a  vast  cir- 
cumference, which  are  full  of  long  prickles,  much  in  like 
nature  of  a  thorn,  bearing  great  plenty  of  a  fruit — if  it 
may  be  properly  so  called — much  like  a  peach  in  shape 
and  smell,  though  none  can  eat  of  them ;  however,  when 
they  are  ripe  and  fallen  off  the  trees,  the  inhabitants  care- 
fully gather  them  off  the  ground,  and  make  thereof — that 
is  to  say,  of  certain  small  stones  growing  in  the  middle, 
the  outer  part  being  no  other  than  a  shell  or  husk — a  very 
good  sort  of  oil,  by  grinding  them  small,  by  which  means 
an  oil  comes  forth,  which  is  used  in  most  of  their  eating, 
and  esteemed  amongst  them  by  far  preferable  to  that  of 
their  olives. 

And  now  am  I  about  to  beat  up  the  quarters  of  these 
desperate  outlaws ;  for  on  the  eighth  day,  very  early  in 
the  morning,  I  set  out  in  company  with  about  thirty 
Moors  well  armed,  having  with  them  several  camels 
and  mules  laden  with  their  merchandise,  as  argon  oil, 
Barbary  skins,  &c.,  for  Saphee,  passing  on  till  we  got  over 
the  better  half  of  this  wood  without  anything  remarkable  ; 
when  we  came  up  with  seven  Moors,  viz.,  four  men  and 
three  women,  three  of  the  men  just  expiring,  and  the 
fourth  with  the  women,  very  much  wounded,  lying  quite 
naked  on  the  ground,  being,  they  said,  thus  used  by  a 
party  of  the  mountaineers  about  an  hour  before  we  came 
up  with  them,  and  that  on  notice  of  our  approach  they  in 
a  very  great  hurry  left  them.  This  put  our  merchants 
into  a  great  fright,  and  they  consulted  amongst  themselves 
for  a  long  time  if  it  would  be  best  for  them  to  proceed  or 
to  go  back  again ;  to  which  I  answered  that  as  we  were 
got  over  the  better  half  of  our  journey,  it  would  be  alto- 
gether as  great,  nay,  the  greater  hazard  of  the  two,  to  go 
backward  than  forward,  for  that  they  might  depend  the 
villains  were  nearer  to  us  than  they  imagined  ;  and  should 


we  offer  to  go  back  it  would  but  show  our  fear,  and  then 
they  would,  no  doubt,  soon  become  the  more  bold ;  whereas 
if  we  continued  our  march  boldly  on,  and  kept  a  good 
look  out,  they  would  not  dare  to  approach  us,  as  by  their 
running  away  at  our  approach  seemed  to  me  to  be  very 

On  which  it  was  agreed  by  all  to  travel  on ;  and  after 
taking  up  the  three  women  and  the  wounded  man — 
the  other  three  being  then  dead — we  proceeded,  and  got 
without  any  other  hindrance,  about  two  of  the  clock  in  the 
afternoon,  to  Saphee,  where  I  passed  for  a  day  or  two  for 
one  of  the  people  belonging  to  the  caravan ;  and,  as  you 
may  suppose,  I  looked  sharp  out  for  a  vessel,  but  could 
not  find  any  one  to  my  mind.  Not  but  here  were  two,  and 
one  belonging  to  Joshua  Bawden,  of  Flushing,  my  first 
cousin,  we  being  sisters'  children.  However,  though  I  met 
him  twice,  and  my  blood  boiled  in  my  veins  at  the  sight 
of  him,  yet  did  we  not  speak  on  either  side,  which  was  no 
doubt  a  very  great  misfortune  to  me ;  for  had  he  known 
who  I  was,  he  would,  I  am  well  satisfied,  have  carried  me 
with  him,  and  thereby  have  prevented  me  from  many 
troublesome  and  imminent  dangers  which  happened  to  me 
during  the  time  that  I  was  obliged  to  stay  longer  in 
Barbary  through  this  omission.  My  abode  at  Saphee  was 
no  more  than  sixteen  days,  during  which  I  often  frequented 
the  house  of  Monsieur  Pedro  Police,*  a  French  merchant, 
who  was  extremely  kind  to  me,  and  with  whom  I  always 
met  with  a  very  friendly  entertainment,  and  I  had  amongst 
his  servants,  though  they  were  poor  enough,  twelve  blan- 
keels,  over  and  above  the  master's  liberality,  and  they 
otherwise  did  me  all  the  good  offices  in  their  power. 

However,  notwithstanding  all  this  kind  treatment,  I  was 
more  down  in  the  mouth  now  than  I  had  been  from  my 

*  Note  31. 


first  setting  out  from  Mequinez,  reflecting  on  the  many 
hardships  and  dangers  I  had  thitherto  undergone,  and  still 
no  manner  of  appearance  of  an  alteration,  when  who 
should  happen  to  come  into  my  mind  but  the  black 
prophetess,  whom  I  met  with  at  Mequinez  the  day  before 
my  setting  out,  and  very  particularly  how  she  had  told  me 
that  I  should  meet  with  a  great  many  difficulties  before  I 
got  off;  which,  indeed,  I  knew  so  far,  to  my  very  great 
discomfort,  to  be  true,  and  therefore  I  was  resolved  with 
patience  to  wait  the  event  of  what  was  to  come.  That 
night,  on  my  lying  down  to  my  rest,  and  reflecting  on  my 
dreams  in  the  cave  at  Santa  Cruz,  I  was,  on  my  falling 
into  a  slumber,  again  hurried  after  a  very  surprising 
manner,  my  black  prophetess,  to  my  seeming,  taking  me 
by  the  hand,  and  telling  me  with  a  smiling  aspect,  looking 
me  full  in  the  face,  that  I  was  a  very  faint-hearted  soldier, 
for  that  I  could  not  thitherto  charge  her  with  anything  she 
had  told  me  concerning  my  escape  more  than  I  had  found 
to  be  true ;  for  notwithstanding  I  had  thitherto  suffered  a 
great  deal,  yet  was  I  still  out  of  the  hands  of  the  enemy. 
Therefore,  as  she  had  told  me  before  to  keep  a  good 
heart  and  my  own  secrets,  so  must  I  continue  to  do,  and 
my  redemption  would  soon  be  accomplished  ;  and  for  me  to 
abide  where  I  then  was  any  longer  would  be  altogether  out 
of  my  way,  for  that  was  not  the  place  for  me  to  find  a  ship 
for  my  purpose,  I  having  yet  many  more  difficulties  to 
undergo.  However,  I  should  continue  my  resolutions,  and 
all  would  end  well  to  my  satisfaction.  Then,  to  my 
seeming,  she  was  going  off,  and  I,  struggling  to  detain  her 
longer,  started  up  and  found  all  this  to  be  no  more  than  a 
dream ;  and  after  reflecting  thereon  for  some  short  time, 
I  fell  again  into  a  doze,  and  again  dreamt  the  same,  and 
further  that  I  should  hasten  to  the  Willadea,  and  there  I 
should  find  things  more  to  my  content.     As  soon  as  the 


daylight  appeared  I  got  up  to  consult  myself  about  the 
journey,  and  in  a  very  little  time  I  was  fully  resolved 
thereon.  However,  I  considered  that  it  might  be  very  proper, 
if  I  could,  to  procure  me  some  company ;  but  though  I 
looked  out  very  sharp,  yet  could  I  not  all  that  day  meet 
with  any  to  my  mind.  However,  I  the  next  day  met  with 
a  mulatto,  one  of  my  old  soldiers,  and  after  telling  him 
that  I  was  very  glad  to  see  him,  I  asked  him  what  business 
had  called  him  thither;  to  which  he  answered  me,  "  None 
further  than  my  own  curiosity."  "  Then,  old  friend," 
said  I,  "  you  had  as  well  go  with  me  to  Willadea,  hence 
about  twelve  leagues."  To  which  he  readily  consented, 
and  as  readily  travelled  on  with  me,  and  got  that  evening 
into  the  middle  of  a  large  wood,  where  we  found  half  a 
dozen  inhabited  tents,  and  in  one  of  them  got  our  supper 
and  lodging. 

Setting  out  early  the  next  morning,  we  got  about  noon 
to  Willadea,  off  Marcegongue,  the  Portuguese  garrison, 
about  fifteen  leagues.  Here  I  found  two  brigantinea 
and  a  sloop;  and  of  one  of  the  former  John  Simmons 
of  Penryn,  one  of  my  old  schoolfellows,  happened  to  be 
commander  ;  with  whom  I  soon  renewed  my  acquaintance, 
and  found  him  and  his  people  extremely  civil  to  me.  But 
he  being,  poor  man,  very  sick,  departed  this  life  in  a  few 
weeks  after,  which  was  a  very  great  disappointment  to  me, 
and  I  was  really  very  much  troubled  at  it.  Now,  finding 
provisions  to  be  very  dear  here,  through  means  of  the 
Moorish  butchers  and  bakers  imposing  upon  the  Christians, 
selling  their  beef  at  threepence  per  pound,  and  bread  in 
proportion,  I,  at  the  request  of  the  ships'  masters,  went  to 
the  markets  or  fairs  in  the  province  of  Ducallah,  about 
five,  or  sometimes  seven  leagues  off,  and  bought  bullocks 
and  sheep  according  as  they  wanted,  driving  them  to  the 
waterside,  where  the  sailors  conveyed  them  on  board,  and 


neatly  butchered  them  ;  and  reckoning  all  charges,  the 
meat  did  not  come  to  more  than  three  farthings  a  pound, 
a  middling  bullock  costing  in  the  market  about  thirty 
shillings,  and  a  very  large  sheep  six.  After  which  I  lived 
altogether  on  shipboard,  and  the  merchants,  &c.,  were 
extremely  kind  to  me. 

One  day  I  being  on  shore  as  a  linguist,  two  of  the 
Moorish  merchants  came  to  me,  viz.,  Elhash  Mahomet 
Benino,  and  Elhash  Absolom  Benino,  being  uncle  and 
nephew  (the  word  Elhash"  signifying  as  much  as  if  they 
had  been  at  Mecca  to  visit  the  tomb  of  their  prophet 
Mahomet ;  after  which  Elhash  is  added  to  their  former 
names),  desii-ing  me  to  do  them  a  favour.  I  told  them  I 
would  with  all  my  heart,  so  far  as  it  might  be  in  my 
power ;  which,  indeed,  as  they  had  been  before  so  very 
kind  to  me,  I  thought  I  could  not  in  gratitude  refuse, 
though  I  must  confess  I  thought  it  to  be  something  of 
another  nature,  relating  to  the  ships'  masters,  or  the  like ; 
when  they,  to  my  very  great  surprise,  told  me  that  I  must 
go  to  Santa  Cruz  with  some  letters ;  and  as  I  had  given 
them  my  word  before  to  serve  them  all  in  my  power,  I 
took  the  letters,  and  after  they  had  given  me  money  to 
defray  my  expense  on  the  road,  I  went  directly  out  of  the 
town,  and  as  I  travelled  very  hard,  I  got  that  evening  to 
Saphee,  though  indeed  I  happened  to  be  very  ill  received 
there,  very  unluckily  meeting  there  Muley  Abdallah's 
mother,  and  with  her  a  strong  guard,  going  in  quest  of 
him,  who  demanded  of  me  whence  I  came  and  whither  I 
was  going  to. 

To  which  I  answered  them,  that  I  did  not  know. 
**  Then,"  said  they,  "  what  business  have  you  here  ? 
and "  (as  knowing  me  before)  "  why  don't  you  follow 
your   old   master  ?  "      *'  Follow  him  !  "  said   I,  **  I   wish 

*  Note  32. 


any  of  you  would  be  so  good  to  direct  me  how  to 
proceed,  for  I  have  hitherto  travelled  many  a  wearisome 
and  dangerous  step  in  seeking  him,  and,  by  all  I  can 
find,  I  am  still  as  far  off  from  my  desired  end  as  ever." 
"  Why,"  said  he,  "he  is  actually  at  Tessout,  and  thither 
are  we  directly  going  to  him,  and  you  shall  also  go  with 
us,  for  you  seem  to  be  bound  another  course."  "  Really, 
gentlemen,"  said  I,  "  I  cannot  imagine  what  can  induce 
you  to  entertain  such  a  notion  of  me,  which  I  am  well 
satisfied  our  royal  master  would  not,  for  he  cannot  but 
remember,  when  he  was  first  driven  out  by  the  Blacks,  in 
favour  of  Muley  Aly,  how  I  joined  him  and  his  small 
number  at  Bolowan,  following  him  and  his  hard  fortune 
to  Terrident,  and  brought  him  back  again  to  his  former 
right  and  dignity,  and  now  you  say  I  am  about  to  desert 
him.  No,  no,  gentlemen,  had  I  not  a  sincere  regard  for 
him,  what  could  have  hindered  my  kind  reception  with 
Mahomet  Wolderriva.  I  hope  you  think  me  as  good  a 
soldier  as  any  of  you,  and  that  I  dare  do  as  much  for  my 
Emperor ;  and  all  this,  I  say,  he  very  well  knows,  as 
having  very  sufficiently  tried  me."  **  Indeed,"  said  one  of 
them,  "you  talk  very  big;"  "and  faith,"  says  another, 
BO  he  does;  for  my  part  I  don't  think  but  what  he  has 
money  about  him." 

On  this  they  felt  the  corners  of  my  blanket,  found 
all  my  money,  and  took  it  every  penny  from  me,  though 
they  did  not  find  the  letters  ;  and  then  they  kept  me 
under  a  strong  guard  till  about  midnight,  by  which 
time  (they  having  laid  out  all  my  money  in  brandy) 
they  were  drunk  enough,  and  all  snoring  one  against 
another ;  when  I,  taking  up  one  of  their  muskets,  ammu- 
nition, and  scimitar,  gave  them  the  slip,  and  travelled  on 
all  the  remainder  of  that  night  (avoiding  that  dangerous 
wood)  and  the  next  day,  till  I  got  me  to  the  province  of 


Shaclemah  ;  where,  as  I  had  no  money,  I  made  bold  to 
sell  the  musket  and  ammunition.  And  after  I  had  refreshed 
myself  I  travelled  on,  and  in  four  days  more  (without 
any  other  misfortune  on  the  road)  I  got  with  my  scimitar 
to  Santa  Cruz,  and  safely  delivered  the  letters  to  Absolom 
Tooby,  a  Moorish  merchant,  as  directed.  During  the  two 
days  he  was  in  preparing  his  answers,  I  visited  my  old 
acquaintance,  and  sold  the  scimitar,  thinking  my  old 
knapsack  and  a  few  worthless  medicines  to  be  by  far  the 
better  arms  for  me ;  and  finding  there  no  shipping,  T  got 
the  answers  to  my  letters,  some  bread,  and  a  small  matter 
of  money,  and  therewith  directly  went  out  of  the  town  and 
back  for  the  Willadea,  as  fast  as  I  could.  And  as  it  was 
then  full  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  I  could  get  no 
farther  that  night  than  to  the  river  Tammorot,  where  I 
had  the  company  of  some  travellers  also  resting  there 
with  their  camels,  and  in  the  morning  I  travelled  on  with 
them,  and  kept  them  company  as  far  as  Hahah,  where  I 
met  with  an  old  acquaintance,  and  lodged  with  him  that 

Very  early  the  next  morning  I  set  merrily  forward 
towards  Segosule  till  about  noon ;  when,  having  got 
within  half  a  mile  of  it,  I  saw  a  Moor  lying  quite  naked 
in  my  road,  with  his  throat  cut,  breathing  his  last ; 
which  soon  damped  my  mirth,  and  in  less  than  half  an 
hour  after  I  met  the  murderers,  and  stood  more  than  a 
fair  chance  of  sharing  the  same  fate,  they  coming  directly 
upon  me,  stripping  me  quite  naked,  and  taking  from  me 
all  but  my  life.  This  I  earnestly  implored  them  to  spare, 
for  that  I  was  a  poor  miserable  wretch  travelling  the 
country  for  my  subsistence  by  way  of  carrying  letters 
from  one  merchant  to  another,  and  that  I  had  no  other 
way  whereby  to  get  my  bread,  and  that  I  should  think 
myself  to  be  for  ever  obliged  to  them  if  they  would  give 


me  my  letters  back  again,  for  that  they  could  not  be  of 
any  service  to  them,  but  to  those  to  whom  directed,  most 
likely  of  a  great  deal ;  which,  after  much  intreaty,  they 
consented  to  give  me,  together  with  my  life,  and  sent  me 
away  in  a  miserable  condition,  though  indeed  I  expected 
a  great  deal  worse,  and  therefore  I  was  very  glad  with  the 
loss  of  my  blanket  and  knapsack  to  compound  for  my 

And  now  am  I  travelling  on  quite  naked  for  the 
mountain  Idoworseern,  which  indeed  was  but  hurrying 
myself  from  one  bad  evil  into  a  worse,  for  on  my  gaining 
about  two-thirds  of  the  height,  I  was  at  once  surrounded 
by  about  six  thousand  horse  and  foot,  and  strictly  ex- 
amined what  I  was,  whence  I  came,  whither  going,  my 
business,  &c.  I  told  them  that  I  was  a  letter-carrier, 
come  from  Santa  Cruz,  and  going  to  the  Willadea. 
"  Very  likely,"  said  one  of  them  to  the  rest  of  his  com- 
panions, "for  I  see  the  letters  in  his  hand."  "But," 
said  another  of  them,  "  how  came  you  to  be  naked  ?  "  I 
told  him  that  I  happened  to  meet  that  forenoon  some 
gentlemen  on  the  road,  who  had  taken  my  blanket  from 
me.  However,  they  were  so  civil  as  to  give  me  the  letters 
back  again.  "  As  to  the  letters,"  said  he,  "  they  could  be 
of  no  service,  but  I  think  they  were  very  great  fools  they 
had  not  cut  your  throat,  for  in  short,  you  dog,  you  are 
a  spy,  and  come  to  take  notice  of  our  strength  and 
actions."  "Alas,  gentlemen,"  said  I,  "I  am  a  most 
unfit  person  for  a  spy,  neither  did  I  ever  hear  of  any  such 
troops  to  be  gathered  hereabouts."  And  therefore  I  humbly 
entreated  they  would  be  so  good  as  to  let  me  go  about  my 
business  ;  but  instead  of  this  they  soon  laid  hold  on  my 
arms  and  throat,  and  had  there  not  been  one  amongst 
them  who  knew  me  formerly  at  Mequinez,  they  would  no 
doubt  have  soon  hauled  me  in  piecemeals,  but  he,  stepping 


forth,  desired  them  not  bo  in  a  hurry  to  take  away  my 
life,  for  that  he  believed  me  innocent,  and  if  they  were 
willing  of  it,  he  would  carry  me  for  that  night  to  his  tent, 
and  if  in  the  morning  they  thought  me  worthy  of  death, 
I  should  be  executed  in  sight  of  the  women. 

Which  being  agi'eed  to,  he  ordered  me  to  follow  him, 
and  conducted  me  safe  home  in  a  very  little  time, 
telling  me  in  a  most  friendly  manner  not  to  be  afraid, 
for  that  he  would  warrant  to  protect  me  from  their 
rage,  and  that  after  I  had  refreshed  me  by  a  good 
supper,  he  would  set  me  again  at  liberty.  "  But  here," 
said  he,  "first  take  this  old  blanket,  which  is  better 
than  none,  and  put  it  about  you."  And  whilst  the 
cuscassoe  was  making  ready  for  our  supper,  I  asked 
him  what  those  people  were,  and  what  might  be  their 
intentions  in  gathering  into  such  a  body  ?  "  Why, 
reall}^"  said  he,  "  I  am  almost  ashamed  to  tell  you,  and 
much  more  that  I  should  happen  to  be  amongst  them ; 
for  notwithstanding  they  are  my  countrymen,  yet  do  I 
think  their  actions  to  be  most  unwarrantable.  However, 
I  am  constrained  for  the  present  to  come  into  the 
measures  with  them ;  not  but  could  they  be  contented 
to  labour  but  a  very  little  they  might  live  very  well  on 
the  fruits  of  it,  as  having  land  sufficient  to  employ  a  far 
greater  number,  allotted  them  by  old  Muley  Smine  on 
his  first  settling  them  here ;  and  as  they  increased  in 
number,  so  did  he  also  increase  their  territories." 
**  Praj^"  said  I,  "  how  long  have  they  been  here,  and  for 
what  reason  were  they  brought."  "  Why,"  said  he,  **  you 
must  know  they  were  no  more  at  first  than  five  hundred 
of  both  sexes,  being  inhabitants  of  the  deserts,  and 
nearly  allied  to  one  of  Muley  Smine's  wives  (they  being, 
as  they  term  themselves,  a  better  sort  of  Laurbs},  and 
were  here  brought  in  the  beginning  of  his  reign,  behaving 


in  his  lifetime  tolerably  well,  though  soon  after  his  death, 
the  breed  being  very  much  increased,  they  grew  as  re- 
bellious as  you  please,  and  after  Muley  Abdallah's  being 
driven  out  a  second  time,  I  (to  shun  a  greater  evil)  joined 
them ;  not  that  I  am  any  way  related  to  any  of  them,  I 
being  born  in  Mequinez,  though  indeed  of  Laurbish 
parents."  *  But  the  cuscassoe  being  brought  before  us, 
he  left  off  that  discourse,  desiring  me  to  fall  to  and  feed 
hearty,  which  indeed  (my  condition  considered),  I  did, 
and  made  a  good  supper  in  little  time ;  when  he  told  me 
he  doubted  some  of  his  neighbours  would  come  to  look 
after  me,  and  therefore  he  would  show  me  out  into  the 
mountain.  And  after  giving  me  all  friendly  instructions, 
and  telling  me  he  would  answer  to  his  comrades  for  my 
escape,  he  left  me  to  shift  for  myself. 

I  climbed  up  the  mountain  as  fast  as  I  could;  how- 
ever, though  I  was  destitute  of  company  then,  I  had 
not  gone  but  very  little  farther  before  I  had  company 
enough,  and,  indeed,  more  than  I  desired ;  but  on  my 
hearing  the  jackals  coming  yelping  towards  me,  I 
betook  myself  to  a  tree,  where  I  had  not  been  but 
a  very  short  time  before  my  tree  was  surrounded  by  a 
vast  number  of  wild  beasts,  making  a  frightful  noise, 
and  so  continued  till  daybreak.  However,  as  I  knew 
myself  to  be  out  of  their  reach,  I  thought  myself  far 
better  off  than  to  be  amongst  my  last  night's  Laurbish 
gentry;  and  as  the  day  came  on,  they  got  them  away 
to  their  dens,  when  I  came  down  from  the  tree  and 
scrambled  up  the  mountain  as  fast  as  I  could,  till  I  gained 
the  height,  and  quite  down  on  the  other  side,  without  seeing 
any  of  my  last  night's  companions,  save  only  two  tigers, 
which  I  passed  without  receiving  any  hurt  from  them. 

*  Note  35. 


Mr.  Pellow  keeps  north — Gets  to  the  Tensift  Kiver  and  agam  takes 
shelter  in  the  castle  of  Ali  ben  Hammiduh — Back  to  Saffi — He 
finds  it  necessary  to  try  a  Cornish  hug  with  a  robber  on  the  road 
— At  Willadia,  where  he  meets  with  English  ships — Engages 
himself  as  interpreter,  when  he  frustrates  a  plot  of  a  Moorish 
merchant  to  get  quit  of  his  obligations — The  vessel  on  which  he 
is  on  board  of  is  plundered  by  the  knavish  officials — The  hard 
way  in  which  ship  captains  had  to  transact  their  business  in  those 
days — Mr.  Pellow  has  to  keep  concealed,  as  the  Moors  suspect  him 
— Sails  for  Sallee — More  trouble,  which  determined  the  captain  to 
take  French  leave — As  a  precaution  the  Jews  and  Moors  are  put 
under  hatches. 

NOW  am  I,  to  my  very  great  satisfactioD,  got  clear  out 
of  the  territories  of  my  Laurbish  enemies,  and 
safely  arrived  near  the  walls  of  a  well-built  house  ;  when, 
being  excessive  weary,  and  very  drowsy,  I  laid  me  down 
in  the  sun  and  soon  fell  into  a  sound  sleep,  out  of  which 
I  was  as  soon  roused  by  the  master  of  the  house,  asking 
me  who  I  was,  whence  I  came,  and  what  business  I  had 
there.  I  told  him  from  Santa  Cruz,  going  to  the  Willadea, 
and  that  I  was  obliged  all  the  last  night  to  keep  myself  in 
a  tree  out  of  the  reach  of  the  wild  beasts.  "Very  well," 
said  he,  "  and  a  good  shift  too."  Then  I  told  him  how, 
at  my  passing  by  such  a  place  the  evening  before,  I  was 
surrounded  by  a  vast  number  of  armed  men,  and  that  I 
very  narrowly  escaped  with  my  life,  being  really  put  in  a 
very  great  fright.     "Oh,"  said  he,  "if  that  was  all,  I 



think  yoii  are  very  well  off,  for  they  are  a  pack  of  the 
vilest  villains  in  Barbary,  and  generally  murder  all  they 
meet  with.     I  heard  their  fire  yesterday — pray,  was  you 
there  then  ?  "     I  told  him  yes,  and  through  what  means 
I  got  out  of  their  hands.     "  Get  you  up  out  of  the  sun," 
said  he,  "  and  lie  you  down  in  that  shed  in  the  shade." 
And  when  I  had  slept  a  good  nap,  he   brought  me  out 
some  butter-milk  and  cuscassoe  for  my  breakfast ;  with 
which,  being  wonderfully  refreshed,  I,  after  returniiog  him 
my  most  humble  and  hearty  thanks,  travelled  briskly  on, 
and  got  me  that  night  to  the  province  of  Shademah,  where 
at  my  going  out  I  had  sold  my  musket  and  ammunition, 
and  here  I  slept  that  night.    And  setting  out  thence  early 
in  the  morning,  I  happened  to  meet  about  ten  of  the  clock 
that  forenoon,  at  the  foot  of  the  mountain  Jibbil  Neddeed, 
or  the  mountain   of  iron,  with  five   footpads,  and  from 
whom,  thinking  to  get  off  to  a  little  house  hard  by,  I  ran 
with  all  the  speed  I  could.     However,  I  was  soon  overtaken 
by  a  very  speedy  messenger,  being  wounded  by  a  musket- 
shot  in  my  right  thigh,  passing  between  my  legs,  and 
grazing   about    half    an    inch    within    the    flesh,   which 
slackened  my  pace  to  that  degree  that  they  were  soon  up 
with  me,  and  gave  me  the  most  severe  dry-beating  I  had 
ever  met  with  before.     But   on  some  passengers  coming 
by  they  made  off  as  fast  as  they  could,  and  I,  making  a 
bad  shift  (which  is  better  than  none),  got  with  much  pain 
to  the  house,  where  I  got  me  some  herbs  and  staunched 
the  blood,  of  which  I  had  really  lost  a  great  deal.     Here 
I  got  a  lodging  for  that  night,  and  some  cuscassoe  for  my 
supper,  and,  notwithstanding  my  wound,  slept  very  well, 
and  early  the  next  morning  went  limping  on,  and  got  that 
day  in  some  pain  to  the  river  Tensieft,  near  which  stood 
a  castle  belonging  to  Elelbenhamedush,*  one  of  their  great 

♦  Note  36. 


men,  and  where  I  found  residing  a  great  many  Jews,  from 
whom  I  had  some  remedies  for  my  wound,  and  a  good 
supper,  and  very  civil  entertainment  for  the  night.  Early 
in  the  morning,  after  getting  a  good  breakfast  and  dressing 
my  wound,  I  travelled  slowly  on,  still  avoiding  that 
dangerous  wood,  and  a  little  before  night  got  to  Saphee, 
though  I  did  not  think  it  fit  to  go  into  the  town,  but 
lodged  in  a  little  house  without,  where  I  got  me  some 
cuscassoe  amongst  the  family  for  my  supper,  and  in  a 
very  little  time  after  I  had  filled  my  belly,  I  lay  me  down 
to  my  rest. 

But  never  was  I  more  hurried  by  dreams  as  how  I 
should  be  at  the  Willadea,  where  methought  I  happened 
to  meet  with  a  commander  of  a  vessel,  and  who, 
though  I  had  never  seen  him  before,  yet  did  he  in  a 
most  Christianlike  and  courteous  manner  offer  (without 
my  asking  him)  to  carry  me  off  with  him  at  all  hazards. 
Thus,  at  my  intervals  from  slumber,  I  could  not  all  that 
night  put  out  of  my  head,  but  what  it  must  be  somewhat 
more  than  imaginary,  for  to  my  mind  I  plainly  saw  him, 
conversed  with  him,  and  found  him  in  every  point  to  be 
a  complete  man.  Then,  getting  up  very  early,  I  travelled 
slowly  on  till  about  noon,  when  I  met  a  single  Moor,  and 
I  not  at  all  liking  his  countenance,  as  supposing  him  (as 
indeed  he  really  was)  one  of  their  footpads,  I  began  to 
consider  with  myself  how  to  behave  to  him,  and  he  seeing 
me  limping,  gave  him  no  doubt  the  greater  assurance. 
Therefore,  coming  directly  to  me  with  a  pistol  cocked  in 
his  hand,  and  presenting  it  close  to  my  breast,  he  in  an 
insolent  manner  demanded  what  I  had  about  me.  I  told 
him  that  I  had  nothing  worth  his  acceptance,  unless  he 
would  be  pleased  to  accept  of  my  blanket.  "  Then,  you 
dog,"  said  he,  "  why  don't  you  take  it  off'?  "  "  That,  sir," 
said  I,  "is  soon  done,"  slipping  it  directly  oft  my  shoulders 


and  in  a  seeming  fright  presenting  it  into  his  hand,  and  he 
not  being  very  ready  to  take  hold  on  it,  I  threw  it  at  once 
over  his  head,  and  soon  gave  him  to  understand  that  I  was 
a  true  Cornishman.  For  notwithstanding  my  wound,  I 
clasped  my  right  arm  about  his  neck,  stuck  to  him  with 
my  lame  hip,  and  soon  had  him  on  his  back  on  the  ground, 
when  I  instantly  decided  the  dispute  who  should  have  my 
old  blanket.  In  short,  as  he  had  so  much  mind  to  it,  I  left 
it  for  him,  taking  his,  and  after  giving  him  a  farewell 
pounce,  went  off  with  his  pistol  and  ammunition,  and  got 
that  night  into  the  middle  of  the  wood,  and  lodged  in  the 
same  tent  I  formerly  did  at  my  first  going  that  way  with 
the  mulatto,  and  where  I  was  again  very  kindly  enter- 
tained, insomuch  that  I  thought  myself  obliged  to  make  a 
present  to  mine  host  of  the  pistol,  of  which  he  was  not  a 
little  proud,  and  very  early  in  the  morning  provided  some 
cuscassoe  for  my  breakfast. 

After  this  I  set  merrily  forward,  and  about  noon  got 
well  to  the  Willadea,  and  safely  delivered  my  mer- 
chants the  answers  to  their  letters.  And  before  I  had 
the  power  to  give  them  an  account  of  my  miserable 
journey,  I  am  hurried  by  the  merchants  on  board  a  Genoese 
brig,  telling  me  that  Absolom  Candeele  was  then  in  the 
town,  and  should  he  happen  to  see  me,  he  would  no 
doubt  carry  me  with  him.  This  brig  was  first  commanded 
by  Captain  Wilson,  an  Englishman  fwho  was  about  three 
months  before  unfortunately  drowned  at  Saphee),  and  then 
by  a  Swede,  his  chief  mate,  with  whom,  as  the  brig  was 
there  before  I  went  to  Santa  Cruz  with  the  letters,  I  was 
before  well  acquainted,  and  with  the  rest  of  the  crew ;  so  I 
went  directly  on  board,  and  was  very  courteously  received 
by  them,  telling  me  that  they  were  very  glad  to  see  me 
come  back  well,  and  that  they  had  been  at  a  very  great 
loss,  during  my  absence,  for  a  linguist,  asking  me  if  I  had 


dined,  and  if  I  would  eat  any  mullets.  "Yes,"  said  I, 
"  with  all  my  heart ;  "  when  they  directly  ordered  the  cook 
to  fry  some  for  me.  Whilst  they  were  frying,  I  asked  the 
mate  what  snow  that  was  to  windward  of  us ;  he  told 
me  one  Captain  Toobin,  of  Dublin,  who  came  in  about  four 
days  before,  and  that  he  had  met  with  a  great  deal  of 
trouble  by  way  of  the  Moorish  merchants,  on  account  of 
his  freight.  "  Indeed  !  "  said  I ;  **  pray  what  manner  of  a 
man  is  he  ?  "  **  "Why  really,"  said  he,  "  a  very  jolly,  well- 
discoursed  man,  so  far  as  I  have  yet  seen  of  him."  "Pray," 
said  I,  "  is  he  a  man  of  a  pretty  big  stature  ?  "  "  Yes," 
said  he,  "  he  is  a  very  lusty  man."  "  Well,"  said  I,  "  I 
wish  I  could  see  him."  "  Why,"  said  he,  "  that  you  may 
soon  do,  for  he  is  as  well  as  us  in  a  very  great  strait  for  a 
linguist."  When,  on  the  cook's  telling  us  that  the  fish 
were  ready,  we  went  into  the  cabin  to  dinner,  and  before 
we  had  finished,  Captain  Toobin  came  on  board,  and  the 
moment  I  saw  him  I  was  thoroughly  persuaded  with 
myself  that  he  was  actually  the  same  that  I  had  so  lately 
seen  in  my  dream  at  Saphee,  and  soon  found  him  to  be 
under  some  distress ;  and  on  his  understanding  me  to  be 
an  Englishman,  he  asked  me  if  I  would  go  with  him  on 
board  his  ship.  I  told  him,  "  Yes  (if  he  thought  I  might 
be  of  any  service  to  him  there),  with  all  my  heart ;  "  so  I 
stepped  into  the  boat  along  with  him,  and  we  were  soon 
on  board,  cai'rying  me  directly  into  his  cabin,  and  after 
drinking  a  cheering  cup  of  wine,  he  asked  me  how  long  I 
had  been  in  Barbary.  I  told  him,  ever  since  the  commence- 
ment of  the  twelfth  year  of  my  age,  it  being  then  the 
twenty-third  year  of  my  captivity.  "  Alas !  poor  man," 
said  he,  "a  long  captivity  indeed  !  but  could  not  you  in  all 
this  time  find  means  to  escape  ?  " 

I  told  him  I  had  often  endeavoured  it,   even  to  the 
very  great    hazard    of    my  life,    but    I    was  always  so 


unhappy  to  be  intercepted,  telling  him  of  my  several 
disappointments  that  way,  and  what  difficulties  and 
dangers  I  had  undergone  to  get  thither,  and  that  though 
I  hanged  off  and  on  at  Santa  Cruz  for  three  or  four 
months,  and  there  were  daring  that  time  several  English 
vessels,  yet  could  I  not  meet  with  any  so  Christianlike 
commander  as  to  carry  me  off  with  him.  "  No !  "  said  he, 
**  then  they  were  a  parcel  of  brutish  fellows  ;  and  I  tell  you 
for  your  comfort,  that  you  have  met  with  a  Christian  at 
last,  and  here's  my  hand"  (giving  it  into  mine)  "to  serve 
you  all  in  my  power.  Therefore  don't  despair,  for  I  am  fully 
determined  to  carry  you  with  me,  even  to  the  hazard  of  my 
life,  and  be  the  consequence  what  it  will."  This  he  spoke 
with  so  much  sincerity  of  heart,  and  tender  feeling  of  my 
sad  case,  that  he  could  not  forbear  weeping;  which  you  may 
suppose  raised  my  joy  to  that  degree  at  his  so  tender  be- 
haviour, that  I  could  not  forbear  to  keep  him  company. 

Thus  far  is  my  dream  come  to  pass,  the  captain  telling 
me  further  that,  if  I  was  anyways  apprehensive  of  the  least 
danger  of  my  appearing  in  public,  he  would  keep  me  close 
on  board  the  vessel.  I  told  him  that  I  was  at  a  loss  in 
what  terms  to  express  my  gratitude;  however,  I  did  not 
doubt  but  that  time  might  put  it  in  my  power  to  make  him 
some  recompense;  but  as  I  was  then  in  more  than  ordinary 
favour  with  the  merchants,  I  thought  there  would  be  no 
occasion  for  keeping  myself  close;  however,  I  would  be 
frequently  with  him  on  board,  and  do  him  by  way  of 
linguist  all  the  most  faithful  services  and  good  offices  in 
my  power.  For  which,  indeed,  he  had  an  occasion  very 
often  after,  for  he  had,  as  it  were,  but  just  mentioned  his 
merchant  (who,  he  said,  owed  him  four  hundred  ducats  for 
freight,  and  that  he  was  under  no  little  fear  of  losing  it, 
for  that  he  did  not  like  his  frequent  put-offs),  but  the  boy 
came  dowa  and  told  the  captain  he  was  coming  on  board ; 


at  which  he  stepped  u^x)!!  the  deck,  and  received  him  at 
the  ship's  side;  and  he,  seeming  to  be  in  a  great  fright 
and  hurry,  ordered  me  to  tell  the  captain  the  following 
terrifying  lie,  viz.,  that  an  order  was  just  then  come  from 
Muley  Abdallah,  by  way  of  Torbo  Hallusah,  the  governor 
of  Ducallah,  to  seize  all  the  Christian  vessels,  to  make 
slaves  of  the  men,  and  to  apply  all  their  cargoes  to  his 
property.  Therefore  he  should  get  the  vessel  in  readiness 
as  soon  as  possibly  he  could,  assist  him  in  all  his  power  in 
carrying  oflf  part  of  the  corn  then  on  board  the  Genoese 
brig,  which  was  so  deeply  laden  that  she  drew  more 
water  than  was  on  the  bar  to  carry  her  over ;  but  by  taking 
out  one-half  of  it  they  might  both  get  over  very  well. 

All  this  I  faithfully  told  him  in  English,  desiring  him  not 
to  vex  himself  at  it,  for  that  I  believed  it  to  be  a  trick,  only 
to  hurry  him  away  and  cheat  him  of  his  freight.  However, 
he  directly  ordered  all  hands  at  work,  and  early  the  second 
following  morning  got  alongside  of  the  brig,  and  that  day 
took  in  half  her  lading,  with  some  more  from  the  shore, 
which  belonged  to  other  proprietors,  and  hauled  down  the 
next  morning  so  fast  as  we  could.  And  as  the  brig  was 
before  us,  she  got  well  over  the  bar  and  clear  oflf,  as  indeed 
we  might  also  have  done,  had  not  the  proprietors  of  the 
com  stopped  us  and  kept  us  there  some  time  at  an  anchor; 
during  which  there  came  on  a  violent  storm,  which  drove 
our  ship,  anchor  and  all,  quite  back  again  into  her  old 
berth,  where  we  were  again  securely  moored.  And  then  I 
was  soon  confirmed  in  my  opinion  of  the  merchant's 
villainy,  and  that  he  not  only  intended  to  cheat  the 
captain  of  his  former  freight,  but  to  run  further  into  his 
debt,  and  cheat  the  proprietors  of  their  corn.  For  we  had 
but  just  done  our  business  in  securing  the  vessel,  before 
our  roguish  merchant  came  on  board,  ordering  me  to  tell 
the  captain  that  he  and  some  more  of  his  comrades  were 


going  to  visit  the  governor  of  Ducallah  to  know  the  truth 
of  this  report,  and  that  if  the  captain  would  spare  him  an 
English  pistol,  he  knew  it  would  be  to  the  governor  of  all 
things  the  most  acceptable  present.  "  Therefore,"  said  he, 
"  pray  ask  him  "  ;  which  I  did,  and  it  was  as  soon  granted, 
and  he  immediately  departed  with  it,  and  (as  we  had  after 
very  good  reason  to  believe)  went  to  the  governor. 

But  though  it  was  only  one  day's  journey,  we  never  saw 
nor  heard  of  him  after,  no  further  than  in  a  sham  way ;  for 
the  second  following  day  came  the  governor  of  Ducallah, 
and  with  him  four  hundred  armed  men,  in  seeming-wise  to 
inquire  after  him,  they  having  no  doubt  agreed  together 
before  to  make  use  of  Muley  Abdallah's  name,  the  better 
to  carry  on  their  so  villainous  designs  ;  and  lest  the  then 
governor  of  "Willadea  might  be  in  any  wise  an  obstacle  to 
them,  he  sent  his  brother  the  day  before  to  secure  him, 
and  for  male  practices  to  bring  him  to  Ducallah  before 
him.  And  on  his  carrying  him  thither,  he  met  the  gover- 
nor, his  brother,  on  the  road,  who  brought  him  back  again, 
and  confined  him  close  prisoner,  under  pretence  of  his 
suffering  three  sail  of  ships  belonging  to  the  Christians  to 
depart  without  bis  permission.  He  then  commanded  his 
brother,  with  a  few  more,  on  board  our  vessel,  where  our 
captain  made  him  very  welcome,  and  he  supped  and  took 
up  his  quarters  there  all  night,  though  indeed  he  had  his 
supper  brought  from  the  shore,  which  was  a  very  large  bowl 
of  cuscassoe,  with  half  a  sheep  boiled  to  rags  on  the  top  of  it, 
and  the  other  half  roasted,  brought  on  a  huge  long  wooden 
spit  on  a  Moor's  shoulder. 

Yet  though  they  were  but  three  that  sat  at  supper, 
yet  did  our  captain  declare  that  he  had  never  seen  so 
much  eaten  at  one  meal  before  by  twenty  men,  though, 
poor  man,  as  to  his  own  part  (as  not  at  all  liking  their 
foul  and  ravenous  way  of  eating,  he  did  not  eat  any ;  how- 


ever,  I  had  a  good  piece  of  the  meat  and  some  cuscassoe 
sent  me  out,  which  I  and  my  comrades  soon  despatched. 
As  soon  as  the  Moors  had  supped,  I  was  ordered  into  the 
cabin,  and  asked  by  the  governor's  brother  how  I  came 
there,  and  what  was  my  business ;  and  having  an  answer 
ready  for  him  at  my  tongue's  end,  I  told  that  I  had  been 
for  some  months  past  travelling  up  and  down  the  country, 
exposed  to  many  dangers,  and  very  great  want,  in  seeking 
Muley  Abdallah,  and  all  to  no  purpose  ;  for  that  before  I 
got  thither,  I  could  hear  nothing  of  him. 

However,  I  was  then  well  satisfied  that  I  might  very 
likely  accomplish  my  so  long  frustrated  desires  in  a 
very  little  time,  and  therefore  I  was  glad  I  had  come 
so  far ;  and  as  soon  as  I  had  gathered  a  little  strength 
after  my  late  hardships,  I  was  fully  determined  to  pro- 
ceed further,  and  I  hoped  to  better  purpose ;  that  the 
merchants  there  had  been  very  kind  to  me,  encouraging 
me  all  in  their  power,  in  way  of  a  linguist,  whereby  I 
got  my  subsistence,  to  which  end  I  was  then  on  board 
the  vessel.  "Well,"  said  he,  "our  people  are  going  to 
him  in  a  very  little  time  with  their  presents,  and  then  you 
may  also  go  with  them."  "  Indeed,  sir,"  said  I,  "  that  may 
save  me  a  great  deal  of  trouble,  for  I  have  been  almost  ever 
since  his  last  absence  from  Mequinez  roaming  up  and  down 
the  country  in  seeking  and  inquiring  after  him,  exposed  to 
many  hazards,  and  all,  till  I  came  hither,  to  no  purpose." 
At  which  he  seemed  to  pity  me,  being  with  my  story  very 
well  satisfied.  After  he  had  drank  about  a  gallon  of  tea,* 
be  laid  himself  down  to  rest  for  the  night,  and  getting  up 
early  in  the  morning,  our  people  put  him  ashore  in  our 
boat  ;  and  after  he  had  been  some  time  with  the  governor, 
his  brother,  he  returned  again  with  him  to  the  waterside, 
bringing  with  them  two  hundred  armed  men,  peremptorily 

-  Note  33. 


requiring  Captain  Toobin  and  I  to  come  directly  on  shore 
before  him. 

Then  I  told  the  captain  the  merchant's  rogueries 
would  soon  appear,  and  that  I  knew  as  well  as  any  of 
them  all,  an  English  pistol  to  be  an  extraordinary  present 
amongst  them,  and  therefore  I  thought  it  not  amiss 
to  take  one  as  a  present  to  the  governor,  and  if  we  found 
him  not  worthy  of  it,  we  could  but  bring  it  back  with  us 
again.  "  That,  my  friend,"  said  he,  '*  is  what  I  would  do 
with  all  my  heart,  was  I  sure  I  could  be  permitted  to  send 
a  brace  of  bullets  out  of  it  though  his  brains."  However, 
he  gave  me  one,  which  I  conveyed  close  under  my  blanket, 
and  then  we  went  directly  on  shore.  The  governor  asking 
which  was  his  linguist,  and  his  brother  pointing  at  me,  all 
the  mystery  was  directly  unfolded,  he  ordering  me  to  tell 
the  captain  that  he  would  not  have  him  to  be  under  the 
least  apprehension  of  danger,  for  that  his  orders  from 
Muley  Abdallah  were  only  to  take  the  eflfects  out  of  the 
ships,  and  all  the  Christians  on  shore,  in  order  to  be  sent 
to  him,  and  afterwards  to  send  the  ships  by  Moorish  sailors 
to  Saphee,  there  to  be  ripped  up. 

All  which  I  accordingly  told  him.  "  A  very  extraordinary 
favour  indeed  !  "  said  he.  "Pray  ask  him  if  he  has  any 
orders  from  Muley  Abdallah  for  so  doing."  He  told  me 
yes.  "  Then,"  said  I,  "  the  captain  desires  you  will  let 
him  see  it,  or  at  least  that  you  will  read  it ; "  which 
indeed  he  did  directly,  and  it  was  according  to  its  true 
interpretation  in  English,  after  the  following  manner  : 

^'Alcaide  Torho  Hallusah,  my  trusty  and  well-esteemed 
Governor  of  Ducallah. 

"  On  the  complaint  of  some  of  my  loyal  subjects  lately 
laid  before  me,  relating  to  five  sail  of  Salleeteens  now 
lading  corn  at  the  Willadea  to  be  carried  either  to  Sallee  or 


Mammora,  for  the  benefit  of  the  Black  Army,  ray  utter 
enemies  ;  you  are  therefore  on  receiving  this  my  peremp  - 
tory  order,  for  the  preventing  all  future  abuses  of  that 
nature,  directed  to  take  all  the  said  vessels  and  cargoe  s 
into  your  custody,  send  all  the  Christians  to  me,  reserve 
the  several  cargoes  to  my  proper  use,  and  send  all  the 
ships  by  Moorish  sailors  as  soon  as  you  can  to  Saphee, 
there  to  be  ripped  up ;  and  for  so  doing,  this  shall  be  your 
"warrant. — Muley  Abdallah  Woold,  the  Kunnateer  Binthe- 
bucker  "  *  (in  English,  a  slave  to  God  and  son  of  Kunnateer 
Binthebucker,  who  was  his  mother). 

After  this  letter  was  read,  and  I  had  faithfully  told  its 
contents  to  the  captain,  I  told  the  governor  that  his 
Majesty  had  not  mentioned  anything  that  these  vessels  were 
freighted  by  the  Salleeteens,  or  that  they  were  English, 
and  that  he  very  well  knew  that  ever  since  the  last  truce, 
and  especially  since  his  last  exile,  he  and  his  few  friends 
had  relief  from  them,  and  which  if  they  had  not,  they 
must  in  all  likelihood  have  been  starved  long  ago. 
Therefore  should  they  then  go  about  to  treat  the  English 
after  that  manner,  it  would  be  a  means  of  deterring  all 
others  of  that  nation  from  coming  thither  for  the  future,  and 
which  if  they  should  do,  before  they  had  better  informed 
him  concerning  the  truth  of  this  affair,  he  would  no  doubt 
be  very  angry  with  the  transactors  of  it,  and  in  all  likeli- 
hood make  then  answer  for  it  with  the  loss  of  their  heads. 
This  put  the  governor  to  a  stand,  and  then  his  brother 
told  him  he  thought  it  very  likely  to  be  true,  for  that  as  I 
had  been  brought  up  with  Muley  Abdallah  from  a  child,  I 
therefore  knew  his  temper,  so  that  he  would  have  him  take 
great  care  how  he  acted  therein ;  at  which  he  ordered  the 

*  Muley  'Abd  Allah  oold  el  Kunnateer  [Lalla  Kboneta]  Bint  el 


captain  to  go  again  on  board,  and  that  be  would  follow  in 
a  very  little  time  witb  a  few  of  bis  friends  to  give  him  a 

At  wbicb  I  came  close  to  him,  and  gave  him  the  pistol, 
telling  him  that  the  captain  bad  ordered  me  to  give  it 
him  in  bis  name,  as  a  present ;  and  to  tell  him,  that  be 
had  reserved  for  him  on  board  the  vessel  two  bottles  of 
superfine  English  powder.*  "Indeed!"  said  be,  "pray  then 
let  him  keep  it  from  the  knowledge  of  the  friends  coming 
with  me,  or  very  likely  they  will  desire  to  come  in  for  their 
shares  ;  "  and  just  as  I  was  stepping  into  the  boat,  to  be 
going  off,  **  Stay,"  said  he,  "  let  the  captain  go,  and  you 
shall  follow  him  in  a  very  little  time,  for  I  have  ordered  a 
couple  of  sheep  for  him."  And  whilst  they  were  bringing 
to  the  waterside,  he  asked  me  if  I  knew  anything  of  a 
skin  of  sa£fron  to  be  on  board.  I  told  him  no,  for  that  I 
had  never  seen  nor  heard  of  any  such  thing.  "  Prithee," 
said  he,  "  do  me  the  favour  to  inquire  amongst  the  ship's 
company,  after  the  most  secret  manner  you  can,  and  let 
me  know  it  when  I  come  on  board."  "  That,  sir,"  said  I, 
"  you  may  depend  on."  And  the  sheep  being  brought  by 
this  time  to  the  waterside,  "Here,"  said  he,  "lay  hold  on 
them,  and  carry  them  to  the  captain  with  my  service,  and 
tell  him  that  I  shall  be  very  glad  if  he  think  them  worth 
his  acceptance,  and  also  that  I  fully  intend,  as  I  told  him 
just  now,  to  come  off  to  see  him  in  the  afternoon."  And 
then,  as  the  saffron  was  running  in  my  mind,  I  bailed  the 
boat,  and  was  aboard  witb  the  sheep  in  a  very  little  time, 
and  delivered  them  with  my  message  to  the  captain ;  and 
then  I  told  him  how  inquisitive  the  governor  had  been 
with  me,  concerning  some  saffron  he  should  have  then  on 
board.  "  What,  in  the  name  of  God,"  said  he,  "  are  they 
about  to  do  by  me  now  ?  "     "  That,  indeed,"  said  I,  "  I 

*  Note  34. 


cannot  tell,  but  that  he  made  such  inquiry  is  most 
certain."  At  which  the  captain  knocks  in  the  head  of  a 
little  cag^,  put  something  into  it,  headed  it  up  again,  and 
put  it  into  the  bottom  of  the  flesh  cask,  laying  all  the  meat 
upon  it,  and  the  pork  in  particular  at  the  top.  And  in  a 
very  short  time  the  governor  came  on  board  with  twelve 
of  his  Moorish  friends,  the  captain  showing  him  directly 
into  the  cabin,  where  I  was  soon  called  as  an  interpreter  ; 
and  the  first  question  he  asked  me  was,  if  I  had  done  as  I 
promised  him.  I  told  him  yes,  and  that  I  could  not  get 
intelligence  of  any  such  thing,  and  that  he  must  certainly 
be  imposed  on.  "  Well,"  said  he,  "  as  to  that,  it  will  soon 
appear ;  "  and  then  he  ordered  me  again  upon  deck,  to 
discourse  his  friends  ;  and  the  first  question  they  asked  me 
was,  if  I  could  tell  of  any  chests  of  loose  clothes,  or  any- 
thing else  belonging  to  the  merchants,  to  be  on  board.  I 
told  them  no,  for  that  I  had  never  heard  of  any  such  thing. 
Then  Captain  Toobin  came  upon  deck  to  acquaint  them 
that  the  governor  wanted  their  company  down  to  drink  a 
cup  of  tea  in  the  cabin  with  him,  and  which,  indeed,  be 
was  drinking ;  however,  he  ordered  for  those  inquisitive 
gentry  a  sufficient  quantity  of  strong  Malaga  wine  to  be 
made  very  hot,  well  sugared,  and  brought  iu  a  tea-kettle; 
when  they  seemed  to  sip  on  at  first,  as  if  they  did  not 
know  what  it  was,  but  in  a  very  little  time  they  began  to 
like  it,  and  swallowed  it  down  as  infants  do  their  nurse's 
milk  ;  so  that  in  an  hour's  time,  or  thereabout,  they  were 
all  of  them  as  merry  as  you  please.  Then  the  governor 
took  his  leave,  taking  with  him  his  powder  and  his  merry 
companions.  By  the  time  they  were  got  to  the  shore,  the 
tea  operated  into  their  noddles  to  that  degree,  that  they 
were  all  (the  governor  excepted)  together  by  the  ears,  and 
there  was  really  between  them  a  very  hot  combat,  which 
soon  made  bloody  work,  they  flourishing  their  scimitars, 


and  cutting  one  another  very  severely,  whicli  the  captain 
and  I  saw  from  the  vessel.  After  they  had  cut  one  another 
very  heartily,  and  very  much  blunted  and  gapped  their 
scimitars,  they  were  contented  on  all  sides  to  give  out ; 
when  one  of  them  came  again  on  board  our  vessel,  with 
two  of  their  scimitars,  staring  like  a  wild  bullock,  and 
reeling  like  a  light  ship  in  a  great  sea,  desiring  me,  as  well 
as  he  could  speak,  to  grind  them  for  him.  "  Yes,  sir," 
said  I,  "  I  will  with  all  my  heart ;  "  and  which  I  did  to  a 
very  good  edge  indeed.  "  But  pray,  sir,"  said  I,  "  how  fell 
you  out  ?  It  is  a  great  pity  but  what  you  had  ground  your 
swords  before  you  went  ashore."  "  What  ?  "  said  he.  "  I 
ask  you,  sir,"  said  I,  "  how  you  fell  out  ?  "  "  Indeed,"  said 
he,  "I  cannot  tell,  nor,  as  I  believe,  none  of  us  all ;  "  and 
then  he  was  again  handed  into  the  boat,  and  put  on  shore 
with  his  scimitars. 

In  a  very  little  time  after  came  off  the  governor  of 
Ducallah's  brother-in-law,  bringing  with  him  Sidi  ben 
Eaudee,  the  new  governor  of  Willadea,  to  be  kept  there 
as  a  prisoner,  in  order  to  prevent  his  running  away, 
for  that  he  had  suffered  the  Genoese  brig  to  sail,  con- 
trary to  order,  saying  to  me  in  the  Moorish  language, 
"  Tollahfee  haddah  Corran  Astah  Loggadah  Sbaugh ;  "  * 
in  English,  "  Take  care  of  this  cuckold  till  to-morrow 
morning."  So  we  put  him  into  the  ship's  hold,  and 
there  lodged  him  on  a  piece  of  matting,  on  the  corn. 
And  the  next  morning  he  was  again  ordered  on  shore, 
aboard  again  at  night,  and  the  next  morning  on  shore 
again :  when  they  finding  the  bait  would  not  take,  he 
was  again  set  at  liberty,  all  this  being  no  more  than 
to  try  Captain  Toobin's  fidelity;  for,  in  short,  had  he 
suffered  him  to  make  an  escape,  they  would  no  doubt  have 
made  a  great  handle  of  it,  and  it  would  have  been  very 
*  T'halla  fi  had  el  curran  hata  Khrudda  es-sbah. 


much  to  his  prejudice.  However,  they  were  disappointed 
of  their  aim,  and  therefore,  without  forming  any  other 
designs  of  that  nature,  they  are  now  resolved  to  be  more 
open  and  bare-faced,  the  governor  of  Ducallah's  brother, 
and  with  him  thirty  men  in  two  boats,  coming  the  next 
morning,  requiring  the  captain  to  set  his  men  at  work 
in  hoisting  out  the  corn ;  on  which  the  captain  ordered 
me  to  ask  him  if  he  had  any  orders  from  the  owners. 
He  told  him  no.  "  Then,"  said  the  captain,  "I  will  not 
give  my  consent  to  let  any  of  it  go ;  but  if  they  would  do 
it  after  a  forceable  manner,  it  was  what  he  could  not  help, 
but  as  for  any  of  his  men,  they  should  not  hoist  out  one 
grain  of  it,  for  that  he  very  plainly  perceived  it  was  no 
more  than  furnishing  the  merchants  with  a  plausible 
pretence  to  cheat  him  of  his  freight."  At  which  they 
offered  to  use  him  very  rudely ;  but  he  bravely  stood  his 
ground,  and  told  them  that  unless  they  could  produce 
such  an  order  he  would  not  meddle  in  it. 

On  this  the  Moors  broke  open  the  hatches  and  fell  to 
work,  and  then  the  skin  of  saffron  came  again  to  be  in- 
quired after ;  and  as  they  could  not  find  it  amongst  the 
corn,  as  they  expected,  they  rummaged  the  ship  very 
strictly.  And  when  they  came  to  the  flesh  tub,  and  had 
taken  off  the  cover,  and  saw  the  pork,  they  fell  a  spauling 
and  spitting,  shrinking  up  their  faces,  and  swearing  that 
there  was  nothing  in  that  tub  but  a  salted  devil,  and  ran 
from  it  as  if  the  devil  had  been  in  it  indeed  :  and  notwith- 
standing they  could  not  find  the  saffron,  they  found  the 
corn,  and  carried  it  all  off  that  day,  without  leaving  us  any 
for  the  ship's  use. 

Now  have  we  an  empty  ship,  no  merchant  to  talk  with, 
and  therefore  no  further  business  for  me  by  way  of  in- 
terpreter ;  so  that  I  thought  myself  obliged  to  act  very 
cautiously,  and  to  expose  myself  to  the  view  of  the  Moors 


as  seldom  as  possible;  though,  at  the  request  of  the 
captain,  I  went  to  the  governor  of  Ducallah,  to  tell  him 
that  all  the  ship's  corn  was  taken  out  and  carried  away 
by  his  brother,  without  paying  one  penny  freight :  and 
then  I  told  him  also  that  the  captain  and  his  people  were 
under  very  great  distress  for  provision,  having  nothing  on 
board  but  a  tub  of  pork,  which  was  so  very  fat  that  they 
could  not  eat  it  without  bread.  "Why,"  said  he,  "do 
you  eat  pork  ?  "  "I  eat  it,"  said  I,  " fah  !  "  shrinking 
up  my  face ;  "  however,  if  I  did,  I  should  not  eat  very 
much  of  theirs,  they  having  very  little  further  business 
for  me.  But  really,  sir,"  said  I, "  they  are  under  very  great 
distress,  and  if  you  do  not  send  them  some  relief  very 
speedily,  they  must  starve,  of  course,  for  they  have  no 
money  nor  credit ;  insomuch,  that  I  am  very  apprehensive 
of  losing  my  little  brokerage." 

On  which  he  sent  the  captain  aboard  two  bags  of 
wheat,  containing  about  a  quarter  or  eight  bushels, 
and  the  next  day  four  bags  more,  and  one  bag  of  beans, 
which  was  all  we  could  get  from  him.  And  our  captain 
having,  on  their  taking  out  the  corn,  sent  a  letter 
by  a  Moor  to  Monsieur  Pedro  PoUee,  at  Saphee,  to 
acquaint  him  of  this  hard  usage,  and  to  desire  his  answer 
how  to  behave  under  it,  and  Muley  Abdallah's  mother 
being  then  there,  he  directly  applied  to  her.  Then  in 
consideration  of  a  sum  of  money  given  her,  he  obtained 
her  order  to  the  governor  of  Ducallah,  that  on  the  ships' 
masters  sending  each  of  them  a  man  to  Saphee  as 
hostages,  for  the  better  security  of  each  of  them  paying 
her  forty  ducats,  to  let  the  ships  go,  and  to  hasten  with 
them  thither  as  fast  as  they  could,  where  they  should  be 
new  freighted ;  which  was  to  the  captain  of  a  Genoese 
tartan  *  then  there,  as  he  had  freight  in  before  for  another 

*  Note  39. 


port,  very  heavy  news.  For  that  he  could  not  by  any  means 
stop  at  Saphee,  neither  should  he  be  able  to  produce 
the  forty  ducats,  and  therefore  he  earnestly  desired  that 
Captain  Toobin  would  pay  it  for  him,  which  he  would 
repay  him  at  Sallee,  whither  he  said  he  was  obliged  to  go, 
and  for  which  he  would  then  give  him  his  promissory 
obligations ;  which  was  complied  with,  the  obligation 
given,  and  one  of  our  people  sent  away  by  land,  but  none 
from  the  Genoese.  But  on  my  telling  the  governor  what 
he  had  done,  and  that  Captain  Toobin  had  given  his 
honour  to  pay  forty  ducats  for  him,  to  which  end  he  had 
sent  one  of  his  people  as  a  pledge  before  him,  the  tartan 
was  permitted  to  sail  with  us.  And  I  going  privately 
aboard  in  the  night,  we  set  sail  together,  the  Genoese  for 
Sallee,  and  us  for  Saphee,  where  we  found  our  hostage. 
During  the  time  of  our  stay  there  I  was  kept  close  aboard ; 
however,  I  had  a  faithful  account  every  night  of  what  was 
acting  on  shore,  as  how  we  were  about  to  take  in  a  new 
freight  for  Sallee;  how  that  om-  man  was,  on  Captain 
Toobin' 8  paying  the  money  for  him  and  the  Genoese,  again 
at  liberty ;  and  then  our  cargo  was  sent  off,  such  as  several 
bales  of  Barbary  skins,  saltpetre,  and  in  skins  a  good 
quantity  of  Argon  oil. 

One  evening  our  captain  came  on  board  and  took  me 
into  his  cabin  with  him,  telling  me,  poor  man,  in  a  very 
troubled  manner,  though  I  dare  say  with  a  great  deal  of 
sincerity,  that  Monsieur  Pedro  Pollee  had  told  him  that 
I  was  actually  on  board  of  his  ship.  "  Therefore,  for 
God's  sake,  Tom,  take  care  that  you  don't  let  any  of  the 
Moors  see  your  face,  for  I  told  him  you  were  not  with  me, 
and  that  I  wondered  how  any  one  could  invent  so  base 
a  lie ;  that  indeed  you  was  with  me  in  the  Willadea,  and 
general  on  board  my  ship  as  a  linguist.  *  Then,  captain,' 
said  he,  '  there  lies  the  mistake ; '   so  that  I  hope  he  is 



again  by  this  time  out  of  mind  of  it.  However,  I  say,  be 
sure  to  keep  yourself  close,  and  I  hope  to  be  going  hence 
in  a  very  little  time." 

The  next  morning  after  this  discourse,  came  into  the 
road  a  Dutch  frigate  of  twenty  guns,  who  dropped  her 
anchor,  hoisted  Dutch  colours,  and  a  flag  of  truce,  and 
fired  a  gun  with  a  signal  for  a  boat  to  come  off.  However, 
as  none  of  the  Moors  would  venture  to  trust  him.  Captain 
Toobin  went  off,  and  found  the  commander  to  be  one  of 
his  old  very  intimate  acquaintance,  and  brought  ashore  his 
letters  to  Elhash  Mahomet  Wadnoonee,*  the  governor 
of  Saphee,  relating  to  the  releasement  of  some  Dutch 
prisoners  lately  taken  out  of  another  Dutch  ship.  To 
which  the  captain  was  answered  that  they  were  then  up 
in  the  mountains  with  Muley  Abdallah,  and  that  they 
knew  not  how  to  get  at  them.  On  which  the  Dutch  skipper, 
seeing  he  could  not  get  any  better  satisfaction,  sailed  with 
us  the  third  following  day,  him  to  Markadore,t  on  the 
wreck  of  a  Portuguese  ship,  bound  home  from  the  Brazils, 
taken  by  the  Argaireens,|  and  by  them  cast  away  a  little 
to  the  northward  of  that  port,  and  we  for  Sallee ;  where 
we  beat  up  in  thirteen  days,  and  came  to  an  anchor  in  the 
road,  with  thirteen  Moorish  passengers  and  three  Jews  on 
board,  being  most  of  them  concerned  in  the  cargo,  with 
whom  I  soon  got  a  very  intimate  acquaintance,  telling 
them  'that  Captain  Toobin  had,  through  very  much 
entreaty,  on  account  of  my  promising  him  to  be  his 
linguist,  been  so  very  good  as  to  give  me  my  passage  with 
them ;  and  then  they  desired  me  to  be  a  faithful  linguist 
for  them  also.  I  told  them  I  would  with  all  my  heart,  if 
my  business  would  permit  me  to  remain  at  Sallee  so  long, 
insomuch  that  I  really  believe  they  took  me  for  their  friend 

*  Hajj  Mohammed  Wad  Nuni. 
f  Note  37.  t  Note  38. 


in   good   earnest,  and   that  they  were   not   in  the   least 
apprehensive  of  my  intentions. 

Here  we  found  the  Genoese  tartan ;  and  Captain 
Toobin  desired  me  to  step  into  our  boat  and  go  aboard 
her  with  his  service  to  the  captain,  and  to  desire  him  to 
come  with  me  on  board  his  snow,  for  that  as  his  people 
were  then  very  busy  in  taking  out  the  cargo,  he  could  not 
by  any  means  come  to  him,  and  to  tell  him  he  had 
completed  his  affair  with  the  governor,  at  Saphee,  for 
which  he  had  brought  with  him  proper  vouchers.  But  he 
being  then  on  shore  at  Sallee,  I  could  not  speak  with  him. 
However,  his  mate  told  me  that  he  had  met  with  a  great 
deal  of  trouble  with  his  merchants  on  account  of  his 
freight,  and  that  he  was  very  likely  to  meet  with  a  great 
deal  more  :  "  therefore,"  said  he,  "  tell  your  captain  to  take 
a  great  deal  of  care  how  he  behaves  with  his,  for  should 
they  once  get  him  over  the  bar,  they  will  no  doubt  use  him 
after  the  like  manner."  All  which  I  faithfully  carried  back ; 
and  then  Captain  Toobin  sent  a  letter  by  one  of  his 
passengers  going  ashore  to  an  Irish  merchant,  residing  at 
Sallee,  with  the  Genoese's  promissory  obligation  and  the 
governor  of  Saphee's  vouchers  enclosed,  to  demand  of 
Captain  Baptista,  the  commander  of  the  Genoese  tartan, 
on  his  sight  thereof,  forty  ducats  to  his  proper  use  and 
account ;  and  on  his  payment  thereof,  to  give  him  up  his 
obligation ;  and  also  another  letter  enclosed  to  Baptista 
for  his  so  doing.  And  though  he,  on  his  receiving  this 
order  in  the  morning,  acknowledged  the  debt  and  promised 
to  pay  the  money,  yet  did  he  in  the  afternoon  again  deny 
it ;  upon  which  he  was  secured  under  safe  custody,  and 
not  permitted  to  go  on  board ;  and  then  he  confessed  the 
debt  again,  and  that  he  would  go  directly  on  board  and 
deliver  to  the  value  thereof  in  goods  as  a  pledge,  till  such 
time  as  he  got  to   Gibraltar,  and  then  he  would  again 


redeem  it.  To  which  the  captain's  friend  answered  him, 
that  as  he  had  behaved  so  very  much  like  a  knave,  he 
would  not  suffer  him  to  stir  thence,  till  such  time  as  he 
had  paidthe  money. 

But  Baptista  finding  means  to  escape,  got  off  to  a 
Moorish  justice,  swore  the  debt  quite  off,  and  had  a  pass 
from  him  to  go  aboard  his  own  vessel,  which  he  forthwith 
did,  and  directly  weighed  his  anchors,  and  set  sail  as  fast 
as  he  could.  All  which  Captain  Toobin  seeing,  and  he 
having  an  account  from  his  friend  how  much  like  a  villain 
he  had  behaved,  desired  me  to  go  aboard  him,  and  once  more 
to  demand  the  money  of  him  ;  and  in  case  he  still  persisted 
in  not  paying  it,  to  cut  off  his  boat,  and  bring  her  to  him. 

On  which,  I  taking  with  me  seven  other  hands,  eight 
muskets,  and  as  many  scimitars,  went  in  our  boat  to 
the  vessel's  side,  and  delivered  my  message.  To  which 
Baptista  answered,  that  the  money  was  safe ;  which 
was  all  I  could  get  from  him.  Then  I  ordered  one  of 
our  hands  to  step  into  his  boat,  cut  her  off  with  his 
scimitar,  and  let  her  fall  astern ;  on  which,  several 
Argaireen  merchants  being  then  on  boaid,  they  having 
chiefly  freighted  her,  stood  up  together  with  the  Genoese 
sailors,  the  former  with  stones,  and  the  latter  with  mus- 
kets in  their  hands,  highly  threatening  us  that  in  case 
we  did  not  bring  the  boat  on  board  again  directly,  they 
would  knock  us  all  on  the  head  ;  at  which  we  also  stood  up 
with  our  muskets  ready  at  our  shoulders,  presenting  the 
muzzles  directly  at  them ;  at  sight  of  which  they  all  fell 
flat  on  their  bellies  upon  the  deck,  and  notwithstanding 
they  were  more  than  double  our  number,  and  in  close 
quarters,  yet  did  we,  notwithstanding,  bring  the  boat  quite 
off,  without  any  of  them  daring  so  much  as  to  fire  one  shot 
at  us;  but  we  safely  brought  her  to  Captain  Toobin's  snow.* 

*  Note  39. 


It  coming  towards  the  evening,  and  some  odd  things 
being  still  on  board,  I,  as  a  blind,  stepped  into  a  boat 
which  was  alongside,  wherein  were  several  of  the  Moorish 
merchants,  just  putting  off  for  the  shore,  in  seeming- 
wise  to  go  with  them ;  and  when  the  merchants  asked 
me  where  I  was  going  to,  I  told  them  first  for  Sallee, 
and  if  I  could  not  there  better  myself,  anywhere  else  in  the 
country,  where  I  thought  I  might.  "  Why,"  said  one  of 
them,  "  I  hope  you  will  not  leave  us,  till  such  time  as  we 
have  taken  out  the  small  matters  we  have  still  remaining 
on  board  of  the  cargo,  and  if  you  will  remain  aboard  the 
ship  for  the  night,  you  shall  be  well  rewarded  for  your 
trouble."  "  Why,"  said  I,  "  I  thought  the  cargo  had  been 
all  out."  "  No,"  said  he,  **  and  our  nephews  and  two  Jews 
are  still  on  board  ;  and  you  will  oblige  us,  if  you  will  keep 
them  company."  **  Very  well,  gentlemen,"  said  I ;  "if  you 
think  I  may  be  there  of  any  further  service  to  you,  I  will 
go  aboai-d  again,  and  remain  with  them  there  for  the  night 
with  all  my  heart." 

So  I  stepped  with  a  great  deal  of  pleasure  into  the 
ship  again,  at  which  the  nephews,  who  were  by  their 
uncle's  orders  to  remain  there  for  the  night  with  me, 
seemed  to  be  very  glad.  Soon  after,  the  Moorish  boat 
was  gone  with  the  merchants,  the  captain  tipped  me 
the  wink  to  follow  him  into  the  cabin ;  and  after  he  had 
shut  the  door  close  upon  us,  he  began  to  discourse  me  after 
the  following  manner.  **  Now,  Tom,"  said  he,  "  you  and  I 
must  seriously  consult  together,  how  I  ought  to  act  in  this 
troublesome  affair ;  for  these  Moorish  merchants  are,  as 
sure  as  death,  about  to  play  the  old  one's  game  with  me, 
and  cheat  me  of  my  freight;  for  on  my  demanding  it 
according  to  the  contents  of  my  charter  part,  which  actually 
runs,  and  plainly  specifies,  that  my  freight  should  be  every 
penny  paid  down  at  the  mast,  before  they  took  out  any  of 


the  cargo.  For  as  I  had  been  so  sadly  bit  by  the  former 
villains,  I  thought  it  very  natural  for  a  burnt  child  to 
dread  the  fire,  and  therefore  I  would  not  before  they  had 
thus  covenanted  take  it  in ;  though  I  now  plainly  see,  to 
my  very  great  dissatisfaction,  it  had  been  all  as  well  left 
alone ;  for  to  be  plain  with  you,  I  know  not  whether  their 
honour  or  bonds  are  the  best,  they  being  both,  with  men  of 
their  principle,  where  no  justice  is  to  be  had,  very  paltry, 
and  not  worth  one  of  their  blankets.  Therefore,  happy  are 
they  who  are  got  quite  out  of  their  country,  and  out  of 
their  hands.  This,  Tom,  you  may  plainly  see,  as  well  as 
myself,  and  on  my  refusing  to  let  any  of  the  cargo  go, 
before  they  had  performed  their  covenant.  You  also  saw 
how  they  broke  open  my  hatches,  went  into  the  hold,  and 
carried  off  almost  all  of  it  by  force." 

**  Why,  sir,"  said  I,  "  don't  you  remember  that  on 
their  taking  out  the  skins  of  oil,  one  of  them  proving 
faulty,  had  leaked  most  of  it  out?"  "Yes,"  said  he; 
"what  of  that,  pray?"  "Why,  sir,"  said  I,  "one  of 
the  Moors  told  another  that  it  must  be  your  fault, 
and  that  you  should  answer  for  it.  To  which  the  other 
replied,  that  when  they  had  taken  out  all  the  cargo, 
the  captain  would,  no  doubt  be  glad  to  come  ashore 
for  his  freight,  and  then  they  would  manage  him  well 
enough."  '*  Indeed,"  said  he,  "  that,  Tom,  is  just  as  I 
expected ;  though,  between  you  and  I,  it  is,  I  hope,  what 
will  never  be  in  their  power  ;  not  but  I  am  thoroughly 
persuaded  with  myself,  should  they  once  but  get  me  into 
their  clutches,  they  would  make  slaves  of  us  all,  and  seize 
my  vessel,  and  all  I  have  in  it,  to  their  own  vile  uses  ; 
which,  if  I  can  avoid,  shall  never  be  in  their  power.  There- 
fore Tom,  what  do  you  think  of  our  putting  too  all  for  all, 
and  going  to  sea  this  very  night !  "  "  Indeed  sir,"  said  I, 
**  if  you  stay  here  but  a  very  little  longer,  it  will  be  entirely 


out  of  your  power."  **  And  will  you  stand  by  me  ?  "  said 
he.  "Yes,  sir,"  said  I,  "to  the  last  drop  of  my  blood." 
"  Then,"  said  he,  "  what  shall  we  do  with  the  five  Moors 
and  the  two  Jews,  a  married  woman  of  about  twenty-one 
years  of  age,  and  a  young  man  of  about  seventeen  ?  "  "  As 
to  that,  sir,"  said  I,  "  I  would  not  have  you  to  be  under 
any  the  least  concern :  for  I  will  engage  only  by  myself  to 
secure  them,  so  as  you  and  your  people  shall  have  no  more 
to  do  than  to  weigh  the  anchors,  trim  the  sails,  and  manage 
the  ship." 

*'  Well  then,  Tom,"  said  he,  "  I  will  also  first  consult 
my  men ;  "  and  after  telling  them  the  danger  that  he 
thought  himself  and  all  of  them  in,  he  proposed  his  in- 
tentions to  them,  which  they  very  well  approved  of,  and 
as  readily  came  into,  and  fell  to  consulting  the  means 
without  any  loss  of  time ;  and  it  was  by  all  agreed  on  to 
weigh  our  anchors  at  high  water,  and  push  our  fortunes. 
As  we  knew  the  tide  would  suit  our  purpose  about  ten  at 
night,  we  got  our  supper  over  in  season,  and  every  one, 
except  the  watch  for  the  night,  seemingly  to  their  rest, 
lodging  the  five  Moors,  for  our  better  securing  them,  in  the 
hold,  and  the  two  Jews  in  the  steerage.  And  when  our 
appointed  time  was  come,  and  our  men  all  ready  to  weigh 
the  anchors,  and  trim  the  sails.  Captain  Toobin  went  to 
the  helm,  and  I  to  my  post  at  the  hatchway,  armed  with 
a  scimitar  and  two  pair  of  pistols  ;  and  hauling  in  the 
cables,  though  with  as  little  noise  as  possible,  the  Moors 
were  in  a  very  great  hurry,  calling  aloud  to  know  what  we 
were  doing.  **  Doing,"  said  I,  "  about  to  new  moor  the 
vessel."  '*  New  moor  her,"  said  they,  "  what  occasion  of 
that,  when  she  was  in  a  very  good  berth  before  ?  Therefore 
we  rather  think  you  are  about  to  run  away  with  her,  and  to 
carry  us  with  you,"  endeavouring  to  get  themselves  upon 
deck,  when  I  told  them  to  sing  small,  and  that  if  any  of 


them  all  offered  the  least  resistance,  or  presumed  to  stir 
from  the  place  he  was  then  in,  or  to  make  the  least  noise, 
I  would  directly  shoot  him. 

*'  Therefore,"  said  I,  "  take  hold  of  the  cable's  end, 
and  handsomely  coil  it  away  ; "  and  which  I  compelled 
them  to  do,  though  no  doubt  sore  against  their  incli- 
nations, telling  them  that  they  should  not  be  under  the 
least  concern  or  fear  of  danger,  for  that  if  they  proved 
conformable  to  what  they  were  commanded,  I  would  dare 
engage  to  answer  for  their  lives  with  my  own.  "  But 
where,"  said  they,  "  do  you  intend  to  carry  us  ? " 
"  Nay,  as  to  that,"  said  I,  "  I  cannot  as  yet  tell ;  but  be 
that  as  it  will,  do  you  behave  civilly  and  as  contentedly  as 
you  can,  and  I  will  bring  you  everything  you  want :  for  in 
short  there  is  no  harm  intended  against  you."  And  then  I 
bolted  the  hatches  upon  them,  and  left  them  for  a  little 
while  to  condole  with  each  other's  misfortune ;  when  we  all 
took  a  cheering  tiff  to  our  voyage,  and  proceeding,  pacified 
the  Jews  (who  also  by  that  time  knew  their  misfortune)  as 
well  as  we  could. 


Compelled  to  anchor  ofif  Mamora,  fresh  troubles  make  their  appearance 
— Apprehension  of  an  attack  from  the  Moors — Ai-ms  are  served 
out ;  but  a  fafr  wind  springing  up,  Mamora  is  left  behind — Dis- 
tress of  an  involuntary  lady  passenger — In  passing  Cape  Spartel, 
those  who  had  never  sailed  through  the  Straits  before,  pay  their 
footing  to  those  who  have — A  Jew  objects,  and  what  came  of  his 
objection — Gibraltar  is  reached,  and  the  slave,  after  twenty-three 
years  of  captivity,  is  again  a  free  man  among  his  own  country- 
men— He  is  cross-questioned  by  the  officials,  and  claimed  as  a 
Moorish  subject  by  the  Emperor's  agent — Governor  Sabine  speaks 
a  bit  of  his  mind — He  is  weU  treated,  and  arrives  in  the  Thames — 
A  painful  meeting  with  William  Johnson's  sister,  and  a  happy 
arrival  in  his  native  town — The  end. 

NOW  are  we  under  sail  with  a  tolerable  leading  gale  of 
wind  and  strong  tide  with  us,  being  the  10th  of  July, 
1738,  a  little  after  ten  o'clock  at  night,  though  about  day- 
break, the  wind  slackening  all  at  once,  and  a  strong  current 
setting  right  in  upon  the  shore,  we  were  obliged  to  come  to 
an  anchor  ofif  Mamora,*  in  five  fathoms  water,  where  we 
were  obliged  to  remain  all  that  day,  and  till  two  o'clock 
the  next  morning,  still  in  expectation  of  some  boats  from 
the  shore,  and  which  really  caused  some  uneasiness  amongst 
us,  though  during  this  we  were  not  idle,  for  we  got  our 
arms  upon  deck,  in  all  twenty-four  muskets  besides  pistols 
and  scimitars,  and  put  them  in  complete  order,  putting 

*  Note  40. 


into  every  one  of  them  a  new  flint,  and  charging  it  with 
three  musket-shot,  keeping  them  ready  on  the  deck  in  case 
of  any  visitors  coming  aboard  to  salute  them,  for  in  short 
rather  than  to  be  carried  back  again,  we  were  all  thoroughly 
resolved  to  fight  it  out  to  the  last  man  ;  but  none  of  them 
coming,  they  saved  us  that  trouble,  and  we  were  through 
that  means,  I  think,  by  far  the  better  off.  About  two  in  the 
morning,  as  I  said,  a  fine  breeze  of  wind  coming  off  shore, 
we  weighed  our  anchor,  and  before  sunrising  were  carried 
to  seaward  about  five  leagues ;  and  then  we  did  not  much 
fear  any  of  their  boats  coming  after  us,  and  row-galleys  we 
knew  they  had  none  ready. 

Now  are  we,  notwithstanding  so  very  little  wind,  in  much 
better  temper  than  before,  when  Madam  Luna — which  was 
the  name  of  the  woman — desired  me  to  tell  her  where  we 
designed  to  carry  her,  and  what  we  intended  to  do  by  her, 
and  if  it  was  not  then  too  late  to  set  her  on  shore  on  the 
Barbary  coast.  I  told  her  yes,  and  that  in  case  it  was  not, 
yet  would  it  be  altogether  inconsistent  with  our  own  safety, 
and  therefore  she  could  not  in  reason  expect  any  such 
thing;  "however,  to  satisfy  you  of  our  intentions,  we  are 
bound  for  Gibraltar,  where  you  will  be  better  off  than  to  go 
back  again  to  Barbary ;  for  as  you  so  very  much  deserve 
your  name,  you  will  no  doubt  be  there  very  well  cared  for." 
"  Alas  !  "  said  she, "  had  but  I  my  little  son  with  me  (whom 
she  sent  ashore  at  Sallee)  I  should  not  so  much  mind  it ! " 
"Why  really,  madam,"  said  I,  '*  since  things  have  so  fallen 
out,  I  think  it  would  be  acting  the  prudent  part  in  you,  to 
forget  him  for  a  short  time  as  much  as  you  can,  and  to 
consider  that  as  he  is  among  his  friends  he  will  be  well 
cared  for,  and  very  likely  be  better  off  than  to  be  here.  And 
as  to  your  own  part,  you  need  not  fear  of  being  as  well 
used  where  you  are,  your  beauty  being  a  very  sufficient 
protection."     "But  cannot  you  really,"  said  she,  "  put  me 


on  shore  to  Barbary."  "Indeed,  madam,"  said  I,  "it 
cannot  be  done ;  and  if  you  will  be  pleased  to  step  upon 
the  deck,  you  will  soon  be  convinced  of  the  truth  of  it." 
Then  she  gave  me  her  hand,  and  I  lifted  her  up,  and  after 
she  had  taken  a  full  prospect  of  the  distance  of  the  land, 
she  seemed  to  be  much  better  tempered. 

Now  are  we  sailing  slowly  on  with  very  little  wind  till 
the  beginning  of  the  eleventh  day,  when  we  were  got  oflf 
of  Cape  Spartell ;  on  sight  of  which,  it  being  an  old 
custom  for  those  who  had  never  before  passed  through 
the  Straits  Mouth  to  pay  for  the  benefit  of  those  who 
had,  a  bottle  of  brandy  and  a  pound  of  sugar,  or  half  a 
crown  in  money  in  lieu  thereof,*  we  held  a  consultation 
thereon,  and  found  all  saving  the  two  Jews  to  have  done 
it  before,  and  being  resolved  not  to  pass  this  custom  by, 
the  male  Jew  was  required  to  pay  it.  **  Pay  it !  "  said 
he ;  "  how  can  that  be  when  I  have  no  money  ?  You 
should  have  told  me  this  at  Sallee,  and  then  I  would  have 
taken  care  to  have  been  better  provided."  "  Indeed," 
said  the  sailors,  "  you  are  a  very  cunning  fellow,  and 
therefore  answer  us,  will  you  pay  it  or  will  you  not,  or 
will  the  captain  and  Madam  Luna,  or  either  of  them,  pass 
their  word  for  you?"  which,  by  way  of  making  more 
diversion,  they  seemed  both  to  be  very  backward  to  do. 

It  was  therefore  agreed  on  all  hands  for  him  to  undergo 
the  usual  discipline,  which  was,  in  case  of  refusal,  to  be 
hoisted  up  to  the  main-yard-arm,  then  to  be  let  run  amain 
into  the  sea,  then  hoisted  up  again,  and  repeated  a  third 
time ;  and  then  to  have  his  face  well  daubed  over  with 
lampblack  and  tallow  :  in  order  to  which  a  rope  was  tied 
about  his  waist,  and  the  tackle  hooked  to  it,  which  made 
him  to  look  after  a  very  piteous  manner,  as  being  no 
doubt  sadly  afraid  he  should  be  disciplined  in  good  earnest. 

*  Note  41. 


And  being  hoisted  up  about  half  way,  the  captain  was  so 
good  as  to  pass  his  word  for  him ;  upon  which  he  was. 
let  down  again,  though  this  did  not  very  much  please 
Madam  Luna,  she  seeming  to  blame  the  captain  very 
much  for  it.  As  to  her  own  particular  part,  her  bright 
beauty  was  to  all  of  us  a  very  sufficient  cordial,  and  there- 
fore it  was  by  all  allowed  for  her  to  go  scot  free. 

This  pastime  being  at  an  end,  and  passing  most  of  that 
night  in  merry  talk  about,  we  about  ten  o'clock  the  next 
forenoon,  being  the  2l8t  day  of  July,  1738,  arrived  safe  in 
Gibraltar  Bay,  where  my  deliverer  (for  so  must  I  now 
call  him)  and  his  people  bid  me  very  heartily,  and  I  dare 
say  most  sincerely,  welcome,  when  I  fell  to  my  knees^ 
offering  up  my  most  hearty  thanks  to  Almighty  God  for 
my  so  wonderful  and  miraculous  deliverance  and  the 
sight  once  more  of  Christian  land ;  being  really  as  it 
were  at  a  stand  with  myself  if  it  were  more  than  an 
imaginary  dreaming  in  my  cave  at  Santa  Cruz,  and  I 
had  really  a  debate  with  myself  if  I  was  well  awake. 
However,  I  was  soon  confirmed  in  its  reality,  and  that  I 
was  actually  in  sight  of  Gibraltar,  and  soon  about  to  set 
my  foot  on  shore  in  that  garrison,  where  my  deliverer,  in 
order  to  prepare  my  way,  went  directly  on  shore,  and 
after  he  had  answered  to  the  governor  concerning  his  own 
affairs,  he  told  him  that  he  had  a  poor  Christian  slave 
aboard  his  vessel  that  was  taken  by  the  infidels  and 
carried  into  Barbary  in  the  twelfth  year  of  his  age^ 
which  was  then  more  than  twenty-two  years  ago ;  that  I 
had  undergone  a  great  deal  of  hardship,  and  that  had  he 
not  very  accidentally  and  most  opportunely  happened  tO' 
meet  me  there,  he  should  not  in  all  likelihood  have  been 
permitted  to  come  from  thence  himself,  so  that  our  meet- 
ing on  both  sides  was  very  extraordinarily  providential. 

Then  the  governor   (as  my  deliverer   told  me)  ordered 


him  to  bring  me  ashore  ;  however,  as  he  lodged  ashore 
that  night,  I  knew  nothing  of  it  till  the  next  morn- 
ing. About  two  hours  after  we  were  at  an  anchor,  came 
alongside  of  our  vessel  an  English  sailor  with  whom  I 
happened  about  a  few  months  before  to  have  some  small 
acquaintance  at  Santa  Cruz  ;  and  on  his  seeing  me  on 
the  deck  he  came  on  board  to  bid  me  welcome  to 
Gibraltar ;  when  I  asked  him  if  he  could  not  give  me 
an  account  of  the  ships  then  there,  and  if  he  knew  if  any 
of  them  belonged  to  Falmouth.  He  told  me  yes,  there 
was  one  Captain  Pye,  but  that  he  was  bound  for  Ham- 
burgh, and  whether  he  intended  to  call  at  Falmouth  in 
his  way  or  not  he  could  not  tell.  So  that  for  my  better 
satisfaction  I  desired  some  of  our  people  to  go  aboard  his 
vessel ;  but  he  being  ashore  at  Gibraltar,  I  could  not 
hear  any  further  of  him  that  night. 

Early  the  next  morning  (being  Sunday)  our  mate  went 
ashore,  and  after  he  had  spoken  with  my  deliverer,  came 
directly  ojff  to  fetch  me  ;  and  after  securing  the  Moors  in 
the  hold,  and  taking  my  leave  of  Madam  Luna,  I  stepped 
into  the  boat  with  him.  Here  it  is  impossible  for  me  (or 
at  least  for  anybody  but  myself)  to  describe  the  excessive 
joy  I  felt  during  all  the  time  of  our  rowing  to  the  shore, 
though  all  may  suppose  it,  after  my  so  long  and  grievous 
servitude  amongst  the  Barbarians,  to  be  more  than  ordinary. 
And  now  are  we  come  to  the  landing-place  at  the  Water 
Port,  where,  offering  to  land,  I  was  denied  by  the  sentinels, 
telling  me  that  till  they  had  orders  for  my  so  doing,  they 
would  not  suffer  any  Moor  to  land.  "  Moor,"'  said  I ; 
"  you  are  very  much  mistaken  in  that,  for  I  am  as  good 
a  Christian,  though  I  am  dressed  in  the  Moorish  garb,  as 
any  of  you  all.  Therefore,  pray,"  said  I,  "  suffer  me 
once  more  to  set  my  foot  on  Christian  land."  "  Indeed," 
said  they,  "  we  cannot,  if  you  was  our  brother." 


Then  one  of  our  people  (for  whom  my  deliverer  had  taken 
a  license  the  day  before,  and  as  no  doubt  he  had  done  for 
all  the  rest,  and  amongst  whom  I  was  most  likely  also 
included)  got  out  of  the  boat,  ran  to  the  office,  and  was 
soon  back  again  with  a  note  for  the  sergeant  of  the  guard, 
on  which  I  was  directly  permitted  to  land;  when  I  fell 
on  my  knees,  and  after  the  best  and  sincerest  manner  I 
could,  offered  up  my  most  humble  and  hearty  thanks  to 
God  for  my  deliverance  and  happy  landing;  being  now 
thoroughly  convinced  that  I  was  at  last  delivered  out  of 
the  hands  of  the  infidels,  though  I  very  soon  after  most 
unexpectedly  met  with  some  small  discontent  through 
their  means,  though  which,  as  it  happened,  did  not  prove 
of  any  great  signification,  as  you  will  by  and  by  hear. 

Now  is  the  sergeant  of  the  guard  very  inquisitive  with 
me  concerning  my  misfortunes ;  and  when  I  had  given 
him  a  short  account  of  them,  and  he  had  returned  his 
hearty  congratulations  for  my  deliverance,  I  passed 
through  three  other  sentries  and  got  into  the  garrison ; 
and  going  directly  with  one  of  our  people  to  my  de- 
liverer's lodgings  (where  I  found  him  washing  his  face 
and  hands),  he  took  me  directly  in  his  arms,  embracing 
me,  and  with  a  very  hearty,  and  I  dare  say  sincere,  kiss 
bid  me  welcome  to  Gibraltar.  **  But,  Tom,"  said  he, 
"  you  were  yesterday,  on  my  coming  ashore,  demanded  of 
the  governor  as  one  of  the  Bashaw  of  Tangier's  subjects." 
"Indeed,  sir,"  said  I;  "by  whom,  pray?"  "Why," 
said  he,  "by  one  Abramico,  a  Jew,  his  linguist ;  but  don't 
you  trouble  yourself  about  it,  for  I  dare  engage  to  send 
you  safe  home  to  England,  in  spite  of  all  the  Jews  in 
Barbary."  "  Indeed,  my  deliverer,"  said  I,  "  you  sur- 
prise me,  for  you  may  suppose  I  could  not  in  the  least 
imagine  any  such  thing."  "  Foh,"  said  he,  "  never  mind 
it,  for  as  you  are  a  subject  to  the  King  of  Great  Britain, 


I  am  very  well  assured  the  governor  will  not  suffer  you 
to  go  with  him."  "  But  pray,  sir,"  said  I,  *'  does  the 
governor  know  anything  of  it  as  yet  ? "  "  Yes,"  said 
he,  "  and  when  the  Jew  demanded  you  of  him  as  one  of 
the  Bashaw's  subjects,  I  heard  him  give  him  for  answer 
that  he  could  not  imagine  how  that  could  be,  asking  the 
Jew  what  countryman  you  were.  *  "What  countryman  ?  ' 
said  the  Jew ;  *  an  Englishman.'  *  An  Englishman  !  ' 
said  the  governor,  *  and  a  subject  to  the  Bashaw  of 
Tangier !  Pray,  how  can  that  be  ?  I  tell  you  he  is  a 
subject  to  the  King  of  Great  Britain,  my  royal  master, 
and  thither  will  I  send  him.'  And  so  far,  Tom,  is  actually 
true,  therefore  don't  you  trouble  yourself  in  the  least 
about  it ;  for,  in  short,  you  have  already  got  so  tender  a 
regard  amongst  the  inhabitants  here,  on  account  of  all 
your  sufferings  hitherto,  without  their  hearing  anything 
from  your  own  mouth  by  way  of  confirmation,  that  you 
need  not  doubt  of  their  most  Christianlike  assistance." 

And  then  Mr.  Cunningham,  the  minister,  came  in,  and 
with  him  several  of  the  head  officers  of  the  garrison, 
with  whom  my  deliverer  was  before  very  well  acquainted. 
There  being  amongst  them  one  Mr.  Beaver,  a  gentleman 
belonging  to  the  vii-tualling-office,  he  asked  me  how  long 
I  had  been  in  Barbary,  with  whom  and  when  taken,  and 
if  I  did  not  know  Tom  Osborne,  of  Fowey,  there.  I  told 
him  I  had  been  there  almost  twenty-three  years,  that  I 
was  taken  with  John  Fellow,  my  uncle,  in  the  second  year 
of  the  reign  of  King  George  the  First,  and  that  we  found 
Tom  Osborne  at  Mequinez,  he  being  taken  some  short 
time  before  us,  with  Captain  Richard  Sampson,*  of  Fowey. 
To  which  Mr.  Beaver  answered,  that  all  I  had  said  was 
undoubtedly  true,  for  that  he  knew  Tom  Osborne  very 

*  Captain  Sampson  wa?,  with  twenty-four  other  commanders  of 
ships,  redeemed  in  the  year  1721  by  Commodore  Stewart. 


well,  and  that  he  had  heard  him,  several  times  after  his 
releasement  and  return,  to  talk  about  me.  On  which  the 
minister  and  he  gave  me  their  words  to  stand  my  friends  ; 
and  which,  indeed,  they  did  after  the  most  Christianlike 
manner,  advising  me  to  present  a  petition  to  General 
Sabine,*  the  governor,  which  the  minister  readily  offered 
me  his  service  to  present,  and  which  my  deliverer  got 
directly  drawn,  and  was  by  the  parson  accordingly  de- 
livered. From  the  governor  he  brought  me  back  two  gold 
ducats  as  his  charity.  Then  I  went  to  church  and  returned 
thanks  to  Almighty  God  before  the  congregation  for  my 
deliverance,  and  received  the  charity  of  several  of  them. 
After  which  there  was  a  general  contribution ;  though  I 
did  not  stay  there  so  long  as  to  receive  the  whole  of  it,  as 
I  shall  mention  hereafter. 

The  charity  of  these  Christianlike  people  extended 
even  to  the  highest  degree ;  for  on  my  proposal  of  going 
thence  in  a  small  vessel  for  Falmouth,  they  would  not  by 
any  means  suffer  it,  but  that  I  should  wait  for  the  oppor- 
tunity of  a  ship  of  force  bound  home,  or  of  a  man-of-war 
for  Lisbon,  whither  they  would  send  me  well  recommended 
to  the  British  Envoy,  in  order  to  my  being  by  him  sent 
home  to  Falmouth  in  one  of  the  packet  boats ;  which, 
though  I  waited  there  twenty  odd  days,  did  not  happen. 

The  day  after  my  landing  Captain  Pye  came  ashore, 
with  whom  I  had  the  pleasure  of  conversing  for  some  short 
time,  as  also  with  the  boat's  crew,  and  they  were  all  of 
them  very  civil  to  me  ;  but  as  his  vessel  was  of  no  force, 
and  my  benefactors  had  before  absolutely  determined  that 
I  should  go  in  none  but  such  as  was,  I  did  not  urge  it  to 
him.  However,  I  humbly  entreated  that  he  or  some  other 
of  his  people  would,  in  case  they  touched  at  Falmouth, 
inform  my  friends  of  my  happy  deliverance  and  escape 

*  Note  42. 


thither  out  of  the  hands  of  the  infidels,  and  that  I  be- 
lieved I  should  be  sent  home  by  way  of  Lisbon,  so  that 
they  might  expect  me  in  one  of  the  packet  boats  ;  -which  I 
found,  at  my  coming  home,  they  were  so  very  good  to 
remember.  However,  lest  they  might  not  touch  at 
Falmouth,  my  good  friend  Mr.  Beaver  was  so  kind  to 
write  a  very  tender  letter  to  his  friend  at  Looe,  in 
Cornwall,  to  the  same  purport,  and  which  was  conveyed 
by  his  friend  to  my  friends  in  Penryn. 

During  my  stay  at  Gibraltar  I  saw  Mr.  Abramico,  the 
Jew,  generally  every  day,  and  whom  I  found  had  more 
than  an  ordinary  notion  with  himself  of  carrying  me  back 
with   him   to   Barbary,  often  threatening  me  behind  my 
back,  as  I  had  heard  by  several  people,  with  the  most 
cruel  death ;  whereat  I  was  so  exasperated  that  I  really 
shunned  him  all  I  could,  lest  I  should  let  loose  my  rage 
upon  him  and  happen  to  do  him  some  bodily  mischief, 
and   thereby  bring  myself  to  further  trouble — not  that  I 
was,  as  he  no  doubt  believed,  under  the  least  fear  of  him, 
but  really  on  account  of  my  letting  loose  my  rage  upon 
him.     However,  what  could  I  do  when  I  had  every  day 
so  many  repeated  accounts,  by  way  of  my  friends,  of  his 
insolence  ?    Insomuch  that  I  thought  I  could  never  forgive 
myself  if   I   did   not   give   him   some   gentle   correction ; 
which,  on  my  discoursing  one  of  my  very  good  friends 
immediately  after,  I  was  more  absolutely  determined  in, 
he  being  come  but  that  very  minute  from  the  Jew,  who, 
he  said,  had  been  confirming  his  former  sentence  on  me ; 
and  I  very  soon  after  meeting  him  in  the  street,  the  first 
salutation    I   gave   him   was   a  hearty  box    on   the   ear, 
seconded   by   a   Cornish   tip,   which   brought   him   head- 
foremost to  the  ground,  and  beat  it  against  the  stones  very 
severely;   insomuch,  that   had  not   some   of  my  friends 
persuaded  me  to  the   contrary,  I  should  certainly  have 



done  him  far  greater  mischief :  though  this,  I  think,  did 
him  no  hurt  in  the  main,  but  rather  on  the  contrary  a 
great  deal  of  good,  for  he  really  took  special  care  to 
bridle  his  tongue  and  keep  himself  out  of  my  clptches 
for  the  future  as  much  as  he  could.  And  now  was  this 
shrewd  combat  in  everybody's  mouth,  as  how  I  had 
corrected  him  very  justly,  and  that  he  deserved  a  great 
deal  more. 

Now  are  the  worthy  gentlemen  raising  contributions  for 
my  benefit,  and  as  the  generality  of  the  people  were  very 
charitably  disposed,  there  was  gathered,  no  doubt,  some 
hundreds  of  dollars ;  but  before  the  contributions  were 
finished,  the  good  ship  Euphrates,  Captain  Peacock  com- 
mander, from  Turkey  for  London,  mounting  twenty-six 
guns,  came  to  an  anchor  in  the  road,  when  my  deliverer, 
and  some  other  of  my  friends,  went  at  my  request  directly 
on  board,  earnestly  soliciting  the  captain  in  my  favour  for 
a  passage ;  for  that  as  I  had  undergone  so  long  and 
grievous  a  captivity  in  Barbary,  and  was  so  fortunately 
escaped  thither,  they  humbly  hoped  that  he  would  not 
refuse  me  so  Christianlike  a  kindness  as  to  further  me 
with  him  to  my  native  country ;  or,  if  he  should  not 
happen  to  touch  at  Falmouth,  or  any  other  port  in  the 
west  of  England,  to  land  me  at  London.  Which,  as  my 
deliverer  told  me,  Captain  Peacock  readily  came  into,  and 
he  as  soon  hastened  on  shore  to  me  with  the  welcome 
news  ;  and  doubting  lest  my  very  great  enemy,  Abramico, 
might,  by  way  of  bribe  or  otherwise,  induce  anybody  to 
show  me  some  foul  play,  it  was  agreed  by  my  friends,  and 
thought  highly  necessary  on  all  hands,  for  me  to  go  on 
board  directly ;  and  which,  indeed,  as  agreeing  so  very 
much  with  my  own  inclinations,  after  taking  my  leave  of 
my  deliverer  and  my  worthy  benefactors,  I  forthwith  did, 
and  was  by  the  captain  very  kindly  received. 


On  this  my  so  sudden  departure,  I  was  obliged  to  leave 
most  of  my  contribution  money  behind  me  ;  however,  I 
had  some,  which  was  of  very  excellent  service  to  me,  by 
way  of  providing  me  some  few  necessaries,  and  sea  stores; 
though  I  wished  many  times  since,  and  especially  on  my 
poor  reception  on  our  arrival  at  London,  that  I  had  stayed 
there  a  little  longer ;  which,  as  they  were  very  considerable, 
would  have  been  of  no  small  benefit  to  my  present  unhappy 
circumstances.  However,  I  am  well  satisfied  that  my 
worthy  benefactors  at  Gibraltar  are  gentlemen  of  so  much 
strict  honour  and  goodness,  as  to  remit  it  me  on  my 
petitioning  them  thereon. 

And  now  am  I  on  board  the  Euphrates,  and  under  sail 
for  my  so  long  desired  and  longed-after  island.     But  we 
met  with  very  high  and  contrary  winds,  and,  according  to 
the  season  of  the  year,  a  very  high  and  troubled  sea ; 
though  our  ship  being  in  all  points  well  provided  (lodgings 
only  excepted),  I  did  not  much  mind  it,  she  being  so  full 
between  decks,  and  close  stowed  with  cotton,  that  the  people 
had  but  just  room  through  it  to  their  cabins  or  hammocks, 
which  made  it  so  very  sultry  hot  that  I  could  by  no  means 
bear  it.     Therefore,  for  my  better  breathing  I  generally 
took  up  at  nights  with  the  boat  on  the  booms,  where  I  lay 
me  down  to  my  rest  covered  over  with  an  old  sail ;  and  as 
we  had  abundance  of  wet  weather,  scarce  a  night  passed 
without  my  being  sufficiently  wetted,  and  standing  more 
than   an  equal  chance   of   my  being  washed    overboard. 
However,  I  bore  it  with  Christian  patience,  and  as  this 
part  of  my  sufferings  was  in  order  to  put  an  end  to  and 
sum  up  all  the  rest,  I  was  not  only  contented,  but  well 
pleased  therewith,  rather  than  to  suffer  the  smothering 
between  decks ;  for  I  might  have  lodged  between  decks  if  I 
would,  and  therefore  it  was  my  own  choice. 

And  now  is  it  come  to  the  twenty-fourth  day  of   our 


passage,  when  I  heard  called  out  aloud  from  aloft  the  very 
much  pleasing  and  long-expected  word  "Land,"  and 
which  proved  to  be  the  western  Land's  End  of  England, 
or  Cape  Cornwall ;  and  the  wind  favouring  to  carry  us  up 
the  Channel,  we  crowded  a  great  sail,  passed  by  Falmouth, 
and  kept  on  all  upon  the  same  tack  till  we  got  off  of  the 
Bill  of  Portland;  when,  on  account  of  one  of  our  people 
falling  overboard,  we  were  obliged  to  bring  to  ;  and  on  our 
throwing  out  some  empty  kegs  and  rails  of  timber,  he 
caught  hold  on  one  of  them ;  then  we  hoisted  out  our 
boat,  and  had  him  well  on  board  again.  After  this 
accident  (  which,  I  thank  God,  was  the  first  and  the  last 
we  met  with  during  our  passage  from  Gibraltar)  we  kept 
on  with  this  favourable  gale  to  the  Downs,  passed  through, 
and  cast  anchor  at  the  Nore,  where  Captain  Peacock  found 
his  wife  with  her  brother  on  board  of  a  man-of-war  (of 
which  he  was  commander),  waiting  his  coming.  The  next 
tide  we  got  to  Gravesend,  and  the  next  up  the  river 
Thames  to  Deptford,  where  our  ship  was  to  be  disburthened 
of  her  cargo,  it  being  the  thirty-first  day  after  our  de- 
parture from  Gibraltar. 

Here,  as  being  altogether  unacquainted  at  London,  I 
remained  on  board  the  ship  seven  days  ;  during  which,  on 
some  of  the  sailors  publishing  on  shore  of  their  bringing 
me  home  with  them,  and  it  reaching  the  ears  of  William 
Johnson's  sister,  she  came  on  board  to  inquire  after  him, 
asking  me  if  I  had  ever  seen  him  in  Barbary.  "  Seen 
him,  madam  !  "  said  I ;  **  yes,  yes,  to  my  sorrow  ;  for  had 
I  not,  it  would  in  all  likelihood  have  prevented  me  of 
many  years'  grievous  captivity."  **  Lord  !  "  said  she, 
"what  was  the  matter?"  "Matter!"  said  I;  "matter 
enough,  I  think ;  for  he  not  only  refused  to  embrace  a 
most  glorious  and  certain  means  of  getting  off  himself, 
but  (too  much  like  the  dog  in  the  manger)  treacherously, 


and  contrary  to  his  oath,  hindered  those  that  would  !  " 
**  Why,"  said  she,  "  I  hear  he  is  very  much  cut  in  the 
face."  "Yes,  madam,"  said  I,  **  and  so  he  is,  though,  I 
think,  not  half  so  much  as  he  deserved."  **  Pray,"  said 
she,  "  tell  me  how  it  happened,  and  what  it  was  for." 
And  then  I  told  her  the  story  from  the  beginning  to  the 
end,  and  that  I  was  sorry  I  had  not  cut  off  his  head.  At 
which  the  pretty  girl  wept.  However,  to  comfort  her 
again,  I  told  her  that  her  brother  was  soon  well  of  the 
wounds  I  gave  him,  and  set  at  liberty  through  my  means, 
and  that  unless  it  were  his  own  fault,  she  might  very 
likely  see  him  home  again  in  a  very  little  time.  At  which 
her  countenance  began  to  clear  up,  and  she  seemed  to 
behave  with  much  better  temper,  though  she  was,  no 
doubt,  not  a  little  displeased  with  me,  and  ready  in  her 
heart  to  revenge,  as  she  termed  it,  her  brother's 

Now  I  went  ashore  at  Deptford,  and  going  du-ectly  to 
church,  returned  public  thanks  to  God  for  my  safe  arrival 
in  Old  England,  and  received  the  charity  of  the  minister 
and  parish  clerk,  staying  in  the  town  eight  days  longer ; 
during  which  I  was  very  civilly  entertained  by  Mr. 
"William  James,  a  Cornishman,  Captain  Peacock's  steward ; 
and  amongst  all  the  vessels  bound  down  the  river,  finding 
none  bound  for  Falmouth,  I  asked  my  friend,  Mr.  James, 
what  course  I  had  best  to  steer.  He  told  me  my  most 
likely  way  to  get  a  passage  would  be  for  me  to  go  to  Beels' 
WTiarf,  a  little  below  London  Bridge  on  the  Southwark 
side  of  the  river,  and  there  I  might  very  likely  find  one  or 
more  of  the  Cornish  tin  vessels,  or  some  other  bound  for 
Plymouth.  So  I  went  directly  thither,  and  soon  found,  to 
my  very  great  satisfaction,  three  tin  vessels,  and  on  dis- 
coursing the  people,  I  understood  that  the  captains  were 
all  on  the  other  side  of  the  water,  and  that  I  might  have  a 


further  account  of  them  at  the  King's  Head  in  Pudding 
Lane,  near  the  Monument. 

Passing  over  London  Bridge,  I  soon  got  to  the  house, 
and  luckily  found  one  Captain  Francis,  of  Penzance, 
"who  was  commander  of  one  of  them,  named  the  Truro. 
And  after  I  had  told  him  my  name,  he  was  extremely 
civil  to  me,  and  readily  offered  me  a  passage  in  his 
vessel  with  him  down  to  Cornwall ;  which  I  most 
heartily  thanked  him  for,  and  with  joy  gladly  accepted 
of  it,  telling  him  I  should  depend  thereon,  and  that  I 
would  be  sure  to  give  my  attendance  accordingly.  But 
as  I  found  he  could  not  sail  in  ten  days,  I,  through  the 
advice  of  some  of  my  new  acquaintance,  went  to  the  Navy 
Office,  praymg  the  Commissioners'  kind  introducing  me  to 
his  Majesty  ;  to  which  they,  after  they  had  discoursed  me, 
seemed  to  be  pretty  well  inclined,  ordering  me  to  come  to 
them  again,  as  indeed  I  did  again  and  again,  though  all 
I  could  get  from  them  at  the  last  was  the  very  extraordinary 
favour  of  a  hammock  on  board  of  a  man-of-war. 

I  told  them  that  I  was  very  much  obliged  to  them,  and  if 
I  could  not  get  a  livelihood  through  other  means  on  terra 
firma,  but  must  be  again  obliged  to  go  to  sea,  that  a  man-of- 
war  should  be  my  choice  of  all  other  ships ;  for  as  I  had 
never  made  but  a  piece  of  a  voyage  in  a  merchantman,  and 
that  so  very  unfortunate,  I  did  not  care  to  encounter  with  a 
second,  which  if  I  should,  and  again  fall  into  the  hands  of 
the  Moors,  it  would  soon  be  out  of  my  power  to  encounter 
with  a  third.     Then  I  fully  resolved  with  myself  to  give 
these  worthy  gentlemen  no  further  trouble,  but  to  hasten 
as  fast  as  I  could  home  to  the  place  of  my  nativity,  there 
to   get   proper  vouchers  and  recommendatory  letters   to 
some  worthy  person,  and  return  therewith,  in  order  to  his 
introducing  me  and  my  petition. 
At  my  going  out  of  the  office,  I  chanced  to  meet  in  the 


street  one  of  Elhash  Abaulcoclah  Perez,  the  Morocco 
ambassador's  nephews,*  and  whom,  as  I  had  been  so  well 
acquainted  with  him  before  in  Barbary,  you  may  suppose 
I  was  very  glad  to  see,  even  much  more  than  ever  I  was  to 
see  him  in  Barbary.  He  very  earnestly  entreating  me  to 
go  with  him  to  visit  his  uncle  and  the  rest  of  my  old 
acquaintance,  I  told  him  I  fully  intended  to  do  it,  if  I  had 
not  met  him  there.  "  However,"  said  I,  "it  may  now  be 
so  much  the  better  for  me,  through  means  of  your  intro- 
ducing me."  So  I  went  directly  with  him,  and  was  by  the 
old  man  very  kindly  received  ;  and  after  he  had  discoursed 
me  so  far  as  he  thought  fit,  as  asking  me  how  I  got  off, 
and  the  like,  he  told  me  that  he  was  very  glad  I  was 
delivered  out  of  an  unhappy  country,  and  that  he  wished 
himself  in  no  happier  condition  than  I  was,  charging  his 
people  to  make  me  very  welcome,  and  if  I  was  disposed  to 
take  up  with  his  house  altogether  as  to  my  eating  and 
drinking,  it  would  please  him  very  much  ;  though  this  I 
did  not  care  much  to  accept  of,  neither  did  I,  after  a  blunt 
manner,  refuse  it,  answering  him  with  a  low  bow. 

And  after  I  had  dined  there  that  day  on  my  favourite  dish, 
cuscassoe,  and  some  English  dishes,  I  returned  to  my  lodg- 
ings in  Pudding  Lane ;  where  I  had  not  been  but  a  very  little 
time,  before  a  gentleman  came  in,  congratulating  me  on  my 
being  so  near  to  be  introduced  to  his  Majesty,  and  he  was 
soon  seconded  by  several  others.  I  humbly  thanked  them 
(as  supposing  it  only  their  pleasure  to  say  so  by  way  of 
merriment),  and  that  I  wished  it  were  true,  though  I  very 
much  doubted  the  contrary,  by  reason  I  could  get  nobody  to 
introduce  me.  "  No  !  "  said  they.  "  Why,  it  is  actually  in 
the  newspapers  !  "  "  Indeed  !  "  said  I.  "  Yes,"  said  they, 
"it  is."  On  which  the  newspaper  was  directly  brought 
forth,  and  I  read  in  it  the  following  paragraph,  viz.,  "  A 

*  Note  43. 


man  is  now  in  town,  lately  arrived  from  Gibraltar,  in  the 
Euphrates,  Captain  Peacock,  escaping  there  from  Barbary, 
where  he  had  been  a  slave  twenty-five  years,  being  taken 
by  the  Moors  in  the  tenth  year  of  his  age,  and  is  to  be 
presented  to  his  Majesty  one  day  this  week."  This  I  soon 
found  to  be  one  of  Mr.  Newswriter's  truths ;  for  which  I 
told  the  printer  that  I  thought  him  very  much  to  blame, 
for  that  I  had  given  him  no  such  licence,  neither  could  I, 
without  asserting  a  very  great  falsity ;  and  as  to  his 
Majesty,  I  believed  he  knew  nothing  of  the  matter. — After 
this  I  waited  on  the  Morocco  ambassador  several  times, 
and  was  always  by  him  and  his  people  kindly  received. 

Now  is  Captain  Francis  ready  to  fall  down  the  river. 
The  first  tide  we  got  to  Gravesend,  and  the  next  to  the 
Nore,  and  the  third  over  the  Flats  and  into  the  Downs, 
and  thence  with  a  favourable  gale  kept  sailing  till  we  got 
off  the  Start,  where  the  wind  taking  us  right  ahead,  and 
blowing  very  hard,  we  let  go  our  anchor,  and  rid  it  out 
there  two  days,  when  we  moved  thence,  and  got  that  day 
off  Plymouth,  and  the  next,  being  Sunday,  we  got  about 
four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  safe  into  Falmouth  Pier  ; 
whence  being  to  Penryn,  the  place  of  my  nativity,  no 
more  than  two  miles,  I  got  to  the  town  in  the  evening. 

And  as  my  father's  house  was  almost  quite  at  the  other 
end  of  the  town — perhaps  about  half  a  mile — I  was,  before 
I  could  reach  it,  more  than  an  hour  ;  for  notwithstanding 
it  was  almost  quite  dark,  I  was  so  crowded  by  the  in- 
habitants that  I  could  not  pass  through  them  without  a 
great  deal  of  difficulty — though  this,  I  must  own,  was  of  a 
different  and  far  more  pleasing  nature  to  me  than  my  first 
entrance  into  Mequinez,  every  one,  instead  of  boxing  me 
and  pulling  my  hair,  saluting  me,  and  after  a  most 
courteous  manner  bidding  me  welcome  home,  being  all 
very  inquisitive  with  me  if  I  knew  them.    Which,  indeed,  I 


did  not,  for  I  was  so  very  young  at  my  departure,  and  my 
captivity  and  the  long  interval  of  time  bad  made  so  very 
great  an  alteration  on  both  sides,  that  I  did  not  know  my 
own  father  and  mother,  nor  they  me ;  and  had  we 
happened  to  meet  at  any  other  place  without  being  pre- 
advised,  whereby  there  might  be  an  expectation  or  natural 
instinct  interposing,  we  should  no  doubt  have  passed 
each  other,  unless  my  great  beard  might  have  induced 
them  to  inquire  further  after  me. 

And  now  is  the  so  long  lost  sheep  again  restored  to  his 
owners,  after  his  long  straying  and  grievous  hardships 
amongst  those  monsters  and  ravenous  wolves  of  infidelity, 
and  safely  returned  to  his  parents,  in  the  town  of  his 
nativity,  being  the  loth  day  of  October,  1738,  and  the 
twelfth  year  of  the  reign  of  our  Sovereign  Lord  King 
George  the  Second, 

To  look  back  upon  and  seriously  to  consider  the  years  of 
my  captivity,  is  so  frightful  and  amazing,  that  all  must 
allow  that  nothing  but  the  Almighty  protection  of  a  great, 
good,  all-seeing,  most-sufficient,  and  gracious  God  could 
have  carried  me  through  it  or  delivered  me  out  of  it. 
Therefore  to  Him  be  the  glory,  honour,  and  praise,  and 
may  He  so  order  my  heart  as  always  to  continue  a  lively 
remembrance  thereof,  and  so  order  my  ways  to  live  up  to 
His  Divine  precepts  during  the  remainder  of  this  mortal 
life,  that  after  all  these  my  sufferings  ended  here,  I  may 
be  crowned  with  a  glorious  immortality  in  the  kingdom  of 




(1)  Sallee  and  the  Journey  to  Mequinez,  pp.  50-53. — "  Sallee 
is  built  on  the  banks  of  the  Guerrou,  which  falls  from  the 
mountains  of  the  Zaovias,  and  divides  it  into  two  parts.  That 
on  the  north  side  is  called  by  the  natives  Sela  [S'la] ,  but  by 
us  Sallee.  It  is  encompassed  by  good  walls,  about  six  fathoms 
high  and  two  yards  and  a  half  thick,  composed  of  clay,  red 
sand  and  lime,  worked  together  after  the  manner  of  the 
country.  On  the  top  of  the  walls  are  battlements  flanked 
with  good  towers ;  the  other  part  of  the  town  which  Ues  on 
the  south  side  of  the  river  is  called  Raval,  and  occupies  a  much 
larger  compass  than  the  former.  Within  the  circumference  of 
this  town  are  abundance  of  gardens,  and  a  large  field,  where 
they  might  sow  com  enough  to  serve  fifteen  hundred  men. 
Its  walls  are  very  ancient ;  the  natives  say  they  were  built  by 
the  first  Christians  who  were  brought  out  of  Europe  by  the 
generals  of  Jacob  Almanzor,  king  of  Arabia  Felix,  who  con- 
quered Spain.  On  the  south-east  quarter  stands  a  high  tower 
called  Hasans,  which  serves  as  a  land-mark  for  ships  to  come 
in.  At  the  foot  of  this  mountain  are  docks  for  building  ships, 
and  for  them  to  winter  in.  The  ascent  of  this  hill  is  so  gentle 
that  a  man  may  ride  on  horseback  to  the  top. 

"  Sallee  has  at  present  two  castles,  the  old  and  the  new. 
The  old  one  stands  directly  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  Gaerrou, 
next  to  which  its  walls  are  built  on  rocks,  and  very  lofty, 
sheltering  the  governor's  house,  which  joins  to  them,  from 
any  cannon-shot.  This  castle  is  very  irregular,  being  built 
according  as  the  ground  would  permit.     The  walls  fronting  the 

384  NOTES. 

river  are  for  the  most  part  of  square  stones,  with  several  towers 
built  by  Muley  Semein.  Within  this  castle,  and  before  its 
principal  gate,  is  a  high  fort,  which  commands  the  town. 
Below,  next  the  sea,  on  the  point  of  the  rock  facing  the  bar, 
is  a  bastion,  mounted  with  five  pieces  of  cannon,  to  secure  the 
vessels  which  come  to  an  anchor  in  the  road,  and  cover  the 
retreat  of  the  Corsairs,  when  pursued  by  the  Christians. 
The  walls  next  the  sea  are  low,  and  very  easy  to  be  scaled, 
heaps  of  dung  and  earth  lying  against  them,  almost  of  the  same 
height.  It  is  destitute  of  fresh  water,  except  what  they  save 
in  a  large  cistern,  which  receives  all  the  rain  falling  on  the  flat 
roofs  of  the  houses.  There  is  also  a  well,  but  water  is  brackish, 
and  serves  only  for  the  cattle.  The  new  castle  is  situated  on 
south-west  side  of  the  town.  It  was  built  by  Muley  Archy, 
is  square,  flanked  with  good  towers,  and  has  battlements  like 
the  walls  of  the  town.  There  is  a  communication  from  one 
castle  to  the  other  by  a  high  wall,  flanked  with  two  towers, 
and  built  upon  arches,  under  which  the  people  pass  when  they 
go  to  walk  upon  the  strand.  There  are  in  this  castle  twelve 
pieces  of  brass  cannon.  On  the  west  side,  before  the  breach 
on  the  town  wall,  on  the  edge  of  the  sea,  stands  another  bastion 
on  a  rock,  but  neglected  of  late,  which  renders  the  taking  of 
this  part  of  Sallee  very  easy.  The  chief  riches  of  this  place 
consist  ill  its  piracies,  the  Sallee  Eovers  [the  Salletines,  or 
Slani,  as  they  call  themselves]  being  the  most  expert  and  daring 
of  any  on  the  Barbary  coast." 

This  note  is  appended  to  the  original  edition  of  Fellow's  work, 
and  is  evidently  an  accurate  description  of  the  place  when  he 
was  60  unfortunate  as  to  visit  it.  The  town  as  it  at  present 
exists  is  very  well  described  by  Mr.  H.  C.  Browne  in  the 
English  Illustrated  Magazine  for  February,  1890,  pp.  396-402. 
"What  Fellow  and  earlier  writers  call  "  Eaval"  or  "  Arraval  "  is 
now  known  as  Kabat,  and  is  still  the  side  of  the  river  on  which 
the  Europeans  reside.  M.  Charant,  a  French  merchant  who  Hved 
in  Morocco  only  a  few  years  after  the  last  of  the  Moors  were 
driven  out  of  Andalusia,  confirms  the  belief  that  it  was  enlarged 
by  the  latter  by  arrangement  with  their  African  countrymen, 
who  continued  to  inhabit  Sallee  in  amity  until  in  due  time  the 
two  towns  were  at  daggers  drawn.  The  river  "  Guerrou  "  is 
the  modem  Bou-ragrag.     But  in  former  times  it  commonly  bore 

NOTES.  335 

that  name,  the  Bou-ragrag  of  which  it  is  now  regarded  as  a 
tributary  (just  as  the  Missouri  is  of  the  Mississippi)  being  then 
considered  the  less  important  stream.  Lorshia  seems  to  have 
been  a  mere  country  place  or  hamlet — or,  as  the  word,  written  in 
corrupt  Arabic  (Larsoh)  might  signify,  a  garden.  It  is  evidently 
the  same  place  by  a  stream  called  in  the  itinerary  of  the 
**  Eeligieux  de  I'ordre  de  Notre-Dame-de-la-Mercy "  (1724), 
"  Larga."  The  forest  of  Bailee  or  Mamora  is  still  in  exist- 
ence, a  haunt  of  robbers  and  wild  beasts — lions,  it  is  said, 
among  the  number — and  so  dangerous  that  travellers  hesitate 
to  pass  through  it  without  a  strong  escort.  When  the  refractory 
Zemmur  tribe  are  visited  by  the  Sultan's  tax-gatherers,  they 
often  retreat  into  its  fastnesses.  The  river  TeffilfiUe  is  of  course 
the  Wad  Tilfil,  and  the  Darmusultan  the  Dar-es-Solt'ana 
("House  of  the  Sultana" — the  mother  of  Muley  Ismail),  a  now 
abandoned  building,  erected  as  a  shelter  for  travellers.  But 
though  the  political  divisions  of  Morocco  have  been  often 
changed,  to  describe  the  modern  province  of  Beni-Hassan  as 
"  Wolelsager  "  must  have  arisen  through  some  mistake.  Can 
he  have  heard  the  Zemmur,  the  Beni-Hassan,  or  other  people 
through  whose  country  he  was  passing,  contemptuously  spoken 
of  as  the  "Woled  saghir" — the  "little  tribe" — and  imagined 
that  this  was  the  name  of  the  province  ?  Yet  he  must  have 
traversed  this  region  several  times.  The  "  Ganioe"  (pp.  8,  13) 
who  so  frightened  the  Moors  was  Captain  Delgarno  (not 
"  Delgardenoor  "),  who  with  his  twenty-gim  frigate  exercised 
BO  wholesome  a  terror  over  the  Bailee  men  that  they  never 
ventured  over  the  bar  when  he  was  known  to  be  in  the  vicinity. 
Moorish  mothers  used  to  frighten  naughty  children  by  threaten- 
ing to  "give  them  to  Garnoe." 

(2)  Mequinez  (Maknas  of  the  Moors),  p.  53. — "  Mequinez," 
Windns  wrote  in  1720,  "  stands  about  twelve  leagues  westward 
of  Fez,  and  was  of  small  note  before  the  Emperor  chose  to 
build  his  palace  there  ;  though  according  to  Leo  Africanus, 
it  was  about  two  hundred  years  ago  a  place  of  considerable  trade 
and  riches,  but  since  almost  ruined  by  the  civil  wars,  and 
different  sorts  of  government  that  obtained  in  the  coimtry. 
It  is  situated  in  a  delightful  plain,  having  a  very  serene  and 
clear  air,  which  made  the  Emperor  rather  make  it  his  place  of 

336  NOTES. 

residence  than  Fez,  and  now  it  is  in  a  more  flourishing  condition 
than  ever,  being  the  metropohs  of  a  large  empire,  between  two 
and  three  miles  in  circumference,  and  containing  about  300,000 
inhabitants,  surrounded  by  an  ordinary  wall,  and  separated  by 
a  road  from  the  negro  town,  so  called  from  the  Emperor's 
black  troops  (on  which  he  principally  depends)  being  quartered 
there.  To  which  the  Bashaws  and  Alcaydes  resort  with  the 
tributes  and  presents  every  two  or  three  years,  according  to  the 
Emperor's  pleasure.  In  the  middle  of  the  city  live  the  Jews, 
having  a  place  to  themselves,  the  gates  of  which  are  locked  at 
night,  which  privilege  they  also  have  in  most  of  the  cities  of 
this  Emperor's  dominions.  They  have  an  alcayde  to  guard 
their  gates,  and  protect  them  against  the  common  people,  who 
otherwise  would  plunder  them  ;  for  they  live  in  great  subjection, 
it  being  death  for  them  to  curse  or  lift  up  a  hand  against  the 
meanest  Moor  ;  so  that  the  boys  kick  them  about  at  their 
pleasure,  against  which  they  have  no  other  remedy  but  to  run 
away.  They  are  obliged  to  pull  off  their  shoes  whenever  they 
pass  by  a  mosque,  and  to  wear  black  clothes  and  caps  ;  nor  are 
they  allowed  the  use  of  horses." 

The  city  (containing  about  40,000  people)  is  now  one  of  the 
ordinary  capitals  or  residences  of  the  Sultan.  It  is  also  the 
treasure  city  of  the  empire,  the  vaults  of  the  palace  containing 
considerable  quantities  of  coin  and  other  valuables,  though  by 
no  means  so  much  as  rumour  affirms,  civil  war,  and  the  ne- 
cessity which  the  Sultan  found,  on  fighting  his  way  to  the 
throne,  of  purchasing  the  goodwill  of  powerful  personages, 
having  kept  the  balance  low.  In  those  days  Jews,  in  spite 
of  the  contumely  with  which  they  were  treated,  played  a  much 
more  prominent  part  in  the  government  of  Morocco  than  they 
do  at  the  present  day.  Many  of  them  were  farmers  of  the 
customs.  Consular  agents,  or  merchants  to  the  Emperor,  and 
they  were  almost  the  only  interpreters  to  be  had,  a  fact  which 
these  sharp-witted  people  were  not  slow  to  use  to  their  own  ad- 
vantage. Some  even  had  much  influence  about  the  palace.  One 
of  them  was  this  Ben  Hattar,  or  Benatar,  treasurer  of  the  court 
(p.  15),  who  figures  prominently  in  the  by-ways  of  diplomatic 
history.  Windus  tells  an  amusing  story  of  him  and  a  rival 

"  They  have  in  this  country,"  as  they  have  still  in  another 

NOTES.  337 

form,  or  had  until  lately,  "  a  most  inhuman  custom,  viz.,  that 
any  man  has  the  liberty  of  buying  another  and  all  his  effects, 
to  do  what  he  pleases  with  him,  by  giving  a  certain  price  to  the 
Emperor,  or  the  governor  of  the  place  he  lives  in.  Which  custom 
is  practised  all  over  the  empire  among  the  Moors  and  Jews ; 
whereby  the  enjoyment  of  life  or  fortune  is  not  only  precarious, 
but  a  man  is  liable  in  an  instant  to  fall  into  the  extremest 
degree  of  misery,  at  the  pleasure  of  any  one  who  (promptedeither 
by  covetousness  or  malice)  will  be  at  the  expense  of  buying 
another,  and  run  the  risk  of  being  reimbursed  out  of  the  effects 
of  the  person  he  buys ;  in  which  case  they  go  to  the  bashaw, 
alcayde,  or  governor  of  a  province,  and  bargain  with  him  (for  so 
much  money)  to  have  the  person  they  have  a  mind  to ;  upon 
receipt  of  which  the  bashaw  will  deliver  the  wretch  into  the 
hands  of  the  buyer,  to  do  what  he  pleases  with  him.  So  that 
the  bought  man  is  frequently  tortured  in  the  cruellest  manner 
to  make  him  discover  what  money  he  has. 

"  One  Memaran  being  formerly  chief  favourite,  had  the  sole 
command  of  the  Jews ;  but  seeing  Ben  Hattar,  another  Jew, 
boldly  push  himself  forward,  and  fearing  a  rival  in  the 
Emperor's  favour,  he  endeavoured  to  destroy  him,  and  offered 
the  Emperor  so  many  quintals  of  silver  for  his  head.  Upon 
which  he  sent  for  Ben  Hattar,  and  telling  him  that  a  sum  of 
money  was  bid  for  his  head,  he  resolutely  answered,  that  he 
would  give  twice  as  much  for  the  person's  who  offered  it.  Then 
the  Emperor,  bringing  them  together,  took  the  money  from  both, 
and  told  them  they  were  a  couple  of  fools,  and  bid  them  be 
friends.  Which  made  Ben  Hattar  desire  Memaran's  daughter 
in  marriage,  who  being  granted  to  him,  they  now  between 
them  govern  the  Jews  of  his  dominions  with  absolute  authority." 

A  similar  tale,  often  told  in  Morocco,  is  that  of  the  conscien- 
tious Moorish  gaoler  who  served  two  clients,  and  kept  his  word 
with  both.  Among  the  prisoners  in  his  custody  was  a 
homicide,  the  son  of  a  rich  man,  who,  after  the  fashion  of  the 
country,  offered  the  gaoler  a  handsome  bribe  to  permit  the 
murderer  to  escape.  The  bribe  was  duly  accepted  and  a  day 
fixed  for  his  release.  Meantime  he  went  to  the  son  of  the 
murdered  man,  and  received  from  him  another  fee  for  teUing 
him  when  the  first  incident  was  to  come  off.  He  then  con- 
ducted the   prisoner  outside,  where  he  was  promptly  stabbed 


338  NOTES. 

lay  the  avenger  of  blood.  "  I  set  him  free,"  he  explained  to  the 
expostulating  father  who  just  then  arrived  on  the  scene  ;  "  surely 
it  was  his  own  business  to  take  care  of  his  life  afterwards  ? 
In'eshallah  !  "  Muley  Ismail  was  much  helped  by  the  Jews,  and 
to  the  end  of  his  life  notably  under  their  influence,  while  the 
chief  advisers  of  Sidi  Mohammed  and  many  minor  officials  were 

(3)  The  Emperor's  Palace,  p.  59. — Muley  Ismail  is  said  to 
have  had,  first  and  last  during  his  long  lifetime,  "  no  less  than 
eight  thousand  wives  [or  inmates  of  the  harem] ,  by  whom  he 
had  nine  hundred  sons  and  about  three  hundred  daughters. 
This  prodigious  number  of  children  might  pass  for  a  fable  was 
there  not  a  certain  proof  of  it,  viz.,  the  register  of  a  particular 
tax  which  this  province  laid  upon  the  Jews  to  be  paid  by  way 
of  presents  on  the  birth  of  every  one  of  his  children,  to  wit, 
a  pair  of  gold  pendants,  or  ear-bobs,  a  pearl,  and  two  thin  plates 
of  gold,  on  which  were  engraved  some  wishes  or  prayers  in 
favour  of  the  child  and  its  mother.  The  value  of  such  a  present 
amounted  to  about  fifteen  pounds  for  a  son.  That  which  they 
were  obUged  to  make  on  the  birth  of  a  daughter  was  not  so 
considerable,  the  ear -bobs  being  only  of  silver,  and  the  two 
plates  of  the  same  metal,  and  no  pearl."  The  number 
of  sons  has  by  other  authorities  been  reduced  to  520,  and 
the  ladies  of  the  harem  to  four  thousand,  though  these 
estimates  are  little  better  than  guesses.  The  palace  of 
Sherrers  as  it  existed  early  in  the  eighteenth  century  is  fully 
described  in  Windus's  "  Journey  to  Mequinez,"  pp.  100-106, 
the  long  note  appended  to  the  original  edition  of  Fellow's 
narrative  being,  like  most  of  these  addenda,  taken  from  that 
volume.  This  building,  or  collection  of  buildings — for  it  con- 
tained fifty  palaces,  each  having  its  own  baths  and  mosques, 
and  independent  of  the  main  structure — comprised  a  stable 
or  "  Aroua "  capable,  according  to  Aboulqasem  ben  Ahmed 
Ezziani,  of  accommodating  twelve  thousand  horses,  including 
granaries  and  store-rooms.  This  once  noble  imperial  quarter  is 
now  a  mass  of  ruins,  very  well  described  in  M.  de  la  Martiniere's 
recent  volume. 

(4)  Cruelties  of  Muley  Ismail,   p.  63. — These  and  a  host  of 

NOTES.  889 

even  more  horrible  tortures  are  described  by  many  contemporary 
writers  as  practised  by  this  savage  monarch  and  his  successors. 
The  modern  Moorish  sovereigns  are  less  addicted  to  cruelty,  but 
curious  tales  are  told  of  nails  wrenched  out  by  pinchers,  of 
splinters  driven  in  beyond  the  quick,  of  hands  rotted  off  in  raw- 
hide bags  filled  with  quicklime  and  salt,  mangling  by  wild  beasts  ; 
of  the  "  wooden  jellabia,"  a  box  lined  with  sharp  spikes  into 
which  a  Kaid  unwilling  to  disgorge  his  wealth  is  placed,  and 
even  of  burning,  baking  in  ovens,  and  crucifixion  having  been 
occasionally  followed  in  days  not  so  very  remote  as  not  to  be 
remembered  by  living  men. 

(5)  Commodore  Stewart's  Embassy,  pp.  65,  72. — In  this  embassy 
of  Commodore  Stewart's,  Pellow  had  a  certain  share,  though 
excluded  from  the  good  offices  of  the  ambassador  owing  to  his 
having  "turned  Moor" — all  renegades  being  recognized  as 
subjects  of  the  Prince  of  True  Believers,  and  therefore  for  their 
soul's  sake  not  permitted  to  return  among  the  infidels.  For  he 
was  constantly  about  the  Emperor's  person  during  the  stay  of 
the  mission  in  Mequinez.  But  he  "  passed  it  by  in  his  journal " 
because,  as  he  told  the  editor  of  his  MS.,  "  I  have  matter  enough 
concerning  my  own  adventures  (over  and  above  the  small  share 
I  had  in  that),  and  such  I  hope  (being  the  plain  and  natural 
truth,  without  the  least  mixture  of  romance  or  affectation)  as 
will  in  no  wise  be  unacceptable  to  the  reader."  The  original 
editor  of  the  narrative,  however,  thought  fit  to  "pad"  it  out 
with  a  long  extract  from  Windus's  account  of  the  mission,* 
which  we  have  not  considered  it  necessary  to  reprint.  In  all,  the 
ambassador  ransomed  296  English  captives,  "  being  what  were 
left  alive  and  had  not  turned  Moors  of  those  who  had  been 
taken  in  about  seven  years'  war,"  including  twenty-five  com- 
manders of  ships.  Among  the  latter  was  Captain  Henry  Boyd, 
who  made  the  sketches  of  Alcazar,  Mequinez,  &c.,  engraved  in 
"  Several  Voyages  to  Barbary  "  (1736). 

(6)  Moorish  Surgery,  p.  70. — Almost  the  only  remedy  practised 

*  "A  Journey  to  Mequinez,  the  Residence  of  the  present  Emperor  of 
Fez  and  Morocco,  on  the  occasion  of  Commodore  Stewart's  Embassy 
thither  for  the  Redemption  of  the  British  Captives  in  the  year  1721  " 
(London  :  Printed  by  Jacob  Tonson,  1725). 

340  NOTES. 

is  the  burning  of  different  parts  of  the  body  with  a  red-hot  iron. 
The  Moorish  doctor  selling  charms  written  on  scraps  of  dirty 
paper  for  the  cure  of  internal  diseases,  and  with  his  "  actual 
cautery"  in  the  fire  before  him,  ready  to  apply  it  with  equal 
readiness  to  the  horse  and  to  his  rider,  is  a  famihar  sight  at  any 
market  in  Morocco. 

(7)  Henna,  p.  76. — This  plant  [Lawsonia  inemiis)  is  now  grown 
all  over  Morocco  as  an  article  of  commerce.  The  colour  it  im- 
parts is,  however,  not  black,  but  reddish  orange. 

(8)  Horses,  p.  83. — Most  of  these  remarks  about  horses  seem 
to  have  been  interpolated  by  the  editor  from  the  information 
contained  in  his  usual  authority. 

(9)  Wild  Animals,  p.  84. — The  "  tygers  "  which  so  many  old 
writers  on  Morocco  mention,  are  not  the  Asiatic  animals  of 
that  name  ;  they  are  leopards  (Nemeur).  Even  Bruce  talked 
of  "  tigers  "  in  Africa.  Jackals  (Dib),  hyaenas  (Debaa),  wild 
cats  (El  Cat  el  berranee)  and  foxes  (Thaleb)  are,  however, 
sufficiently  common.  There  is,  indeed,  a  fox-hunting  club 
at  Tangier,  and  Major  Gilbard  informs  us  that  in  1853  the 
Calpe  Club  hounds,  in  a  meet  they  had  on  the  African  side 
of  the  Strait,  "  had  a  splendid  run  with  a  wolf — forty-seven 
minutes  with  only  one  check — the  distance  traversed  being  nine 
miles  over  a  very  rough  country."  But  I  do  not  know  any 
species  which  inhabit  Barbary,  and  in  M.  Lastate's  "Etude" 
{Actes  de  la  Societe  Linneenne  de  Bordeaux,  vol.  xxxix.  pp.  129- 
289),  which  gives  a  list  of  all  the  mammals  of  that  region  known 
up  to  the  year  1885,  no  wolf  is  mentioned. 

(10)  Province  of  Talgror,  p.  86. — This  must  be  either  a  mistake 
or  some  obsolete  designation,  though  I  am  not  aware  that  any 
division  of  Dukkala  (often  as  it  has  been  broken  up  and  reunited) 
was  called  by  this  name.  Those  of  the  other  places,  in  spite  of 
their  primitive  spelling,  are  not  difficult  to  trace.  "  Cedeboazzo  " 
is,  for  example,  Sidi  Bou  Azza,  "  Mesmeath,"  Amezmiz,  &c. 

(11)  The  Golden  Globes  of  Morocco  City  (Marakesch)  p.  99. — 

NOTES.  841 

These  globes  on  the  top  of  the  Kutubia  Mosque  (three  in 
number,  not  four,  their  size  graduating  from  the  undermost 
to  the  uppermost),  though  often  an  object  of  cupidity  to  kings 
in  want  of  coin,  remained  in  situ  to  early  in  this  century, 
mainly  owing  to  the  difficulty  which  their  mode  of  fixation 
offered  to  the  plunderer,  these  failures  giving  rise  to  the  story 
that  they  were  protected  by  "  djinns,"  "  afreets"  (more  correctly 
jinoon  and  (if art),  or  spirit  -  guards.  But  they  were  finally 
taken  down,  and  either  replaced  by  others,  or,  when  their 
true  value  was  discovered,  replaced  by  gilded  facsimiles. 
Another  story  is  that  their  origin  was  due  to  the  desire  of 
the  Queen  of  Muley  Abd  El  Mumin  (1128-1162)  to  ornament 
the  mosque  built  by  her  husband,  and  that  the  gold  they  were 
made  of  was  derived  from  the  jewels  presented  to  her  by  the 
King.  Captain  John  Smith,  visiting  Morocco  in  1604,  saw  them 
on  what  he  calls  the  "Christian  Church."  Against  "these 
golden  Bals  of  Afifrica,"  he  tells  us,  "hath  been  shot  many  a 
shot,"  though  none  ever  hit  them.  He  gives  their  weight  at 
784  lbs.,  and  repeats  the  tale  he  heard  of  their  origin,  which 
was  to  the  effect  that  the  Prince  of  Morocco  betrothed  himseK 
to  the  "  King's  Daughter  of  Etheopea."  But  he  dying  before 
their  marriage,  "  she  caused  those  three  golden  Balls  to  be  set 
up  for  his  Monument,"  while  she  herself  remained  single  all  her 
life.  Jean  Mocquet,  "  Garde  du  Cabinet  des  Singularites  du 
Roi,  aux  Tuileries,"  who  reached  Morocco  the  year  after  the 
"  Admirall  of  New  England,"  tells  much  the  same  story  with 
other  romantic  incidents.  Monsieur  Charant,  a  French  mer- 
chant who  visited  the  city  some  time  between  the  years  1645 
and  1670,  also  mentions  them.  But  by  that  period  shots  seem 
to  have  taken  effect,  for  these  "golden  apples,  especially  the 
biggest,  is  banch'd  in  several  places  with  the  blows  of  musket 
bullets  which  have  been  shot  at  it,  and  some  places  pierced 
quite  through  them,  for  they  are  not  massive,  but  only  about 
the  thickness  of  a  finger's  breadth.  I  wondered  at  it,  and 
asked  some  of  the  ancientest  men,  how  they  came  to  be  so: 
It  was  answer'd  that  souldiers  of  Jacob  Elmansor  (1163-1184) 
when  they  took  the  city  did  it.  I  reply'd  why  did  they  not 
take  them  away  ?  0  they  durst  not,  said  one,  for  they  are 

The  city  is  now  only  a  large  decaying  town,  half  in  ruins,  civil 

S42  NOTES. 

war  and  bad  government  having  reduced  its  population  to  about 
30,000  in  ordinary,  and  perhaps  double  that  number  when  the 
Emperor  and  his  troops  are  there. 

(12)  Robbery  of  Officials,  p.  105. — Without  any  alterations 
these  words  apply  equally  well  to  the  extortions  of  all  the 
officials.  They  buy  their  offices,  receiving  no  pay,  or  a  merely 
nominal  salary ;  yet  they  usually  enrich  themselves  by  robbery 
until  the  evil  time  comes  when  they  are  invited  to  digorge,  and 
unless  they  manage  to  satisfy  the  Sultan  are  thrown  into  a 
dreadful  prison,  or,  after  drinking  tea  with  their  sovereign,  die  in 
agony  from  a  dose  of  arsenic.  Poison  in  Morocco  is  a  recognized 
instrument  of  diplomacy ;  it  is  what  all  men  dread. 

(13)  Lions,  dc,  p.  109. — Leopards  are  now  rather  scarce  in 
Morocco,  and  lions  are  seldom  seen  in  the  northern  parts  of  the 
empire,  though  they  are  by  no  means  absent ;  yet  men  live  for 
years  in  the  country  without  catching  a  glimpse  of  one.  But 
last  century,  and  even  at  the  beginning  of  this,  they  seem  to 
have  been  common.  Francis  Brooks  in  1681,  and  Thomas 
Phelps  in  1685,  while  making  to  the  coast  after  their  escape 
from  Mequinez,  encountered  several ;  and  at  a  later  date 
Dominique  Busnot  supplies  a  curious  account  of  the  boldness 
of  these  beasts,  the  semi- depopulation  of  the  country  during  the 
wars  of  succession,  and  the  absence  of  arms  and  provisions, 
having  allowed  them  to  multiply.  The  account  Pellow  gives 
of  the  way  the  Arabs  treat  a  lion  when  they  meet  it  unarmed  is 
an  exact  description  of  their  present  modus  operandi. 

(14)  The  March  to  Guzlan,  p.  112. — Most  of  the  places  named 
in  this  itinerary  are  as  yet  unknown  to  geographers.  Swagtah 
is  not,  to  my  knowledge,  the  name  of  any  large  district  in 
Morocco,  far  less  of  a  province,  though  it  may  be  the  name 
applied  in  former  times  to  one  of  the  transmontane  areas. 
Guzlan  (or  Ghrazlan  ?)  is  not  a  town  which  comes  within  my 
ken ;  but  there  is,  in  the  region  described,  a  province  once 
,known  under  the  designation  of  Guezula,  Gzoula,  Gesula,  or 

Guezzoula,  all  of  which  may  be  corruptions  of  the  ancient 
Gaetulia.    It  must,  however,  be  remembered,  setting  aside  the 

NOTES.  843 

errors  due  to  the  author's  failing  memory,  and  the  misappre- 
hension of  Arabic  and  Berber  names,  over  which  even  the  most 
educated  of  travellers  make  sad  blunders,  many  of  the  places 
named  were  no  more  than  kasbahs,  or  mud  forts,  which  are  apt 
not  only  to  change  their  names  with  the  various  commandants, 
but  to  disappear  before  the  wrath  of  the  Sultan  or  of  warlike 
tribes,  or  to  melt  away  under  the  influence  of  the  weather 
when  from  any  reason  they  are  deserted.  It  must  also  be 
remembered  that  the  limits  of  the  provinces  have  frequently 
varied  according  as  they  have  been  occupied  by  different  tribes, 
the  whim  of  the  Sultan,  or  the  convenience  or  interests  of  the 
hour,  and  that  this  variation  of  extent  may  have  caused  a 
variation  of  name.  Most  of  the  best-known  provinces  were 
originally,  like  the  old  provinces  of  France,  small  kingdoms 
perpetually  at  variance  among  themselves,  till  the  present 
dynasty  subdued  and  united  them  under  one  sovereign.  In 
Chenier's  day  several  of  these  divisions  bore  more  than  one 
name,  and  even  yet  it  is  seldom  that  two  intelligent  Moors 
agree  in  giving  the  list  exactly  the  same,  while  no  one  pretends 
to  define  these  provincial  boundaries  with  more  than  approxi- 
mate accuracy.  Agoory,  so  frequently  mentioned  in  Fellow's 
narrative,  though  not  in  any  previous  author's,  is  a  little  town 
which  looks  like  a  garden  surroimded  by  walls.  It  is  inhabited 
by  the  descendants  of  Renegades. 

(15)  The  Moorish  Army,  p.  115. — This  force  is  now  much 
more  efficient,  being  better  armed  and  more  scientifically  drilled 
than  in  Fellow's  day.  But  its  commissariat  is,  as  of  old,  organ- 
ized plunder  of  the  country  through  which  it  passes.  The  land 
is  "eaten  up"  by  it  during  a  march,  so  that  instead  of  any 
district  petitioning  after  a  fashion  with  which  we  are  famihar  in 
England  for  the  sovereign  to  honour  it  with  a  visit,  the  people 
humbly  beg  his  Shereefian  Majesty  to  save  them  from  this  costly 
distinction,  offering  him  in  lieu  of  his  intended  purpose  a  sum 
of  money.  But  in  one  respect  the  soldiers  with  whom  Thomas 
Fellow  marched  were  better  situated  than  those  who  are  led  to 
victory  by  the  gallant  Kaid  Maclean,  an  English  officer  to  whom 
the  Moroccan  troops  owe  a  deep  debt  of  gratitude.  For  while 
many  of  the  latter  are  clothed,  armed,  and  drilled  something 
after  the  Eastern  fashion,  they  have  no  longer  a  "  German"  or 

344  NOTES. 

any  other  surgeon  to  bind  these  wounds.  These  misfortunes  of 
war  are  left  to  nature,  or  the  blood  is  rudely  staunched  by  native 
methods,  such  as  dipping  the  stump  into  hot  pitch,  after  the 
manner  in  vogue  when  Ambrose  Pare  was  the  most  cunning 
leech  of  his  day ;  or,  more  frequently,  the  patient  tribesmen  die 
imtended,  refusing  to  risk  entering  into  Paradise  maimed  by  the 
hand  of  man.  Yet  they  are  eager  enough  to  accept  medical 
advice  and  medicine  from  any  infidel  doctor,  and  as  all  Euro- 
peans are  supposed  to  belong  more  or  less  to  the  medical 
profession,  a  journey  into  the  interior  of  Morocco  is  not  without 
perils  to  the  philanthrophic  traveller  who  takes  a  pleasure  in 
dispensing  pills  or  potions  with  more  zeal  than  knowledge.  The 
Emperor  has  sometimes  the  services  of  a  European  physician  at 
his  disposal,  preferring  such  a  one  to  his  native  At'oubba,  and 
of  late  years  the  presence  of  the  French  Military  Commission 
with  his  army  has  enabled  him  to  obtain  the  aid  of  the  surgeon 
attached  to  it  without  the  fear  of  being  poisoned  which  constantly 
haunts  the  great  ones  of  Maghreb-al-Aksa.  The  German  surgeon 
in  Pellow's  force  was  doubtless  a  renegade  slave.  In  those  days 
the  Sultan  had  a  free  choice  of  almost  any  professional  or  artistic 
skill  from  among  the  many  captives  always  arriving.  To  them 
some  of  the  so-called  triumphs  of  old  Moorish  architecture  are 
due.  The  buildings  were,  in  reality,  constructed  by  Christian 
slaves,  just  as  so  many  in  Grenada  and  Cordova  reared  during 
the  Arab  domination  were  the  handiwork  of  Egyptian,  Spanish, 
and  Jewish  craftsmen  in  the  employment  of  the  Moorish 

(16)  Wine  Drinking,  p.  119. — The  ease  with  which  Pellow 
indulged  in  drinking  bouts  was  due  to  the  Jews,  who  to  this  day 
make  great  quantities  of  a  Malaga-like  wine  from  the  native 
grapes,  besides  a  peculiar  (and  particularly  disagreeable)  kind 
by  boiling  down  the  must.  They  also  prepare  a  brandy  from 
dates  and  figs  and  other  fruits,  though  of  late,  owing  to  it  having 
been  introduced  into  the  harems,  their  freedom  of  distillation 
has  been  somewhat  curtailed.  The  Moors  in  Pellow's  time 
seemed  to  have  drunk  wine  more  freely,  or  at  least  more  openly, 
than  now.  In  the  coast  towns  a  tipsy  native  is  not  an  uncom- 
mon sight,  though  his  escapade  usually  costs  him  dearly  if  the 
Bashaw — or  Kaid,  for  the  word  Bashaw  is   unknown  to   the 

NOTES.  345 

Arabic,  being  simply  a  corruption  of  Pasba,  the  Turkish  term 
applied  to  a  high  official  by  the  Europeans — considers  him  worth 
squeezing  by  means  of  a  judicious  course  of  imprisonment,  or 
of  the  stick.  On  Mogador  Island  there  is  a  place  of  confinement 
for  Moors  convicted  of  the  offence,  though  the  gossips  of  S'ouera 
whisper  that  even  there  the  obtaining  of  a  supply  of  gin  is 
only  a  question  of  money  paid  to  the  guardian  of  the  Retreat. 
In  the  interior,  however,  it  is  much  rarer  ever  to  see  drinking, 
far  less  drunkenness,  and  at  no  banquet  given  by  the  great 
officers  of  State,  either  to  private  individuals  or  to  embassies,  are 
strong  waters  of  any  sort  even  offered.  But  it  is  affirmed  that 
though  the  Emperor  is  a  strict  observer  of  the  law,  some  of  his 
ministers  are,  in  the  privacy  of  their  own  dining-rooms,  by  no 
means  so  abstemious.  Moreover,  many  of  the  more  dissolute 
Moors,  besides  smoking  tobacco  (which  also  is  against  the 
Moorish  interpretation  of  the  Koran,  and  in  1887  was  expressly 
prohibited  by  Muley  El  Hassan,  the  present  Sultan),  are  under- 
stood to  be  quite  familiar  with  the  flavour  of  brandy — anything 
being  lawful  if  only  it  is  regarded  as  medicine ;  while  one  or 
two — the  Grand  Shereef  of  Wazan  among  the  number — are 
rumoured  to  have  even  discovered  what  bit  of  pig  was  pro- 
nounced accursed  by  the  Prophet.  As  for  the  Berbers  of 
the  Riff  mountains,  they  drink  wine  and  eat  the  wild  boar 
without  the  slightest  compunction.  In  Muley  Ismail's  day 
there  was  scarcely  any  concealment  of  the  vice.  The  more 
favoured  Christian  slaves,  as  in  Algiers,  were  permitted  not 
only  to  distil  spirit,  but  to  make  money  by  keeping  taverns 
in  Fez  and  Mequinez,  which  enabled  them  to  buy  their 
freedom.  The  renegades  almost  to  a  man  indulged  whenever 
they  had  a  chance,  and  "  One  Carr,"  a  turn-coat  Englishman, 
who  during  Fellow's  time  had  charge  of  the  cannon  foundries, 
and  by  Captain  Braithwaite's  account  seems  to  have  been  a  bad 
specimen  of  a  bad  type,  not  only  got  drunk  at  Mr.  Russel  the 
English  Envoy's  dinner,  but  confessed  that  unless  he  shut  him- 
self up  at  times  and  took  a  "  good  dose  of  wine  "  melancholy 
would  have  taken  possession  of  him.  The  brothers  of  the 
Bashaw  of  Tetuan  used  to  enter  the  kitchen  during  Mr.  Russel's 
embassy,  and  threaten  to  murder  the  cook  "  if  she  did  not  give 
them  pudding  and  wine."  But  as  one  of  the  guards  picked  the 
pocket  of  Mr.  Windus  as  he  stood  beside  the  prince,  afterwards  the 

346  NOTES. 

Emperor  Muley  Abdallab,  and  the  domestics  at  tlie  palace  were 
so  prone  to  cut  tlie  buttons  off  the  ambassador's  coat  that  he 
generally  appeared  in  his  worst  suit,  this  trait  is  not  remarkable. 
A  renegade  who  kept  the  Sultan's  garden  sold  "  a  cup  of  wine 
on  the  sly  ;  "  a  saint  entertained  the  embassy  with  a  "  pleasant 
drink "  not  unlike  mead,  and  among  the  presents  for  the 
Emperor  Muley  Ahmed  IV.  (Ed-dehebi),  the  EngHsh  Govern- 
ment of  those  days  had,  either  through  ignorance,  or  through 
very  accurate  knowledge  of  the  Imperial  tastes,  sent  "  four  cases 
of  Florence."  This  his  Shereefian  Majesty,  with  the  help  of  a 
few  boon-companions,  finished  in  a  couple  of  sittings,  and  was 
so  tipsy  when  the  ambassador  called  upon  him  that  all  he  could 
say  was  that  the  Christians  were  to  have  all  they  wanted — 
plenty  of  roast  pig  and  wine.  The  former  forbidden  dainty  the 
Sultan  also  freely  indulged  in,  though  he  preferred  a  roast  fox. 
Muley  A'bd-el-Malik  II.  was  assassinated  in  his  tent  by  a  French 
Renegade  named  Chaban  (not  by  "  a  discontented  slave  "  as 
Chenier  has  it)  while  he  was  sleeping  off  a  bout  of  drunkenness. 
Crom-el-Hajj  was  slain  by  his  vmwilling  bride  (who  afterwards 
married  his  son)  on  the  wedding  night  while  the  king  lay  stupefied 
by  drugs  she  had  dropped  into  his  wine,  and  thus  not  only  freed 
herself  from  a  distasteful  alliance,  but  avenged  the  blood  of  her 
family  which  had  splashed  the  throne  of  the  usurper.  The 
infamous  Muley  El  Jezid  was  also  an  almost  open  drunkard.  And 
though  it  is  not  exactly  history,  we  must  all  remember  the  case 
bottles  which  Eobinson  Crusoe  found  on  board  the  Sallee  boat, 
and  the  liberal  use  he  and  Xiu-y  made  of  their  contents.  To 
this  hour,  the  bacchanalian  song  of  Muley  Bou  Shaib,  often  sung 
at  feasts,  celebrates  the  pleasures  of  grape  juice.  In  short,  now- 
adays, as  in  those  of  Sir  John  Maundevile,  "  Sume  sarrazines 
drynken  wyn  prevyly." 

(17)  Taffilet  and  the  Imperial  Family,  p.  120.— These  data  are 
still  accurate.  The  Sultan  cannot  provide  for  all  of  his  family, 
so  that  by  this  time  thousands  of  people  who  are  the  poorest 
labourers  have  some  of  the  blood  of  Muley  Ismail  in  their  veins. 
In  the  time  of  Sidi  Mohammed  (1747-1789)  the  survivmg 
male  children  occupied  five  hundred  houses,  in  Taffilet,  or 
Sidjilmasa,  as  Aboulqasem  calls  it,  indifferently.  I  have 
even  known  second  cousins  of  the  present  Emperor  humbly 

NOTES.  347 

engaged  as  domestic  servants  to  Europeans.  As  for  descend- 
ants of  the  Prophet,  they  fill  places  in  every  grade  of  society ; 
there  are  plenty  of  •'  Shereefs "  begging  their  bread,  and 
are  doing  very  well  at  this  business,  which  in  Morocco  is  an 
excellent  one,  especially  if  the  mendicant  is  of  saintly  character 
or  illustrious  lineage.  Taffilet  being  the  natal  land  of  the 
Shereefs,  and  most  of  the  inhabitants  being  descended  from 
them — their  distinguishing  mark  being  a  green  turban — the 
country  is  known  as  Bled  Shereef — that  is,  the  Country  of  the 
Princes  (descended  from  the  Prophet).  The  entire  territory  is 
scattered  with  fortresses  surrounded  by  walls  of  "  tabia  " — each 
containing  three  or  four  hundred  families,  who  hold  weekly 

(18)  Moors  ami  Arabs,  p.  120. — Here,  like  most  of  the  writers 
of  his  time,  Pellow  applies  the  term  Moor  in  a  very  vague  sense. 
All  the  inhabitants  of  Morocco,  the  Jews  and  Europeans  ex- 
cepted, are  often  so  designated.  This  is  a  mistake.  The  substra- 
tum of  the  country  are  the  Berbers,  who  extend  all  over  North 
Africa,  under  the  name  of  Berbers,  Shluhs,  Kabyles,  Touaregs, 
Ac,  and  though  now  good  Moslems,  have  never  yet  acknowledged 
the  Arabs'  domination.  It  is  they  who  form  the  bulk  of  the 
mountaineers  who  give  the  Sultan  such  ample  employment  for 
his  Krupp  guns  and  his  standing  aimy.  The  Arabs  are  the  latest 
invaders  of  the  country.  They  came  when  the  Roman  (Byzantine) 
power  was  breaking  up,  and  are  the  inhabitants  of  the  plains, 
being,  unlike  the  Berbers  (Brebbers),  not  denizens  of  villages  or 
much  addicted  to  agriculture,  but,  for  the  most  part,  wandering 
herdsmen,  the  Bedouins  of  many  a  familiar  travel-tale.  The  Moors 
are  also  Arabs,  but  much  mixed  with  European  and  other  blood. 
They  are  for  the  greater  part  inhabitants  of  cities,  merchants, 
artizans,  oflScials,  &c.,  and  are  the  most  refined  of  the  people. 
Still,  it  is  hard  to  draw  any  fast  line  between  them  and  the 
Arabs,  though  for  convenience'  sake  the  term  Moor  is  usually 
— or  ought  be — applied  to  the  town-dwellers  of  the  Barbary 

(19)  Bushwour/h,  a  Native  of  the  Brazils,  p.  121. — At  that 
period  the  Portuguese  held  Mazagan  on  the  coast,  and,  as  might 
have  been  expected,  many  slaves  were  constantly  escaping  from 

348  NOTES. 

them,  or  were  actually  sold  to  the  Moors,  or  in  their  continual 
skirmishes  were  captured  from  the  Christians. 

(20)  The  Black  Imperial  Guard,  p.  141.— The  Bokhari— 
so-called  from  Al  Bokhari,  on  whose  Korannic  commentaries 
they  were  sworn — deserve  all  the  esteem  in  which  they  were 
held  during  Fellow's  time,  though  they  are  no  longer  the 
backbone  of  the  army,  and  by  the  formation  of  the  "Askar" 
or  regular  force  of  infantry,  organized  on  a  European 
model,  are,  happily,  incapable  of  playing  the  part  of  the 
Turkish  Janissaries  or  Koman  Pretorians  which  in  former 
times  made  them  so  troublesome.  They  are,  however,  still 
the  Sultan's  guard,  and  a  fine  powerful  body  of  men. 
Fellow,  it  seems  to  me,  greatly  magnifies  the  number  of 
the  force.  When  they  were  most  powerful,  their  headquarters 
were  at  Mequinez,  and  they  numbered  from  13,000  to  15,000 ; 
but  they  are  now  a  much  less  considerable  force.  Originally 
formed  from  the  Sultan's  hereditary  slaves,  brought  from  the 
Western  Soudan,  their  blood  is  now  considerably  mixed,  but  they 
have  lost  little  of  the  physique  and  courage  of  their  race.  In 
all  the  engagements  of  the  Spanish  war  of  1859-60  they 
acquitted  themselves  like  men,  badly  disciplined  and  infamously 
armed  as  they  were — and  are  ;  and  at  Isly  these  courageous 
negroes  alone  awaited  the  shock  of  the  French.  The  Arabs  and 
Berbers  made  a  wild  charge,  fired  off  their  flint-lock  muskets, 
and  then  wheeled  about,  as  their  fashion  is.  But  in  Muley  El 
Hassan's  opinion  they  were  too  much  of  the  nature  of  a  double- 
edged  tool,  for  they  did  not  only  form  a  bulwark  to  the  throne, 
but  when  things  did  not  always  go  their  own  way  were  apt  to 
chop  round  and  change  the  succession. 

(21)  Mr.  Russel  and  the  Christian  Captives,  p.  153. — On  "  Jan. 
17th,  0.  S.,  1727-8,"  Mr.  Kussel  brought  to  the  coast  twelve 
captives,  though  only  two  of  them  were  English,  the  rest  being 
either  English  subjects  or  foreigners  captured  on  English  ships. 

(22)  Mvleij  Ismail  and  his  So7is,  pp.  148,  193. — How  much  of 
these  tales  of  fii*e  and  sword  is  historical  it  is  now  difficult  ta 
affirm  with  any  certainty  ;  for  in  those  days,  as  in  ours,  news  from 

NOTES.  349 

the  interior  of  Morocco  was  hard  to  obtain,  or  being  obtained,  it 
was  hard  to  eliminate  the  lies  with  which  it  was  so  plentifully 
impregnated.  Yet  the  historians  who  wrote  long  after  Fellow's 
time,  and  were  evidently  unacquainted  with  his  narrative,  con- 
firm much  of  what  the  Penryn  mariner  has  penned.  Many  of 
the  places  he  mentions  are  still  well  known,  and  can  be  detected 
under  his  phonetic  and  ofttimes  blundering  spelhngs.  Others 
are  more  problematical,  especially  the  names  of  certain  "  pro- 
vinces." In  that  curious  narrative  of  a  nameless  Christian 
slave  whose  manuscript  Simon  Ockley,  Professor  of  Arabic  in 
Cambridge,  edited  (1715);  in  Chenier's  better-known  "Recherches 
historiques  sur  les  Maures  "  (1787) ;  in  St.  Olon's  "  Relation  de 
I'Empire  de  Maroc  "  (1695);  in  Busnot's  "  Histoire  du  regne 
de  Mouley  Ishmael  "  (1714),  and,  among  similar  narratives  of 
embassies  which  visited  the  country  of  the  aged  tyrant  who  was 
Fellow's  first  master,  m  Braithwaite's  "  History  of  the  Revolu- 
tions in  the  Empire  of  Morocco"  (1729),  may  be  found  ample, 
almost  contemporary,  confirmation  of  many  of  the  statements 
made  in  the  preceding  pages.  Muley  Ismail  delighted  in  war  and 
slaughter.  He  would  think  nothing  of  fracturing  the  limbs  of 
an  official  who  had  offended  him,  and  then  ordering  the  mangled 
wretch  to  be  sewn  into  a  bull's  hide  and  dragged  through  the 
camp.  If  a  slave  did  not  build  after  his  notions  of  what  was 
right,  he  would  playfully  break  a  brick  over  his  head,  or  spear 
him  on  the  spot,  or  even  order  him  to  have  his  legs  burnt  off 
with  quicklime,  and  then  be  built  up  in  the  walls.  His  palace 
was  a  hot-bed  of  intrigues — the  rival  wives  struggling  to  advance 
themselves  and  then-  sons,  and  to  ruin  the  children  of  their 
rivals.  Thus  Muley  Mohammed,  the  best  of  the  many  sons  of 
the  Emperor,  by  the  machinations  of  Lala  Zidan,  a  negro 
queen,  was  first  driven  into  rebellion  and  then  butchered.  When 
the  Emperor  was  intent  on  meting  out  punishment,  he  was  pre- 
ceded by  a  guard  escorting  fourteen  Christian  slaves  carrying  a 
copper  cauldron  (captured  on  a  Portuguese  ship),  a  hundredweight 
of  tar  or  pitch,  and  as  much  oil  and  tallow,  and  these  in  their 
turn  were  followed  by  a  cartload  of  wood  and  six  butchers, 
each  with  a  knife  in  his  hand.  To  this  day  the  hands  of  thieves 
are  cut  off,  and,  like  the  heads  of  rebels,  stuck  over  the  gates  of 
the  interior  cities,  the  presence  of  Europeans  in  the  coast  towns 
preventing  this  hteral  obedience  to  the  injunction  of  the  Koran 

860  NOTES. 

touching  an  eye  for  an  eye  and  a  tooth  for  a  tooth.  The  Editor 
numbers  among  his  travelling  acquaintances  throughout  the 
Barbavy  States  a  great  many  Moors  who  display  a  marked 
reticence  to  expose  their  right  arm  ;  and  in  Mogador  there  ia  a 
beggar  who,  having  been  proved  guilty  of  slandering  another 
Moslem  of  his  own  profession,  was  adjudged  by  the  Kadi  to  have 
his  lips  rubbed  with  fresh  capsicums !  To  silently  draw  one's 
finger  along  his  lips  is  still  so  painful  a  reminder  of  that  episode 
in  his  career,  that  he  will  instantly,  in  the  midst  of  the  most 
profuse  flattery,  disappear  down  the  nearest  lane. 

But  in  the  days  of  Muley  Ismail  and  his  successors  the 
entrances  to  half  the  towns  of  the  empire  were  simply  festooned 
by  horrible  human  remains.  He  sent,  for  instance,  after  the 
rebellion  in  the  then  province  of  Shavoia,  ten  thousand  heads  to 
Fez  and  Morocco,  to  be  fixed  upon  the  walls  of  those  cities, 
among  them  being  those  of  hundreds  of  the  women  and  children 
whom  the  monster  had  slaughtered  in  cold  blood.  He  kept  an 
enormous  number  of  cats — and  appointed  a  Kaid  (Alcayde)  to 
control  their  gambols,  and  delighted  in  dog-fighting.  But  if  the 
dogs  would  not  fight,  or  were  so  savage  as  to  kill  each  other, 
then  the  keeper  was  duly  cudgelled  by  the  irritable  despot.  Or 
he  would  set  twenty  or  thirty  negro  boys  to  box  with  each  other, 
the  lads  who  came  off  worst  being  severely  beaten  by  their 
master.  His  chief  amusement,  however,  was  to  superintend 
the  slaves  at  work,  his  attendants  consisting  on  such  occasions 
of  a  black  to  bear  his  tobacco-pipe  (which  had  a  bowl  as  big  as 
a  child's  head,  and  a  reed-etem  about  two  yards  long),  another 
to  carry  his  tobacco,  and  a  third  a  brazen  vessel  of  hot  water  to 
wash  his  hands,  and  some  laden  with  clubs  to  throw  at  his  slaves 
upon  the  top  of  the  houses  or  walls.  When  hungry,  he  imme- 
diately ordered  a  huge  dish  of  cusscassoo,  and  then  sitting  down 
on  the  ground,  ate  as  much  as  he  cared  for  by  thrusting  his 
bare  arm  into  the  vessel  and  fishing  up  what  he  liked  best.  If 
tired,  he  simply  squatted  on  the  earth  or  on  a  heap  of  stones  to 
rest  himself.  His  caprices  were  endless,  though  not  much  worse 
than  those  of  some  of  the  later  Sultans.  One  day  he  saw  a 
Kaid's  wife  riding  upon  a  mule  ;  instantly  he  ordered  the  poor 
woman's  husband  to  shoot  her  for  daring  to  bestride  one  of 
"  those  creatures  of  God  which  nourished  and  kept  them  alive." 
Asking  another  officer  to  whom  a  flock  of  sheep  belonged,  he 

NOTES.  351 

was  told  that  they  were  the  property  of  the  person  addressed. 
"  Yours  !  you  dog,"  was  the  reply,  "  I  thought  I  had  been  the 
only  proprietor  m  the  country ; "  and  taking  his  lance,  this 
representative  of  "  L'etat  c'est  moi,"  ran  the  presumptuous  Kaid 
through  the  body,  ordering  at  the  same  time  the  sheep  to  be 
given  to  his  negro  troops.  A  black  slave,  on  telling  him  that  he 
wished  bread,  having  toiled  for  two  days  on  an  empty  stomach, 
was  assured  that  in  future  he  should  have  no  further  occasion 
for  anything  to  eat ;  and  to  keep  his  word,  ordered,  as  a  piece  of 
prime  jocosity,  the  wretched  negro's  teeth  to  be  pulled  out. 
Like  the  sultans  generally,  Ismail  was  in  the  habit  of  distribu- 
ting the  thinnings  of  his  harem  among  his  oflficials,  a  wife  from 
the  palace  being  still  regarded  as  a  high  honour.  These  ladies 
are,  however,  apt  to  be  what  Mr.  Mantilini  described  as  "  demni- 
tion  savage  lambs."  One  of  these  even  went  so  far  as  to  pull 
her  husband's  beard ;  but  on  the  henpecked  Kaid  complaining, 
the  Emperor  assured  him  that  such  a  humiliation  should  never 
occur  again,  for  his  beard  should  be  pulled  out ;  which  it  was — 
on  the  spot. 

Muley  Ahmed  Ed-dehebi  ("the  rich  man")  was  a  drunken 
brute,  as  cruel  as  his  father,  but  without  that  energy  which 
gave  Morocco  such  order  during  his  brilliant  reign  that  a  child, 
it  was  boasted,  could  carry  a  purse  from  Fez  to  Tarudant. 
One  of  his  first  acts  was  to  order  Belcaddy  (Benkheddai), 
who  is  more  than  once  mentioned  by  Pellow,  to  be  tossed 
ten  times,  and  be  put  in  prison  until  he  paid  ten  quintals  of 
silver ;  while  Bengozzy,  one  of  his  own  companions,  was  put 
to  death.  Having  gone  to  prayers  at  the  palace  mosque 
very  drunk,  he  fell  down  and  polluted  the  sacred  building 
with  his  vomiting.  The  negro  soldiers  whose  allegiance  he 
had  bought  with  some  of  the  five  millions  of  pounds  which 
he  found  in  his  father's  treasury,  proclaimed  his  brother 
Abd  el  Malik  emperor,  with  the  results  described  by  Pellow. 
The  downfall  of  this  temporary  sovereign  was  mainly  due  to 
his  austere  arrogant  manner ;  for  though  sober  he  was  not 
much  more  amiable  than  his  brother.  But  the  real  reason 
for  Muley  Ahmed  IV. — Deby,  or  properly  El-dehebi,  to  give 
him  his  usual  name — being  recalled  from  exile  in  Taffilet  (or 
Taflilalet),  was  the  anger  of  the  negro  troops  on  hearing  that 
the  new  sovereign  had  declared  his  intention  of  checking  their 

352  NOTES. 

power  for  evil  and  for  good.  Muley  Abdallab  (ben  Ismail)  V. 
was  as  capricious  and  as  cruel  as  his  father.  But,  unlike  him, 
was  generous  to  excess,  which  fact  may  account  for  his  having 
been  deposed  six  times,  and  reinstated  as  often.  Yet  in  spite  of 
his  many  rivals,  and  reverses  of  fortune,  and  Thomas  Fellow's 
belief  that  in  the  year  he  escaped  the  end  was  drawing  near,* 
this  villainous  ruler,  who  had  every  vice  except  avarice,  managed 
to  reign,  after  a  fashion,  from  1729  to  1757.    (See  also  Note  25.) 

(23)  Pelloiv's  journey  to  "  Guinea,"  p.  196. — In  these  days 
the  Emperors  of  Morocco  had  regular  intercourse  with  Tim- 
buktoo,  in  which  for  a  time  they  had  a  garrison,  or  received 
tribute  in  lieu  of  the  right  of  keeping  that  expressive  symbol  of 
authority  there,  and,  as  at  the  present  day,  caravans  went 
regularly  to  the  Soudan  in  search  of  slaves,  gums,  and  other 
commodities.  It  was  with  one  of  these  that  Fellow  affects  to 
have  gone,  and  though,  owing  mainly  to  the  lack  of  maps 
portraying  the  route,  it  is  not  easy  to  identify  all  of  his  names, 
yet  many  of  them,  not  known  to  geographers  until  a  later 
period,  are  not  hard  to  make  out.  The  term  "Guinea"  was 
at  that  period  applied  to  all  the  coast  north  of  the  Cape  of 
Good  Hope  and  south  of  Morocco,  so  that  the  use  of  the 
word  must  not  deceive.  He  makes,  however,  no  pretence 
(as  he  could  easily  have  done  had  he  wished  to  tell  a  tale 
of  wonder)  of  having  reached  Timbuktoo,  as  Faul  Imbert,  a 
French  slave,  did,  or  as  Kobert  Adams,  a  sailor  wrecked  north 
of  Cape  Blanco,  more  than  a  century  and  a  half  later,  claimed  to 
have  done,  or  to  have  made  the  Mecca  pilgrimage  as  Joseph  Fitts 
of  Exeter,  while  in  Algerian  slavery,  actually  did  in  the  closing 
years  of  the  seventeenth  century.  Fellow  was  an  uneducated 
man,  with  little  idea  of  the  geography  of  the  regions  over  which 
he  first  of  white  men,  and  in  some  instances  the  only  one  since 
his  time,  wandered  or  has  wandered.  Had  he  been  trying  to 
fabricate  a  narrative,  he  would  not  have  declared  that  he  had 
reached  the  "Wad  Nil,  or  river  Nile,"  for  even  in  those  days 
this  would  have  at  once  stamped  him  as  a  liar,  the  Nile  rising 
in  an  entirely  opposite  direction.     But  it  is  now  a  familiar  fact 

*  Pellow,  however,  was  not  far  out  in  his  reckoning ;  for  one  of  his 
depositions  occurred  that  very  year. 

NOTES.  353 

that  the  Niger  is  known  to  the  Arabs  as  the  Wad  Nil  el 
Abid,  or  Nile  of  the  Slaves  (Blacks),  the  word  Nile  being  in  that 
region  a  common  name  for  any  lai-ge  stream.  In  reality,  from 
the  fact  of  the  caravan  having  seen  a  French  vessel  in  the 
river,  Pellow  and  his  slave-hunting  comrades  seem  to  have 
reached  the  Senegal,  the  mistaking  of  it  for  the  Niger  being 
natural  enough,  as  the  real  course  of  the  latter  was  not  known 
until  many  years  subsequently.  Agloou,  "  the  fishing  coves " 
mentioned,  is  a  poor  anchorage ;  but  the  villages  in  the 
surrounding  country  are  prosperous  and  well  peopled. 

(24)  2he  Desert  between  Morocco  and  "  Guinea"  p.  199. — This 
dreadful  waste  of  sandy  billows  is  described  in  its  latest  details 
by  Dr.  Oskar  Lenz,  who  succeeded  in  passing  it  in  the  year 
1880  on  his  journey  to  Timbuktoo,  though  only  a  small  portion 
of  his  route  lay  near  Fellow's.  The  privations  endured  by  the 
caravans  are  terrible.  The  Arabs  who  carry  on  the  trade 
between  that  city  and  Mogador  declare  that  five  hundred 
dollars  have  been  given  for  a  draught  of  water,  and  that  when 
the  water-skins  have  been  partially  dried  up  in  the  manner 
described  by  our  author,  it  is  by  no  means  uncommon  for  the 
precious  fluid  to  be  held  at  the  rate  of  fourteen  to  twenty 
dollars  a  drink.  In  1805 — so  Jackson,  who  carried  on  business 
at  Agadir,  relates — a  caravan  proceeding  fi-om  Timbuktoo  to 
Taffilet  was  disappointed  in  not  finding  water  at  one  of  the 
usual  wells,  when,  horrible  to  relate,  the  whole  of  the  persons 
belonging  to  it,  two  thousand  in  number,  besides  eighteen 
hundred  camels,  perished  by  thirst.  Misfortunes  of  this  sort 
account  for  the  vast  number  of  human  and  other  bones  which 
are  found  mingled  together  in  various  parts  of  the  desert. 

The  traders  at  that  period — 1794-1808 — told  the  same  tale 
as  Pellow  does  of  the  "  Akkabaahs,"  or  caravans,  being 
directed  by  the  guides  smelling  the  earth.  Jackson,  however, 
with  characteristic  self-sufficiency,  not  always  warranted  by  the 
accuracy  of  his  "facts,"'  was  of  opinion  that  this  was  "an 
artful  invention  of  their  own,  to  impose  upon  the  credulity  of 
this  superstitious  and  ignorant  people,  and  thus  to  enhance 
the  value  of  their  knowledge."  The  desert  pilots  "possess 
some  knowledge  of  astrology  and  the  situation  of  certain  stars, 
and  being  enabled  by  the  two  pointers  to  ascertain   the  polar 


354  NOTES. 

star,  they  can  by  that  unvarying  guide  steer  their  course  with 
considerable  precision,  preferring  often  travelhng  in  the  night 
rather  than  under  the  suffocating  heat  of  the  effulgent  meridian 
Bun."  The  references  to  mummies  (p.  202)  in  connection  with 
surgeons  indicate  the  use  of  them  as  medicine— a  purpose  to 
which  they  were  put  in  regular  practice  during  the  seventeenth 
century,  and  among  empirics  to  a  much  later  date. 

(25)  Muley  AldaUah's  cruelties,  p.  226. —  Scarcely  a  week 
passed,  a  French  writer  *  tells  us,  without  Abdallah  putting  to 
death  great  numbers  of  his  subjects  in  the  most  horrid  manner, 
some  by  nailing  them  to  walls,  others  by  being  tied  by  the  feet 
to  a  mule's  tail,  and  thus  dragged  through  the  streets ;  others 
were  kept  incessantly  employed  at  the  most  laborious  work, 
solely  to  make  them  as  miserable  as  possible.  He  even  obliged 
the  Christians  and  the  Chaanbat  (the  latter  being  tribesmen 
of  the  Atlas,  of  whom  Crom-el-Hajj  was  chief,  and  who  ever 
since  had  been  cruelly  used  by  the  Sultans)  to  pull  down  the 
town  of  Erriadh,  which  obstructed  the  view  from  his  seraglio. 
This  place  contained  the  residences  of  various  functionaries  of 
Mequinez,  during  the  time  of  Muley  Ismail,  who  had  built  a 
fine  mosque  in  the  centre,  beside  bazaars,  baths,  and  a  college. 
While  demolishing  this  town,  one  of  his  greatest  pleasures  was 
to  order  his  guards  to  drive  great  numbers  of  the  labourers 
under  walls  which  had  been  undermined  and  were  just  ready  to 
fall,  that  he  might  see  them  buried  alive  in  the  ruins.  In  short, 
there  was  no  sort  of  brutality  in  which  Muley  Abdallah  did  not 
seem  to  take  a  pleasure.  Neither  virtue,  merit,  nor  the  strictest 
ties  of  blood,  put  any  restraint  on  his  cruelty.  Even  his  own 
mother  was  in  perpetual  danger  of  losing  her  life  by  his  hands. 
One  day  in  particular  he  went  with  a  pistol  to  her  apartment, 
with  a  design  to  kiU  her.  "But  she  being  advised  of  it,  went 
out  to  meet  him,  and  embracing  him,  spoke  to  him  with  so 
much  tenderness,  the  tears  at  the  same  time  falling  down  her 

*  "Kelation  de  ce  qui  s'est  passe  dans  le  royaume  de  Maroc  depuis 
r  annee  1727  jusqu'  an  1737."  This  curious  contemporary  narrative  which 
appeared  in  1742  is  anonymous,  but  the  author  -was  probably  a  M.  de 

t  In  this  I  follow  the  authority  of  Aboulqasem  ben  Ahmed  EzziSni, 
whose  history  of  the  events  in  Morocco  between  the  years  1631-1812,  have 
been  recently  given  to  the  world  by  M.  Houdas. 

NOTES.  355 

cheeks,  that  she  softened  his  barbarous  heart,  so  that  he  seemed 
seized  with  horror  at  the  action  he  was  going  to  commit,  and 
denied  it  in  the  strongest  manner ;  however,  his  mother  thought 
it  prudent  to  absent  herself  from  his  presence  and  court  for  a 
considerable  time. 

Nothing  could  exceed  his  ingratitude  and  cruelty  to  the 
Bashaw  Hogmy,  governor  of  Mequinez,  who  had  been  a  chief 
instrument  in  setting  him  on  the  throne,  and  to  whom  he  had 
sworn  in  his  first  transports,  on  his  being  proclaimed  king,  that 
he  would  never  make  use  of  a  lance  or  fusil  against  him  ; 
however,  taking  umbrage  at  the  great  reputation  of  this 
Bashaw,  and  the  esteem  he  was  in  with  his  people,  on  account 
of  his  great  merit  and  virtue,  he  ordered  him  one  day  to  come 
before  him,  and  after  having  reproached  him  with  accusations 
which  had  no  foundation,  he  ordered  him  to  sit  down  and  pull 
oflF  his  turban.  Then  immediately  a  great  number  of  boys, 
who  had  been  provided  for  the  purpose,  came  about  him,  and 
with  pieces  of  lead  they  had  in  their  hands  struck  upon  his 
head  till  they  had  beaten  it  in  pieces ;  and  immediately  after 
this,  both  his  secretary  and  brother  were  served  in  the  same 

He  showed  no  less  cruelty  to  eight  young  Alcaydes,  to  whose 
marriage  he  had  just  given  his  consent.  It  is  the  custom  of 
those  parts  that  the  new-married  couples  (during  the  space  of 
seven  days)  take  upon  them  amongst  their  kinsfolks  and  friends 
the  title  of  king  and  queen,  and  during  this  time  they  have  a 
power  of  putting  a  forfeiture  on  those  who  were  present  at 
their  wedding,  and  of  throwing  into  the  water,  with  all  their 
clothes  on,  those  who  refuse  to  pay  it.  But  these  rejoicings  are 
only  made  when  the  bride  is  found  a  maid  ;  for  when  it  proves 
otherways,  the  husband  sends  her  back  to  her  father's  house, 
and  the  father  has  a  right  to  strangle  her.  These  eight  young 
Alcaydes,  according  to  custom,  assumed  this  power  during  the 
seven  days,  thinking  no  harm ;  but  scarce  were  these  days  of 
rejoicing  over,  but  the  tyrant  sent  for  them,  and  having  re- 
proached them  for  the  liberty  they  had  taken,  as  a  heinous 
crime,  he  ordered  them  to  be  tied  by  the  feet  to  a  mule's  tail, 
and  in  that  manner  drawn  through  all  the  streets  of  Mequinez 
till  they  were  dead. 

A  young  Spanish  slave,  for  whom  he  seemed  to  have  a  great 

356  NOTES. 

value,  hearing  that  he  was  about  to  give  Hberty  to  eleven 
Spanish  slaves,  fell  down  on  his  knees,  and  entreated  him  in  the 
tenderest  and  most  respectful  manner  that  he  would  be  pleased 
to  let  his  father,  who  was  likewise  a  slave,  and  far  advanced  in 
years,  be  one  of  the  number  of  those  who  were  to  be  released ; 
to  which  Abdallah  made  no  reply.  The  next  day  the  slave,  with 
tears  in  his  eyes,  and  in  the  most  moving  manner,  renewed  his 
request ;  but  Abdallah  looking  upon  this  so  natural  and  praise- 
worthy affection  as  a  crime,  ordered  the  slave  to  be  immediately 
tossed  up  in  the  air  and  let  fall  upon  his  head  till  he  expired. 
And  as  if  this  was  not  cruel  enough,  and  as  if  he  had  been 
willing  to  punish  the  father  for  the  tenderness  of  his  son,  he 
set  the  poor  old  man  to  such  hard  labour  that  he  died  a  few 
days  after." 

His  mother  one  day  representing  to  him  that  it  was  contrary 
to  humanity  to  put  the  innocent  to  death  and  beneath  his 
dignity  to  be  the  executioner  of  them  himself,  he  replied  "  that 
his  subjects  had  no  longer  a  right  to  life  than  he  pleased,  and 
that  he  knew  no  greater  pleasure  than  that  of  putting  them  to 
death  with  his  own  hands." 

The  man  seemed  really  to  have  been  more  mad  than  sane, 
and  was  well  aware  of  this  himself.  One  day  he  made  a 
favourite  servant  the  present  of  two  thousand  ducats,  and  told 
him  to  go  far  from  his  presence,  so  that  he  might  not  be 
exposed  to  the  effects  of  his  fury.  The  attachment  of  the  slave 
to  his  inhuman  master  was,  however,  so  great,  that  he  refused, 
and  in  due  time  fell  a  victim  to  one  of  the  Emperor's  violent 
fits  of  fury,  being  reproached,  when  dying,  with  his  folly  in  not 
having  left  the  court  when  advised. 

On  another  occasion,  when  passing  the  river  Beth  (Bate)  at 
the  place  where  it  falls  into  the  Sebou,  he  was  in  danger  of 
being  drowned,  when  one  of  his  negroes  at  great  peril  to  his 
own  life  rescued  the  floundering  Prince  of  True  Believers. 
The  slave's  only  reward  was  to  be  hewn  down  with  his  master's 
sabre  for  presuming  to  congratulate  himself  on  his  good  fortune 
in  being  able  to  rescue  so  sacred  a  person.  "  You  are  an 
infidel !  "  he  cried,  "  to  suppose  that  you  have  saved  )ne.  As 
if  Allah  stood  in  need  of  your  intervention  to  preserve  a  Shereef 
and  the  son  of  a  Shereef" — that  is  a  descendant  of  Mohammed. 
He  was  said  to  possess  judgment  and  courage,  and  a  laudable 

NOTES.  357 

freedom  from  the  awe  with  which  most  of  his  countrymen  regard 
the  rascally  "  saints  "  of  Morocco.  But  his  vices,  most  of  them 
of  the  most  hideous  type,  have  earned  for  Abdallah  an  evil 
eminence  in  the  e\il  dynasty  of  the  Alides,  only  second  to  that 
of  Muley-el-Jezid — or  Yezeed,  as  the  name  is  pronounced  in 
Morocco.  In  this  volume  philological  purism  is  not  attempted 
in  the  transliteration  of  Arabic  names,  the  rule  adopted  being 
to  accept  the  form  most  generally  used,  and  therefore  most  in- 
telligible, without  much  regard  to  its  minute  accuracy. 

(26)  The  "  Mahomet  Wooldernva "  (p.  227)  of  Fellow's 
narrative  is  his  illiterate  way  of  writing  Mohammed  Oold  el 
Ariba,  that  is  the  son  of  the  Ariba,  the  former  name  of  his  mother. 

(27)  "  Muley  Smine" -p-p.  53,  227. — This  is  a  name  which 
Muley  Ismail  bore.  It  ought  properly  to  be  written  Muley  Es- 
Semin,  or  Smahyn  (the  stout) ;  but  the  rude  orthography  of 
Fellow  tells  in  favour  of  his  honesty. 

(28)  The  Fratricidal  Wars  of  Muley  IsmdiVs  So)is,  p.  228. — 
Fellow's  narrative,  though  it  contains  many  minute  particulars 
regarding  the  war  between  Muley  Abdallah  and  his  brothers,  is 
simply  such  a  story  as  might  be  picked  up  from  the  camp 
rumours  of  an  army  on  the  march  through  a  country  where 
truth  is  an  exotic  virtue,  and  wild  exaggeration  the  normal 
condition  of  affairs.  Yet  it  is  in  the  main  con*ect.  Muley  Ali, 
who  was  elected  by  the  black  Janissaries  Emperor  on  the  29th 
September,  1734,  was  another  of  Muley  Ismail's  sons.  But  he 
was  deposed  in  May,  1786,  in  favour  of  Abdallah  restored.  The 
new  sovereign,  besides  being  poor  (which  was  no  recommendation 
in  the  eyes  of  the  negro  troops),  had  so  addicted  himself  to  the 
use  of  "  Achecha  "  (Hashesh),  Bang,  or  Indian  hemp — the  Keef 
of  the  Moors — as  to  render  him  numb  alike  in  body  and  mind. 

(29)  Muley  Mataddy,  p.  234. — This  is  apparently  Muley  Mus- 
tadi  (El  Mostadhi)  another  brother  of  Muley  Abdallah,  and  a 
rival  with  him  for  the  throne,  who  in  1788,  after  Fellow  had 
left  the  country,  was  proclaimed  Emperor  by  the  negroes,  and 
obliged  Abdallah  to  retire  once  more  among  the  mountains. 

358  NOTES. 

The  negroes  soon  proving  fickle,  he  was  deposed  (1740),  and 
retii'ed  to  Azila,*  where  he  carried  on  a  considerable  trade  in 
grain  with  the  Spaniards,  though  without  renouncing  his  imperial 
honours.  Abdallah,  with  the  design  of  cutting  off  his  brother, 
laid  siege  to  Tangier,  the  governor  of  which  was  an  adherent  of 
his.  The  city  was  duly  taken,  and  the  Bashaw's  palace  plun- 
dered after  his  death  in  battle :  but  his  son  Mohammed  ben 
Ahmed  escaped  to  Gibraltar  with  all  his  father's  money.  Mean- 
time, Mustadi  pillaged  the  environs  of  Fez,  and  on  his  return  was 
attacked  near  Al  K'ear  by  Abdallah,  and  forced  to  retreat  into 
Sallee,  where  he  had  been  so  popular  as  governor  that  he  was 
received  and  acknowledged  as  Emperor.  But  Eabat  on  the 
other  side  of  the  river  refused  to  bend  the  knee  to  him.  The 
result  was  a  ruinous  ci"\dl  war  between  these  two  towns,  which, 
under  Muley  Ismail,  had  become  a  kind  of  republic  feudatory  to 
the  empire.  For  fourteen  months  Eabat  was  besieged,  until 
Mustadi,  despairing  of  taking  the  place,  retired  to  Tedla,  where 
he  was  arrested  and  put  in  irons  by  the  Berbers  in  the  interest 
of  Abdallah.  Another  faction  holding  the  castle  of  Oordega, 
however,  released  him,  and  transferred  him  to  the  sanctuary  of 
Sidi  El  Mati,  a  hereditary  saint  who  escorted  Mustadi  to  Sallee, 
where  he  was  again  received  with  gladness,  as  the  town  was 
thoroughly  opposed  to  Abdallah.  Finding  that  it  was  vain  to 
hold  his  own  against  Abdallah,  he  resumed  his  corn  trade  at 
Azila,  and  there  continued  to  reside  in  a  private  station  until 
the  accession  of  Sidi  Mohammed,  when  he  was  ordered  to  take 
up  his  residence  in  Fez,  where  he  died. 

(30)  Quack  Doctors,  p.  259. — Spanish  charlatans,  many  of 
them  natives  of  Tangier  and  other  coast  towns,  and  therefore 
familiar  with  the  language,  still  perambulate  Morocco.  The 
greater  number  of  them  are  vile  rascals,  who  have  more  trades 
than  one,  and  sell  poisons  freely.  There  are,  however,  exceptions, 
among  whom  the  Editor  recalls  a  mild-mannered  gentleman,  who, 
after  flirting  with  fortune  as  a  ship-captain,  a  photographer, 
and  a  teacher  of  music,  was  wandering  from  Kasbah  to  Kasbah 
drawing  teeth  and  tuning  pianos,  of  which  he  informed  me  with 
some  pride  there  were  already  thirteen  in  Morocco.     Ophthalmia 

*  To  Tangier,  according  to  Aboulqasem  ben  Ahmed  Ezziani,  whose  dates 
I  have  adopted. 

NOTES.  359 

and  other  diseases  of  the  eye  are  still,  as  in  Fellow's  day,  the 
common  maladies  of  the  country,  more  especially  in  the  South, 
and  it  is  not  without  interest  to  remark  that  one  of  the  common 
native  remedies  is  counter-irritation  produced  by  blowing  pepper 
into  the  eyes  after  the  fashion  which  the  highwayman  (p.  247) 
found  so  ineffectual.  Now  as  then,  purgative  medicines  are  in 
active  demand,  the  well-to-do  Moors  gorging  themselves  to  re- 
pletion at  every  meal,  even  when,  as  a  late  Grand  Vizier  did, 
they  do  not  employ  emetics  in  order  to  begin  a  feast  de  novo ; 
while  the  poorer  ones  risk  dyspepsia  whenever  the  world  smiles 
brightly  enough  to  render  a  gorge  of  cusscassoo  and  fat  mutton 
an  approachable  luxury.  The  reason  why  these  wandering 
quacks  are  more  popular  than  the  native  doctors,  is  not  that  they 
are  as  a  rule  more  skilful,  but  simply  because  it  is  believed  that 
all  Christians  are,  by  the  gift  of  God,  adroit  healers  of  sick  folk. 
Christ  ("  Sidna  Aissa  ") — so  runs  the  Moslem  legend — was  a  great 
physician,  and  his  power  has  descended  to  all  his  followers. 
"  Son  of  Jesus,"'  the  traveller  is  not  unfrequently  told,"  thou  can 
relieve  me."  But  if  he  succeeds,  not  he  but  Allah  is  thanked, 
for  without  the  inspiration  and  permission  of  God  man  is 
powerless  to  accomplish  anything,  and  therefore  deserves  no 
credit  for  his  acts.  At  the  same  time,  a  rabbit  or  a  few  partridges 
may  be  offered  as  a  gift,  and  not  unlikely  the  doctor  as  he  sits  in 
his  tent  door  may  be  told — as  the  writer  was  by  a  poor  woman 
whose  child  he  had  reheved — "  What  a  pity  it  is  that  so  good  a 
man  can  never  enter  Paradise ! "  This  at  all  events,  though 
somewhat  negative  in  its  good  wishes,  is  more  soothing  than  the 
not  uncommon  malediction  of  an  elderly  beauty  whom  the 
infidel  may  happen  to  encounter  in  a  narrow  lane  (when  there 
are  men  folk  about) — "  May  Gehenna  be  your  portion  I  The 
fire  is  lighted  for  you  !  "  The  "  conjurors  "  with  whom  Pellow 
had  such  evil  luck  were  doubtless  miracle-working  "  saints,"  or 
marabouts  as  they  are  called  in  Algeria.  The  snake-charmers 
and  *•  Aissouia  " — a  wild  religious  sect  who  handle  serpents  with 
seeming  impunity,  and  indulge  in  a  host  of  hideous  ceremonies — 
are  a  different  class.  They  go  annually  to  Soos  and  other 
quarters  to  collect  reptiles  and  scorpions.  The  fire-eaters  and 
the  ordinary  "Jack-Puddings"  who  may  be  seen  in  every  market^ 
are  a  more  ordinary  set  of  performers,  while  the  story-tellera 
with  their  circle  of  admiring  listeners  form   one  of  the  most 

360  NOTES. 

interesting  features  in  any  gathering  in  Morocco.  The  itinerant 
doctors  (or  at'oubba,  sing,  t'bib)  carry  a  leather  bag  containing, 
besides  a  few  medicines,  their  surgical  instruments,  which 
usually  consist  of  a  lancet,  a  knife  for  scarifying,  and  a  burning 
iron,  which  is  used  for  almost  every  ill  that  Moorish  flesh  is 
heir  to.  That  so  few  of  their  patients  die  may  be  attributed 
to  their  simple  life  and  hardy  constitutions. 

(31)  The  Geo(/ra2)hy  of  Fellow's  flujht,  -p^.  261-290.— Some  of  the 
minor  places  mentioned  in  this  narrative  cannot  now  be  identi- 
fied (and  indeed  the  writer  expressly  mentions  that  they  were 
destroyed  doing  the  civil  and  other  wars),  though  this  is  chiefly 
owing  to  the  country  in  which  they  were  situated  being  still 
wholly  or  partially  unknown  to  geographers.  Many  of  these  are, 
however,  familiar,  though,  at  the  time  Pellow  wrote,  not  on  any 
map,  or  on  those  to  which  it  is  extremely  unlikely  either  he  or 
his  editor  had  access,  and  then  under  names  so  differently  spelt 
from  his,  that  this  fact  tells  in  favour  of  the  authenticity  of  bis 
narrative.  As  the  interest  of  this  work  is  mainly  in  the  adven- 
tures it  describes,  I  have  not  thought  it  necessary  to  try  and 
localize  all  of  them.  But  as  a  test  of  the  writer's  bona  fides,  this 
may  be  done  here  and  there,  in  addition  to  the  names  already 
identified  in  foot  notes. 

The  "  Waddonfeese  "  (p.  262)  is,  for  instance,  the  Wad-Enfisa 
(or  '>«fi8),  a  tributary  ot  the  Tensift.  "  Eosselelwad  "  is  still  the 
name  of  a  village  and  district — or  "  parish"  as  Pellow  puts  it — 
the  Kas-el-Wad  in  Sus  (p.  265),  while  Tarudant  (Terrident)  is  a 
well-known  town.  At  one  time  there  was  a  considerable  trade 
with  this  place,  but  it  is  now  so  fanatical  that  no  Europeans  visit 
it,  and  since  the  decay  of  Agadir  it  has  fallen  into  ruins,  and  is 
without  much  commerce  or  industry,  though  surrounded  with 
olive,  orange,  and  date  gardens.  From  information  obtained 
through  the  European  o£&cers  of  the  Sultan's  army,  it  appears  that 
the  place  is  about  690  feet  above  the  sea,  and  contains  between 
six  and  seven  thousand  inhabitants,  mcluding  a  considerable 
number  of  Jews  and  Berbers,  the  latter  of  whom,  armed  to  the 
teeth,  swagger  along  its  narrow  filthy  lanes,  eyeing  the  stranger 
with  a  ferocious  glare,  and  wreaking  vengeance  on  any  enemy 
whom  they  may  encounter,  almost  with  impunity  from  the  badly 
organized  police  of  this  whilom  residence  of  the  Shereefs,  and  the 

NOTES.  861 

centre  from  which  they  carried  on  a  rehgious  propaganda  among 
the  neighbouring  tribes.  "  Arhallah  "  I  take  to  be  a  corrup- 
tion of  Aouara  or  Haouara;  and  Gesseemali  is  most  Hkely 
Exima,  a  tribal  (Ouled)  village  and  "parish"  in  the  position 
assigned  to  it.  Santa  Cruz  or  Agadir  (this  name,  which  means 
in  the  Berber  language  a  protecting  wall,  being  applied  to  several 
other  places)  is  a  picturesque  fortress  perched  on  a  spur  of  the 
Atlas,  about  990  feet  above  the  sea.  Up  to  the  year  1760,  when 
Sidi  Mohammed  ben  Abdallah  fovmded  Mogador  (Xote  37), 
owing  to  the  difficulty  he  found  in  exacting  his  dues  at  the  Sous 
port,  as  well  as  to  pimish  the  rebellious  Sousees,  Agadir  was  in 
the  enjo}Tnent  of  considerable  intercourse  with  Europe.  But  it 
is  now  fallen  entirely  into  decay,  the  fishing  village  of  Fonti 
at  the  base  of  the  fortress  beuig  a  miserable  place,  and  the 
inhabitants  so  bigoted  that  when,  during  the  expedition  of  1882 
against  Sidi  Hussein  of  Tazelronalt,  the  Sousan  religious  chief, 
the  Sultan  authorized  grain  ships  to  discharge  here,  the  people 
refused  to  sell  sheep  to  the  crews  until  the  authorities  compelled 
them  to  "  feed  the  infidel "  in  spite  of  the  Korannic  injunction  to 
the  contrary.  In  1773,  Sidi  Mohammed  ordered  all  the  foreign 
merchants  to  leave,  and  since  that  date,  with  the  exception  of 
a  brief  interval  (1792-1797),  it  has  been  closed  to  sea-borne 
commerce.  "  Terroost,"  or  Tourazt,  is  not  an  uncommon  Berber 
name,  though  I  do  not  identify  the  particular  village  so  named. 
*'  Hahah  "  is  a  well-known  province.  Between  Agadir  and  the 
north  a  spur  of  the  Atlas  must  be  crossed,  either  by  the  Ham- 
serout  or  the  Bebaouan  passes. 

The  method  of  preparing  the  locust  (jeraad)  for  food  (p.  276) 
is  that  still  practised.  They  are  considered  by  the  Moors  very 
stimulating  food. 

"  Zummeeta  "  (Zesomeeta,  or  Zummeeta,  as  it  is  called  in 
Tripoli)  is  made  of  barley  which  has  been  a  little  malted, 
•coarsely  ground,  and  sometimes  mixed  with  dates,  and  is  eaten 
in  the  form  of  dough  with  salt,  argan  or  olive  oil,  and  with  water 
also.  Barley  meal  and  water  or  milk  is  the  ordinary  morning  diet 
of  the  country  people,  who  know  it  as  *'  El  hassiia."  The 
barley  is  ground  to  the  size  of  fine  shot,  and  simmered  over  a 
slow  fire.  This  food  is  regarded  as  so  particularly  wholesome 
and  cooling,  especially  during  fever  time,  that  the  Sultan  him- 
self i  as  did  Muley  Suliman  and  his  father,  Muley  El  Jezidj  always 

362  NOTES. 

lays  a  foundation  of  it  before  drinking  the  fine  hyson  which  he 
loves.  Its  health-giving  qualities  are  celebrated  in  a  little  tale 
told  by  the  southern  tribesmen.  A  wandering  doctor  arrived 
in  a  strange  country,  and  after  saying  the  morning  prayer, 
inquired  after  the  way  the  people  lived,  and  with  what  food  they 
broke  their  fast.  On  being  told  that  it  was  El  hassua,  he  rose, 
saddled  his  mule,  and  bade  them  good-bye.  "  Salaam  u  alikoum ! 
Peace  be  with  you.  For  if  you  eat  El  hassua  in  the  morning, 
you  have  no  need  of  a  doctor !  "  This  meal  is  prefaced  by  a 
brief  grace  consisting  of  "  Bismallah  ''  ("In  the  name  of  God"). 
But  every  act  of  the  Moor  is  flavoured  with  piety.  Even  the 
street  hawker  is  careful  to  preface  the  calling  of  his  wares  by 
some  preparatory  objurgations  to  attract  the  faithful.  "  God  is 
gracious  !  Beans,  fried  beans  !  "  "  In  the  name  of  Muley 
Idriss  !  Roast  Chestnuts  !  "  "In  the  name  of  Sidna  Mohammed 
Al  Hadjj  !  Pop  corn  !  "  ;  and  I  can  recall  among  the  most 
agreeable  of  street  cries,  after  a  hot  ride  over  the  dusty  plain 
where  Dom  Sebastian  met  his  doom,  hearing  in  the  filthy  Soko 
of  Al  K'sar  El  Kebir,  the  welcome  shout,  "In  the  name  of  Sidna 
Ali-bou-Ehaleh !  Melons,  nice  sweet  melons!"  The  familiar 
tale  of  the  Stambouli  who  invoked  custom  for  his  figs  "  in  the 
name  of  the  Prophet !  "  which  has  amused  Europe  for  a  century, 
scarcely  tickles  a  resident  of  Morocco.  For  this  or  something 
similar  is  what  he  hears  every  day  of  his  life  (p.  276). 
"  Idogurt "  is,  we  have  already  noted,  Ida-ou-gort,  not  far  from 
Mogador ;  and  Shiedmah  and  Abdah  are  still  the  designations 
of  provinces. 

The  Argan  tree  is  the  source  of  the  argan  oil,  so  extensively 
used  in  tbe  cookery  of  Southern  Morocco,  though  there  is  an 
unfounded  belief  in  some  parts  of  the  country  that  it  engenders 
leprosy  (p.  279).  "  Saphee"  is  the  modern  Saffi  (p.  278)  or 
Asfi,  a  town  which,  after  having  been  in  the  hands  of  the  Portu- 
guese for  more  than  a  century,  was  voluntarily  deserted  by  them 
in  1641.  It  contains  a  number  of  sanctuaries  (Zaouias),  the 
burial-places  of  holy  men,  where  criminals  finds  a  safe  refuge. 
The  "  Rabat "  or  quarter  on  the  cliff  south  of  the  main  town 
is  a  veritable  City  of  Refuge,  so  that,  as  in  Pellow's  day,  it  is 
*'  the  great  rendezvous  "  of  undesirable  characters. 

"Willadea  "  (p.  282),  or  El  Waladia,  is  a  towai  35  miles  south 
of  Mazagan,  of  which  we  seldom  hear  nowadays,  though  in  former 

NOTES.  868 

times  it  was  a  place  of  some  trade.     It  is  situated  on  an  exten- 
sive plain,  and  were  not  the  entrance  to  its  harbour  obstructed 
by  rocks,  the  cove  might  be  capable  of  containing  a  large  fleet 
of  vessels.     The  town  itself  is  small,  and  encompassed  by  a 
square  wall,  but  it  contains  few  inhabitants,  there  being  almost 
nothing  for  them  to  do,  as  no  Europeans  live  there,  and  no 
caravans  arrive  as  ships  never  come.     During  the  usurpation 
of  Crom-el-Hajj  (1648-1652)  this  place,  called  in  a  contemporary 
document  "  Houladilla,"  was  occupied,  and  employed  as  a  base 
for  the  siege  of  Saffi.    "  Marcegongue  "  (pp.  229,  282,  etc.)  is  a 
curious  corruption  of  Mazagan,  now  the  principal  outlet  for  the 
maize  of  the  rich  plains  behind  it.     This  town  was  held  until 
1769  by  the  Portuguese,  who,  on  abandoning  it,  founded  Villa 
Nuova  de  Mazagan  in  Brazil.    The  "  Kiver  Tammorot ''  (p.  285) 
is  clearly  the  Wad  Tammerekt  which  appeared  on  no  map  for 
nearly  65  years  after  Pellow  mentioned  it  (I  believe)  for  the  first 
time  ;  and  not  to  attempt  the  identification  of  every  village,  the 
•'mountain  Idoworseem"  (p.  286)  is  probably  the  Djebel  Ataneen, 
and  "  Gorrasurnee "  (p.  275)  the  Idiaugomoron,  while  "  Jibbil 
Neddeed  "  (p.  290)  is,  of  course,  Djebel  Hadid,  the  Iron  Mountain, 
north  of  Mogadon     The  "high  mount  called  Itatteb"  (p.  238) 
is  evidently  Itata,  S.S.E.  of  Mequinez.     The  "Monsieur  Pedro 
Police"  who  entertained  Pellow  (p.  280)  was  most  likely  Pierre 
Pillet,  a  renegade  who,  as  mentioned  in  our  introduction,  was, 
under  the  name  of  Abd-el-Adi,  for  a  short  time  governor  of 
Sallee.     Espousing  the  cause  of  Abd-el«Malik,  he  was  beheaded, 
and  his  corpse  suspended  by  the  heels  from  one  of  the  gates  of 
the  town  which  he  had  ruled,  though  the  date  of  this  tragedy  not 
quite  agreeing  with  Pellow's  narrative,  leaves  us  open  to  doubt 
whether  the  identification  suggested  is  correct. 

(82)  Mecca  Pih/rims,  p.  283. — "  Elhash  "  is  a  fairly  phonetic 
form  of  El  Hajj,  or  Hadjj,  the  courtesy  title  with  which  every 
Moslem  is  dignified  after  having  made  the  Mecca  Pilgrimage. 
However,  in  common  with  many  of  the  old  writers,  Pellow 
blunders  in  making  Mecca  the  burial-place  of  the  Prophet, 
instead  of  Medina.  It  was,  of  course,  his  birthplace.  All  the 
princes  of  the  Imperial  house  are  styled  "  Muley  "  (Mauldi, 
Mulai,  Maulay,  Moule,  Mole),  "  My  lord,"  or  master,  a  fact  of 
which  Defoe  seems  to  have  been  ignorant  when  he  names  the 

364  NOTES. 

Moor  in  charge  of  Kobiiison  Crusoe's  master's  boat  "  Muley,  or 
Moley."  "Sidi"  nieans  much  the  same  thing,  but  is  accounted 
even  more  respectful,  and  is  universally  applied  to  saints,  and  in 
the.  abbreviated  form  of  Sid  (or  Cid)  to  all  of  the  faithful  named 
after  the  Prophet — which  means  to  about  half  of  the  Moroq[uin 

(33)  Tea  Drinking,  p.  297. — Though  there  is  a  good  deal  of 
coffee  drunk  by  the  humbler  Moors  in  their  shabby  coffee-houses, 
which  are  not,  as  in  Turkey  and  Egypt,  frequented  by  the  better 
classes,  the  Moors  of  Morocco,  as  a  people,  differ  from  most 
other  Moslems  in  preferring  tea  to  coffee,  and  green  tea  to  any 
other  variety  of  the  herb.  They  infuse  it  with  large  quantities 
of  sugar,  and  flavour  it,  in  lieu  of  cream,  with  mint,  citron 
leaves,  orange  blossoms,  ambergis,  &c.  The  amount  drunk 
at  a  sitting  is  never  less  than  three  cups  or  glasses,  and 
as  the  sittings  mean  six  times  a  day,  and  as  often  more  as 
favoured  visitors  call,  it  may  well  be  believed  that  more  tea  per 
head  is  consumed  in  Morocco  than  in  any  other  part  of  the 
world.  Yet  up  to  the  year  lOGO,  at  earliest,  the  Moors  were 
perfectly  ignorant  of  what  may  now  be  termed  the  national 
beverage.  For  in  a  paper  of  that  date  written  by  Monsieur 
Charant,  the  French  merchant  "  who  lived  twenty-five  years  in 
the  kingdom  of  Sus  and  Morocco,"  it  is  expressly  mentioned 
that  though  some  of  the  less  devout  do  not  forbear  by  stealth 
to  drink  wine,  nay  brandy,  "which  both  the  Christian  slaves  and 
Jews  sell,"  such  drinks  as  coffee,  thee,  and  chocolate  they  know 
not  in  those  countrys  what  they  are,"  though  the  writer  adds 
that  he  heard  they  are  much  used  in  England.  Coffee  in  an 
especial  degree  is  there  drunken  in  "  great  store  "  to  prevent 
drowsiness.  "  And  as  for  thee  and  chocolate  (some  think)  they 
strengthen  nature,  revive  and  refresh  the  spirits,  when  weakened 
by  overmuch  study." 

(34)  Enylish  Gunpoicder,  p.  300. — To  this  day,  a  pound  of 
English  gunpowder  is  one  of  the  most  acceptable  gifts  which 
can  be  made  to  a  Moor,  as  it  is  not  allowed  to  be  imported  for 
sale,  and  the  native  article  is  very  poor. 

(35)  The  Woled  (or  Ooled)  Ahoimehali  Arabs,  p.  288.— The 
curious  account  Pellow  gives  of  the  great  band  of  marauders 

NOTES.  365 

he  encountered  refers,  I  am  of  opinion,  to  the  inroad  of  those 
Arabs  which  about  this  period  added  to  the  intestine  troubles 
of  Morocco.  They  claim  to  be  sprung  from  Shereefs  (the 
"  Xeriphs  "  of  Pellow),  and  are  very  warlike.  During  the  civil 
war  following  the  death  of  Muley  Ismail  —  not  daring  Sidi 
Mohammed's  reign  as  Jackson  declares — they  left  their  sandy 
deserts  in  Sous,  and,  to  the  number  of  about  7,000  men,  overran 
the  southern  parts  of  the  empire,  until,  with  little  or  no  opposi- 
tion, they  reached  the  provinces  of  Abda  and  Shiedma,  where 
Pellow  met  them.  Here  they  had  a  battle  with  the  Woled-el- 
Haje  and  other  tribes  of  the  fertile  country  north  of  the  river 
Tensift,  but  were  so  completely  victorious  that  they  almost 
exterminated  their  enemies,  and  holding  their  ground  against  all 
opposition,  took  possession  of  the  depopulated  territory.  But 
their  predatory  disposition  made  the  country  so  unsafe  that 
Sidi  Mohammed  outlawed  the  whole  clan,  and  ordered  them  to 
leave  the  country  in  which  they  had  settled.  This  order  was 
forced  to  be  obeyed  by  the  Sultan's  army,  who  drove  them  south, 
the  natives  of  the  provinces  through  which  they  had  to  flee 
plundering  and  murdering  so  many  that  only  about  half  of  the 
tribe  reached  the  Sahara  in  an  impoverished  condition. 

(36)  AUalhen- Hiinnnedush  (p.  278)  or  Elebenhaimdush  (p.  290). — 
I  cannot  find  any  mention  of  this  "  castle  "  or  Kasbah  of  Ali  ben 
Hamedush,  as  it  would  be  called  in  Morocco,  on  any  map  or 
document  prior  to  Fellow's  day,  or  since,  unless  the  point  named 
"  Ben  Hamuda"  on  Graberg  di  Hemso's"  chart  is  the  same  place. 
Nor  indeed  is  it  mentioned  by  any  traveller  since  that  day,  with 
one  exception,  and  this  exception  is  a  striking  proof  of  the 
general  accuracy  and  authenticity  of  the  Penr}'n  mariner.  For 
Dr.  Gerhard  Rohlfs,  who  had  no  knowledge  of  this  book,  casu- 
ally notes  that  though  he  was  unable  to  find  the  town  called 
Rabat  el  Kus  which  so  many  geographers  describe  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Tensift,  not  far  from  its  banks  "  are  the  romantic  ruins  of 
an  old  castle,  called  Kasbah  Hammiduh,  situated  on  some  abrupt 
rocks  in  the  midst  of  a  forest.  It  was  probably  erected  to  guard 
the  mouth  of  the  river."  This  is  clearly  the  same  place  de- 
scribed by  Pellow,  and  perhaps  it  is  also  the  "square  castle  built 
in  the  reign  of  Muley  Ishmael  to  defend  the  passage  of  the 
river,"  which,  in  Chenier's  day  (1767)  contained  only  a  few 

366  NOTES. 

families,  though  that  usually  accurate  writer  does  not  mention 
the  name  it  bore.  I  have  not  visited  the  place,  but  a  correspon- 
dent of  whom  I  made  inquiries  writes  that  the  "  Kasbah  of  Ham- 
doosh  "  is  an  extensive  ruin,  not  unlike  that  of  Old  Tangier,  but 
of  greater  extent  and  in  better  preservation.  Granaries,  battle- 
ments, and  rooms  can  still  be  traced.  It  was  evidently  intended 
as  a  check  upon  the  Portuguese  fort  at  the  mouth  of  the  river, 
though  this  also  has  now  almost  vanished.  But  it  is  incorrect  to 
suppose  that  it  was  built  by  Sidi  Mohammed,  as  this  sovereign 
(the  founder  of  Mogador)  lived  after  Fellow's  day. 

(37)  Markadore,  p.  306. — This  curiously  spelt  place  appears  to 
have  been  Mogador,  the  well-known  southern  port  of  Morocco. 
At  that  time  the  Portuguese  monopolized  most  of  the  coast  trade, 
and,  as  the  "  Portuguese  fort "  on  the  shore  of  Mogador  Bay 
shows,  had  fortified  places  on  other  parts  of  the  Atlantic  shore 
than  that  which  they  actually  held.  For  it  is  an  error  to  believe 
that  the  fort  in  question  dates  no  further  back  than  the  begin- 
ning of  this  century,  or  was  built  on  behalf  of  the  Sultan  by 
Genoese  engineers,  as  is  sometimes  stated.  In  reality,  it  was 
erected  to  keep  intact  the  communications  with  Agadir,  and  to 
protect  the  coasters  who  called  in  here.  Nor  is  it  any  more 
accurate  to  take  for  granted  that  because  Sidi  Mohammed  ordered 
a  town  to  be  laid  out  on  the  spot  by  M.  Cornut,  a  French  en- 
gineer (a  native  of  Avignon),  who  was  for  ten  years  in  his  service, 
there  was  no  previously  existing  place,  or  that  the  Europeans 
first  named  it  Mogador  at  that  date,  now  more  than  120  years 
ago,  though  S'oueira — "  the  image"  or  the  picture — is  the  Moor- 
ish name.  The  Touraine  Capuchin  Fathers,  writing  in  1644, 
expressly  mention  that  there  was  a  fort  on  the  island,  and  that 
in  1628  Abd-el-Malik  II.  had  intended  to  employ  the  Christian 
slaves  in  the  erection  of  fortifications  around  the  Bay.  But  long 
before  that  period  there  was  a  native  town  there,  without  pin- 
ning our  faith  to  the  suggestion  that  this  was  the  site  of  the 
Tamusiga  of  Ptolemy,  or  of  a  more  modern  place  marked  on 
various  seventeenth-century  maps  as  Sufega  or  Suriga.  But  it 
is  very  doubtful  whether  S'oueira  is  a  corruption  of  that  word, 
as  some  ingenious  antiquaries  have  imagined.  The  name  is  in 
reality  of  modern  origin,  and  in  the  Berber  language  Tasourt, 
their  designation  for  the  town,  has  the  same  meaning.     On  the 

NOTES.  367 

northern  side  of  the  Tensift  river,  amid  sands  and  marshe?, 
there  are  the  ruins  of  another  small  town  which  also  bore  the 
name  of  S'oueira :  it  was  deserted  long  ago. 

"  Mogador,"  though  doubtless  derived  from  the  tomb  or  sanc- 
tuary of  Sidi  Mogdul  or  Mogdor  in  the  vicinity  of  the  town,  is  of 
very  much  older  date,  Hodius's  chart  of  1608  having  "  I.  Dome- 
gador  "  marked  on  it,  and  this  is  copied  from  others  of  a  more 
remote  period,  and  in  documents  as  early  as  1660  "Mogator"  is 
repeatedly  referred  to  as  a  place  of  trade.  The  sanctuary  of 
Sidi  Mogdul — the  guardian  saint  of  the  town — is  of  very  ancient 
origin,  so  remote  indeed  that  both  the  Jews  and  the  Moors  con- 
tend for  the  saint  having  been  one  of  their  people,  and  do  him 
equal  honour.  In  1604  Captain  John  Smith  made  a  voyage  to 
"  Sancta  Cruse,  Cape  Goa  (Ghir)  and  Magadore."  But  though 
the  Sidi- Mogdul  legends  are  connected  with  a  ship  coming  from 
the  sea,  I  am  unable  to  discover  any  foundation  for  the  notion 
that  he  was  a  wrecked  Danish  captain,  far  less,  as  Mr.  Harris 
puts  it  so  circumstantially,  "  a  Scotchman  McDougal,"  who  in 
the  Middle  Ages  lived  among  the  natives,  whose  old  village  is 
still  near  the  town,  and  taught  them  many  useful  arts.  The 
Arabs,  it  is  true,  are  fond  of  making  saints  out  of  rather 
flimsy  material.  Between  "  Morocco  and  the  Atlas  "  Monsieur 
Charant,  who  lived  in  the  country  before  the  year  1660,  notes 
that  there  is  a  place  called  '•  Gomet "  (probably  Aghmat,  the 
old  capital  of  the  Almoravides),  where  a  monument  exists 
which  the  Moors  in  his  day  pretended  to  have  been  St. 
Augustine's,  "  whom  they  call  Sid  Belabech,"  and  every  one  who 
has  visited  the  site  of  Carthage  will  remember  the  white  native 
village  of  Sidi  Bou-Saeed,  a  spot  so  holy  that  until  lately  no 
Christian  was  allowed  to  live  in  the  place.  Yet  Sidi  Bou-Saeed 
is  affirmed  by  the  Arabs  to  have  been  St.  Louis,  who  on  his 
death-bed  became  a  convert  to  Al-Islam,  and  is  interred  there 
under  that  name.  However,  the  historical  difficulties  regarding 
Sidi-Mogdul  have  never  interfered  with  the  esteem  in  which  he 
is  held.  He  is  the  patron  saint  of  Mogador,  and  when  I  was 
there  in  1886,  the  muleteers  were  hastily  driving  their  animals 
into  his  sanctuary  on  a  report  getting  abroad  that  the 
governor  would  be  pressing  them  for  the  service  of  the  French 
minister,  who  was  then  in  the  town  on  his  way  to  the  city  of 
Morocco,  on  one  of  those  useless  "  diplomatic  missions  "  which 

368  NOTES. 

prove  so  expensive  to  the  villagers,  who  have  to  defray  the 
cost  of  the  sumptuous  journey  of  the  "  'bashdor  "  and  his  friends 
though  in  the  polite  parlance  of  an  official  report  these  useless 
jaunts  are  described  as  being  at  the  cost  of  the  Sultan ! 

(38)  Argaireens,  or  Argireens,  pp.  130,  306. — "  Argiers ''  was 
one  of  the  old  names  of  Algiers,  the  word  being  evidently  a 
corruption  of  the  Spanish  "  Argel."  The  French  "  Alger,"  and 
its  modification  "  Algier,"  are  also  in  use  by  the  older  writers. 

(39)  A  "  Tartan"  and  a  "  Snow,"  pp.  304,  308.— These  were 
names  applied  at  that  date  to  particular  builds  of  vessels.  A 
"  snow,"  for  instance,  as  my  friend  Captain  Warren,  R.N., 
informs  me,  was  "  a  brig  which  set  her  boom  mainsail  on  a 
trysail  mast,  instead  of,  as  in  the  present  way,  on  the  mast 
itself."  A  "  tartan,"  Commander  Robinson,  E.N. — who  also  has 
obligingly  favoured  me  with  some  notes  on  the  subject — remarks, 
is  a  small  coasting  vessel  peculiar  to  the  Mediterranean.  It  has 
only  one  mast  and  a  bowsprit ;  the  principal  sail,  which  is  ex- 
tremely large,  is  extended  by  a  lateen-yard.  This  is  a  long  spar 
used  to  extend  the  three-cornered  lateen  sail  upon ;  it  is  slung 
about  one  quarter  from  the  lower  end,  which  is  brought  down  to 
the  tack,  while  the  upper  end  is  raised  in  the  air  at  an  angle  of 
about  forty-five  degrees.  When  the  wind  is  aft  a  square  sail  is 
generally  hoisted  on  the  tartan,  like  a  cross -jack.  This  craft — 
now  seldom  seen — does  not  appear  to  have  differed  considerably 
from  the  "  felucca "  so  familiar  in  the  Mediterranean.  Its 
ancient  name  was  "  targia,"  which  suggests  the  possible  deriva- 
tion of  the  name.  "  Can  it  have  come,"  Commander  Robinson 
suggests,  "  from  Tarhish  or  Tarragona  ?  I  find  also  that  an 
ancient  term  for  a  vessel  of  any  kind  which  carried  a  cargo,  as 
distinguished  from  a  vessel  built  for  fighting  only,  was  '  tarita 

)  V 

(40)  Mamora  or  Mehedia,  p.  313. — This  is  now  a  poor 
neglected  though  picturesque  place,  with  a  shoaled-up  harbour  at 
the  mouth  of  the  Sebou  River,  with  no  trade  except  the  catching  of 
the  shebbel,  or  shad,  the  only  good  fresh-water  fish  of  Morocco. 
From  1614,  when  Don  Louis  Fajardo  captured  it  for  the  King 
of  Spain,  to  1681,  when  the  weak,  dispirited  garrison  surrendered 

NOTES.  3G9 

it  to  Kaid  Amor-Hadou  on  behalf  of  Muley  Ismail,  the  town 
was  a  fief  of  His  Catholic  Majesty.  But  it  was  never  of  great 
importance,  though  it  did  more  business  then  than  it  has  ever 
done  since.  The  object  of  Spain  in  seizing  upon  it  was  to  root 
out  the  nest  of  pirates  it  had  become,  and  it  is  said  by  con- 
temporary writers  that  there  were  at  the  time  more  Christians 
there  following  the  business  than  Moors.  This  confirms  Captain 
John  Smith's  assertion  (p.  11),  that  the  Morocco  Moors  v/ere 
taught  the  art  of  sea-robbery  by  English  outlaws,  and  that  they 
m  their  tm*n  (reversing  the  usual  legend)  initiated  their  country- 
men exiled  from  Sixain  in  what  was  subsequently  their  principal 
trade.  But  no  sooner  did  Mamora  get  free  of  the  Infidels  than 
it  returned  to  its  evil  ways.  For  here  on  the  13th  of  June,  1685, 
Thomas  Phelps  and  Edmund  Baxter,  escaping  from  "Machaues" 
(Mequinez),  helped  to  burn  "  two  of  the  greatest  Pirat- Ships 
belonging  to  Barbary." 

(41)  Passing  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar,  p.  315. — The  frolic 
described  is  evidently  a  survival  from  the  days  when  the 
Carthaginian  mariners  sacrificed  to  the  gods  on  passing  what 
a  pillar  at  Gibraltar  even  in  Edrisi's  day  proclaimed  to  be  the 
limits  of  navigation.  The  ceremonies  have  been  long  discontinued, 
though  something  of  the  kind  is  practised  on  novices  who  for  the 
first  time  pass  "  the  Line,"  and  among  the  Arctic  whalers  on 
May  Day,  as  I  have  fully  described  elsewhere.* 

(42)  Gibraltar,  p.  320. — General  Sabine  was  the  thirteenth 
governor  of  Gibraltar,  viz.,  from  1730,  when  he  succeeded 
General  Clayton,  to  1739,  when  General  Columbine  took  his 
place.  The  excessive  precautions  taken  to  prevent  any  Moor 
from  entering  the  fortress  may  seem  absurd  to  those  of  us  who 
remember  the  picturesque  crowds  of  Barbary  folk  lounging  in 
the  Waterport  Street,  the  little  steamer  from  Tangier  full  of 
Moslem  egg  and  fowl  merchants,  and  the  forty  or  fifty  Moors, 
most  of  them  native-born  subjects  of  her  Majesty,  resident  on 
the  rock.  But  in  1738  treachery  was  abroad,  and  the  fortress 
had  only  recently  stood  its  thirteenth  siege.  To  this  day  all 
comers  are  questioned,  those  of  British  nationality  being  alone 
permitted  to  tarry  without  certain  inoffensive  formahties,  touch- 
ing guarantees  for  their  good  behaviour.     The  other  gentlemen 

♦  "  Countries  of  the  World,"  vol.  i.  pp.  103-107. 

370  NOTES. 

mentioned  by  Pellow  were  officials  at  the  time  of  his  story,  as 
an  examination  of  the  Colonial  records  proves. 

(43)  The  Moorish  Ambassador,  p.  327. — This  envoy  was  El  Hajj 
Abd'  el  Kadr  Perez,  Admiral  of  Sallee.  He  was  succeeded  by 
"  Abroggly,"  who  came  back  with  Mr.  Consul  Bussel  from  England 
in  1727.  At  a  later  date  several  others  arrived  on  various 
missions,  among  others  Tahar  Fenishe,  in  the  reign  of 
George  III.  It  is  therefore  far  from  accurate  to  state,  as  is 
still  mentioned  in  some  *'  works  of  reference,"  that  the  am- 
bassador from  Sidi  Mohammed  ben  Abd-er-Rhaman,  who 
arrived  in  Jime,  1860,  was  the  first  "since  the  time  of  Charles 
II."  One  of  the  early  English  envoys  to  the  Court  of  Morocco 
—  Sir  James  Losely,  Captain  Nicholson,  Lord  Howard,  or  Cap- 
tain Kirk  of  "  Kirk's  Lambs,  for  statements  differ — being 
obliged  to  appear  barefooted  before  Muley  Ismail,"*  Mohammed 
Ben  Hadou  Ottar,  the  Moorish  Envoy  who  was  sent  to  Charles 
II.,  was  compelled  to  submit  to  the  indignity  of  being  received 
at  court  without  shoes,  turban,  or  fez. 

Morocco  is,  however,  even  yet  the  one  country  with  which  we 
have  diplomatic  relations,  where  the  Christian  envoy  has  to 
submit  to  more  or  less  degrading  observances  at  the  hands  of 
the  Moslem  ruler.  An  ambassador  is  received  by  the  Sultan  in 
the  courtyard  of  his  palace,  the  "Prince  of  True  Believers" 
sitting  haughtily  on  horseback  while  the  envoy  of  a  great  power 
stands  humbly  bareheaded  at  his  side,  presenting  to  him  the 
members  of  his  suite,  and  expressing  the  diplomatic  common- 
places suited  to  the  occasion.  He  has  not  even  the  protection  of 
an  umbrella  from  the  burning  sun,  though  the  Sultan  has 
borne  over  his  head  the  great  silken  paraschute  which  is  so 
much  the  emblem  of  his  authority  that  when  he  entered  Tetuan 
and  Tangier  in  the  summer  of  1889,  a  notice  was  issued  that  no 
person  in  the  crowd  waiting  to  receive  him  was  to  put  up  their 
sunshades.  Slaves  also  go  on  either  side  of  him  with  silk 
handkerchiefs  flicking  the  flies  from  his  hands  and  face.  Should 
the  Embassy  be  afterwards  favoured  with  a  more  private 
interview,  it  takes  place  in  a  kiosque  in  the  garden,  and  even 

*  As  late  as  the  reign  of  Sidi  Mohammed  ben  Abdallah,  there  were  diffi- 
culties over  the  foreign  diplomatists  not  taking  off  their  shoes  or  prostrating 
themselves  in  presence  of  the  Sultan. 

NOTES.  371 

then  this  distinction  is  not  always  accorded,  and  chiefly  in  order 
that  the  presents  which  invariably  accompany  an  embassy  should 
be  presented  and  explained  to  the  Sultan.  Such  gifts,  though 
possessing  in  the  eyes  of  the  giver  no  more  meaning  than  those 
sent  by  one  European  sovereign  to  another,  are  sedulously  repre- 
sented to  the  ignorant  Moors  as  tribute  sent  by  the  Infidels  to  the 
Leader  of  the  Faithful,  and  should  be  discontinued,  more  especially 
as  the  courtesy  accorded  to  an  envoy  is  apt  to  be  in  an  exact 
ratio  to  the  value  of  the  gifts  he  bears.  In  any  case  the  Powers 
ought  at  once  to  insist  on  being  received  in  the  person  of  their 
envoys  on  the  same  terms  that  the  Sultan's  ambassadors  are 
when  he  sends,  as  he  has  of  late  years  been  fond  of  doing, 
representatives  for  the  purpose  of  condoling  with,  or  congratula- 
ting, his  brethren  in  the  West.  These  envoys  are  usually  two 
or  more  in  number,  and  as  they  are  compelled  to  defray  the 
expenses  of  their  mission,  the  selection  of  a  dignitary  for  this 
duty  is  as  often  considered  a  punishment  as  an  honour.  For  if 
the  Ambassador  in  Chief  does  not  spend  lavishly,  he  is  certain  to 
be  represented  by  his  colleagues  and  rivals  as  lowering  the  dignity 
of  their  Lord  and  Master  by  behaving  niggardly  before  the  In- 
fidels. The  return  presents  usually  consist  of  a  horse  to  the  am- 
bassador and  a  sword  to  each  of  his  suite.  The  horse  is  not  very 
often  a  Barb  of  the  first  quahty,  but  it  is  accompanied  by  a 
"  permit,"  without  which  no  horse,  mule,  camel,  cow,  goat, 
sheep,  or  donkey  is  allowed  to  go  out  of  the  country;  so 
that  the  animal  can  be  sent  to  a  profitable  market  on  the  other 
side  of  Gibraltar  Strait.  Time  was,  when  no  Christian  or  Jew 
— not  even  a  Consul — could  enter  holy  cities  like  Saffi  or  Fez 
without  dismounting  from  their  animals,  and  even  yet,  the  same 
imndious  formality,  plus  taking  off  their  slippers,  is  demanded 
from  Jews  when  they  enter  the  Moorish  quarters  in  the  interior 
towns,  or  pass  a  mosque.  Last  century  and  well  into  the 
present  one,  no  Christian  or  Jew  could  enter  the  Moorish 
quarters  of  Fez  without  a  permit  from  the  Emperor;  and  to  this 
hour,  for  either  to  try  and  pass  the  street  in  which  is  situated 
the  mosque  of  Muley  Idris  would  be  to  endanger  the  life  of  the 
rash  intruder.  As  for  attempting  to  visit  the  town  of  Muley 
Idris,  and  other  sacred  spots — no  one  as  yet  has  openly  ventured 
on  that  dangerous  experiment. 
All  the  other  Barbary  States  have  long  ago  abandoned  any 

372  NOTES. 

official  efforts  to  differentiate  between  the  Infidel  and  the  followers 
of  the  Prophet,  Tripoli,  indeed,  being  the  only  one  of  them 
with  the  exception  of  Morocco  which  is  not  directly  or  indirectly 
under  Frankish  rule.  Algeria  is  a  colony  of  France,  so  that  the 
days  are  over  when  the  insolent  pirate-chiefs  treated  Consuls 
with  contumely,  found  fault  with  their  presents,  and  insisted  on 
more  frequent  changes  in  order  that  this  form  of  tribute  should 
come  less  sparingly.  Tunis  also,  though  a  "  Protectorate,"  is  to 
all  intents  and  purposes  a  dependency  of  France.  But  there  are 
men  still  young  who  can  remember  when  no  person  except  the 
Bey  could  drive  in  a  four-wheeled  carriage,  and  not  far  from  the 
Kasbah  was  a  gate  called  Bab-es-silsilah — through  which  until 
sixty  or  seventy  years  ago  it  was  death  for  a  Christian  to  pass. 
But  these  were  in  the  happy  times  when — 

"  Nsarafe  Senaara  !  "  To  the  hook  with  the  Nazarene ! 

Lehoodfe  Sefood  !  "  To  the  spit  with  the  Jew  1 " 

was  a  maledictory  couplet  of  something  more  than  academic 
import.  No  Christian  can  enter  any  mosque  in  Morocco,  or 
with  one  exception  any  in  Tunisia.  But  the  exception  is 
sufficiently  remarkable,  for  it  happens  to  be  that  of  Sidi  Okba 
in  the  saered  city  of  Kairwan,  which,  a  few  years  ago,  no 
unauthorized  infidel  could  visit  miless  he  was  prepared  to  be 
stoned  or  even  worse  treated.  Nowadays,  you  can  trundle  over 
the  plain  between  it  and  Susa  on  iron  rails,  and  the  keeper  of 
the  Great  Mosque  holds  out  his  hands  for  the  five-franc  piece  as 
if  he  had  been  bred  to  the  vergership  of  an  English  cathedral 

Morocco  is  still,  in  the  interior  at  least,  not  very  different  from 
what  it  was  a  thousand  years  ago.  But  "  Tunica  ricca  ed  on- 
orata  sede  "  has  fallen  from  its  high  estate.  For  the  Nazarene 
sits  in  the  seat  of  the  Bey,  and  a  Juge  d'instruction  interprets 
the  law.  Newsboys  and  shoeblacks  ply  their  trades  in  sight  of 
Rubbatinos  railway  station,  and  over  the  blood- sodden  soil, 
where  less  than  a  century  ago  Christian  slaves  toiled  under  the 
Turkish  lash,  Arab  cabmen  drive  furiously.  You  can  take  the 
train  to  Carthage,  and  the  diligence  to  Utica  and  Sicca  Veneria. 
And  all  day  long  past  cafes  where  cogging  Greeks  bargain  over 
their  absinthe  is  heard  the  hoarse  cry  of  the  tramway  conduc- 
tor— "  Place  Bab  Carthagene !     Four  karrobas  all  the  way  I  " 



Abdallah,    Muley,    Frontispiece,    22C, 
252,  340,  352,  354,  et  jmssim 

„  ,,       his   cruelties,   22G, 

354,  355,  356 
Abd-el-Malik  II.,  346 
Abd-cl-Malik  (ben  Ismail),  351 

,,  Muley,  his  death,  183 

Abd-el-Muniin,  Muley,  341 
Abd-ei--Foolan,  a  black  governor,  IGl 
Abd-er-Rahman  Medune,  50 
Abd-es-Slam,    an    English    renegade, 

Aboulqasen's  history,  354 
Aboussebah  Arabs,  incursion  of,  288, 

364,  365 
Abraniico.  the  Sultan's  agent  at  Gib- 
raltar, 318,  320 
Acton,  Chevalier,  destroys  or  disperses 

Sidi  Mohammed's  fleet,  17 
Adams,  Robert,  352 
Africa  and  Europe,  contrast,  8 
Agadir  (pi),  304,  360,  361,  et  passim 
Agloou,  353 
Agoory,  343,  et  piix^im. 
Ahmed  Sceikh,  Muley,  25 
"  Aissa  Sidna,"  359 
Aissouias  sect,  359 
Ait-Hassan,  189 
,,   Zemour,  189 
„  Wadyl,  95 
Akkabaahs,  or  Caravans,  353 
Al  K'sar  el  Kebir,  362 
"  Allalben-Hammedush,"  278,  365 

Ali,  Muley,  357 
Amarisoo,  Kasbah,  192 
Ambassadors     to     Morocco     treated 

slightingly,  370,  371 
Ambassadors,   Moorish,   to   England, 

368,  370 
Amsmiz,  87,  260 

Animals,  wild,  of  Morocco,  87,  346 
Aouara,  361 
'Aoodya  Lalla,  97 
Arabs,  120,  347 
Archid,  Muley,  134 
"  Arcby,"  Muley,  334 
Argan  oil,  278,  279,  362 
Argaireens,  366,  368 
"  Arhallah,"  361 
Army,  Moorish,  115,  343 
Ar'scid,  Muley,  134 
"  Aselami,"  renegade  Jews,  31 
Ataneen  Djebel,  363 
Attar,  Ben  Hadou,  74 
Azamoor,  43,  155  156  (pi) 
Azila,  9,  14,  29,  358 

Bab-Mancoor-el  alj,  53 

„    es-silsah  and  Christians  in  Tnnis. 

Barbary  States,  decay  of,  372 
Baxter,  Edmund,  369 
Beaver,  Mr.,  319 
Bebaouan  Pass,  221,  361 
Bebash,  85 
Belabech,  367 



Ben  Hamuda,  365 

„     Hattar,  336,  337 
Beui-boogaffer,  pirate  village,  39 

,,     Hassan  tribe,  335 

„     M'tir  tribe,  119 

„     Snous,  130 

„     Zibbah,  112 
Berbers,  847 

Beth  Eiver,  84,  et  passim 
Betton,  Thomas,  27,  28 
Bishop,  a  pirate  of  note  iu  Morocco, 

Black  Imperial  Guard,  141,  348 
Bled-Shereef,  347 
Blois,  Madamoiselle  de,  25 
Boisselin,  a  French  renegade,  33 
Bokhari  Guard,  141,  348 
Booty  from  Guerida,  101 
Building  mania  of  Muley  Ismail  and 

his  successors,  19 
Bou  Azza,  Muley,  184 

,,    el  Koseo,  Kaid,  152 
Bou-ragrag  Eiver,  335 
Bou-Saeed,  Sidi,  near  Carthage,  3G7 
Boyd,  Captain  Henry,  339 
Brooks,  Francis,  342 
Brooke,  Sir  Arthur,   quoted,   40,   41, 

Bu  (Bou)  Sacran  (jjI.),  52,  211 
Bushraough,  a  frisky  slave,  121,  347 
Butler,  Mr. ,  40 


Captive,   Scottish,  romantic    tale   of, 

Captives  driven  into  interior,  j)?.,  52 
,,       English,  in  harems,  25 
,,        escape  of,  27,  29 
,,        how  treated,  18,  et  seq. 
,,        ransom  of,  27,  28 
toil  of,  68,  69,  70 
Caravans,  great  loss  of,  iu  desert,  353 
Carr,  a  renegade,  32 
Carthaginian  Mariners,  and  Pillars  of 

Hercules,  369 
"Caultsnab,"  67 
Cautery,  actual,  iu  Morocco,  340,  360 

Cellis,  an  English  pirate,  11 

Ceuta  intended  by  Muley  el  Yezeed  as 

a  pirate  station,  15 
Chaban,     a     renegade,     assassinates 

Muley  Abd  el  Malik  II.,  346 
Charrant,  Monsieur,  334,  341,  367,  &c. 
,,        on  tea-drinking  in  England, 
Chaanaba  tribe,  354 
Christ,  a  great  doctor,  359 
"  Christians  "  in  Morocco,  9 
Clayton,  General,  369 
Clinton,  an  English  pirate,  11 
Columbine,  General,  369 
Conti,  Princess  de,  and  Muley  Ismail, 

25,  26 
Convicts  escaped,  renegades,  44 
Cornut,  builder  of  Mogador,  32 
Costermongers,  Moorish,  362 
Croni-el-Hajj,  346,  354,  363 
Cunningham,  Kev.  Mr.,  319 
Cuscussoo,  22,  68,  et  passim 


Damker,  a  Dutch  pirate  of  note  in 
Morocco,  12 

Bar  Debibeg,  palace  built  by  Chris- 
tians, 20 

Dar-el-Bastyoon,  53 

Dar-es-Solt'ana,  335 

Darmusultan,  335 

Dayat-er-Roumi,  195 

Defoe,  ignorance  of  Moorish  titles,  364 

Delaval,  Admiral,  72 

Delgarnoe,  Captain,  335 

Demnat,  241 

Denooa,  111 

Desert  between  Morocco  and  Guinea, 
199,  353 

Disguise,  danger  of,  43 

"  Djellabia,  Wooden,"  339 

Doctors,  Moorish  quack,  259,  358,  359, 

Douls,  Camille,  the  late,  40 

Douvia,  Lalla,  26 

Draa  Eiver,  206 

Dyspepsia  iu  Morocco,  359 




Ed-Dchebi,  Muley  Hamid,  346,  351 
Ed-doukkali,  Salem,  204,  225 
Edinburgh,  Lord  Provost  of's  daughter 

and  Barbary  pirate,  24 
Edinburgh  and  Sallee  Hovers,  24 
Ehiah  Embelide,  89,  ct  jMt^siin 
El  'Arby   Ben  Abou-Oold   Emjiotlcc, 

Eleben-bamedush,  290,  305 
El  hassua,  3G1,  362 
,,  Mati  Sidi,  a  saint,  358 
,,  Valid,  Muley,  25 
Embassies    in  Morocco  useless,   and 

wastefulness  of,  367,  368 
Enkees-wad,  195 

Erriadah  quarter  of  Mciiuiucz,  354 
Europeans,  indignities  to,  37 
Es-Shereef,  Muley,  25 
Executioner,  an  English,  103 
Exima,  361 


Fez,  161,  186,  ft  passim 
,,  time  when  no  Jew  or  Christian 
could  enter  Moorish  quarter 
without  Imperial  permit,  37 
,,  time  when  Jew  or  Christian  for- 
bidden to  enter  on  horseback, 

Fleet,  Moorish,  215 

Flemming,  an  English  pirate,  11 

Fnsira,  84 

Fonti,  361  . 

Fum-el-bungh,  112 

Fiim-el-Karoo,  94 

French  Military  Commission,  45,  344 


Gabdad,  84 

"  Garnoe,"  335 

German   Surgeon  in  Moorish  Army, 

Gerygra  Kiver,  111 
"  Geseemah,"  361 
Gibraltar,  8,  9,  369 

„        Straits  of,  8,  369 

"  Gomet,"      St.     Augustine's     tomb 

believed  to  be  there,  367 
"  Gorrasurnce,"  Mount,  275,  363 
Graham,  Colonel,  45,  46 
Gray,  Andrew,  Scottish  pirate,  25 
Grub  Street  and  the  Sallee  Hovers,  34 
Guerrou  River,  334 
Guinea,  vague  meaning  attached  to, 

Gunpowder,  English,  300,  364 
Guzlan,  march  to,  112,  342 


Hab'ib  ben  Baruk  and  Mr.  Butler,  40 

Habid,  Wad-el,  98 

Hadaha,  130 

Hadid  Djebel,  363 

Hahah,  Province,  361 

Hajj  (or  Hadj),  title  of,  363 

Hamdoosh,  Kasbah,  366 

Hamid,  Muley  (Alimed  IV.),  134,  346 

,,       Losraee,  225 
Hamseduh  Kasbah,  365 
Hanierostu  Pass,  361 
Harbours  of  Morocco,  shoaling  up  of, 

15,  16 
Harris,  Mr.,  and  Sidi  Mogdul,  367 
Hartan,  Kasbah,  218 
Haesan,  Muley  El,  345,  348,  Ac. 
Haunsell,  Jusef,  a  rebellious  conjuror, 

Hay,   Sir  John  Drummond,  and  Riff 

Pirates,  39 
Henna,  use  of,  76,  340 
Hharim,  Muley,  134 
'•  Highland  Lad  "  transport,  42 
Hisciam,  Muley,  26 
Hogmy,  Bashaw,  355 
Horses,  Moroccan,  83,  340 
Howard,  Lord,  370 
Hudson,  Sir  JeCfrey,  Charles  I.'s  dwarf, 

a  slave,  23 
Hussein,  Sidi,  361 


Ida  on  Gort  District,  277 

Idiaugomoron,  363 

"  Idoworseem,"  Mount,  281,  363 



Imbert,  Paul,  352 

"  Immintackcamost, "  221 

"  Ingliz  Bashaw,"  45 

Inspector  Privateer  wrecked  in  Tangier 

Bay,  15,  35 
Invelg-Khamis,  193 
Irish  Sultana,  story  of,  26 
Ismail,  Muley,  his  children,  338 

,,  ,,       cruelties   of,    G3,    338, 


„      habits  of,  134-148 

„      palace  of,  59,  338 

,,  ,,       sons,  wars  of,  148,  193, 

348,  357 
,,  ,,      his  wives,  338 

"  Itatteb,"  Mount,  238,  363 
Itata,  Mount,  363 
"  Itehacam,"  191 
"  Itehuzzan,"  189 
"  Itemoor,"  189 
"  Itcwoossey,"  212 


Jackals,  89,  340 

Jackson,  Mr.,  his  dogmatism,  353 

Janissaries,  Black,  348 

Jbad-Kasbah,  84 

Jews,  degradation  of,  371 

,,     malignity  of,  28 

,,      offices  held  by,  336 

,,      town    for,   built    by    Christian 

slaves,  20 
Johnson,  William,  a  renegade,  324 
Juan,  Maestro,  26 

i  K. 

Kairwan,  changes  in,  372 
Kareebs,  Moorish  boats,  39 
Keef,  3^7 
Kirk,  Captam,  370 
Khoneta  (or  Yoneta),  Lalla,  25,  299 

Larache,  9, 14,  29 
Lenz,  Oskar,  353 
Lions  in  Morocco,  109,  342 
Locusts  as  food,  276,  361 
Lorshia,  52,  334 

Loscly,  Sir  James,  370 
Lundy    Island,  Sallee     Rovers    lying 
under,  16 


Macaulay,  error  of,  11 
Maclean,  Kaid,  343 

Mamora,  a  kennel  of  European  pirates, 
9,  13, 14,  15,  340,  368 
,,      forest  of,  335 
Marakesch,  or  Morocco  City,  pi.,  97 
"  Markadore,"  306,  366 
"  Marcegongue,"  229,  282,  &c. 
Matamoras,  21 
Maundevile,     Sir     John,      and      the 

"  sarrazines, "  346 
Mazagan,  135,  363 
Meakin,  Mr.  Budgett,  38 
Meat,  price  of  in  1738,  283 
Meat  Bir  Oo  Bir,  195 
Mecca,  mistakes  about,  363 

„     Pilgrims,  283,  363 
Mediuna  District,  193 
Mehedia  (Mamora),  313,  368 
Memeran,  a  Jew,  337 
Mequinez,  Pellow's  journey  to,  50-53. 
,,  description  of,  53,  185  (pi.) 

Mercenarian  Fathers,  27 
Merchants,  selfishness  of,  28 
Mils,  193 

Mocquet,  Jean,  341 
Mogador  Island,  345 
Mogador,  history  of,  366,  367,  368 
Mogdul,  Sidi,  367 

Mohammed  Ben    Araby,  late    Grand 
Vizier,  of  Jewish  origin, 
„  Muley,  349 

„  Sidi,  26,  361,  366 

,,  Sidi,  audience  of,  ph,  135 

,,  Wad    Nuni,  governor   of 

Saffi,  306 
Morocco,  appearance  of  coast,  8,  9 
,,        changes  in,  of  late  years,  42 

city,  341,  342,  ^j/.,  97 
,,  ,,     golden    globes   of,   99, 

340,  341 
,,        ethnography  of,  347 



"  Morocco  Land  "  in  Edinburgh,  23 
Morocco,    only  independent    Barbary 
State,  372 

,,  stability  of,  46 

,,  still  much  as  it  was,  46, 

Moorish  buildings  erected  by  captives, 

„      tovms,  9 
Moors,  120,  347 
Mosque,  Kutubia,  341 
'Mshrah  Dallia,  195 
'Mshael,  a  Black  Bashaw,  183 
'Msida,  88 
Mtooga,  95 

Muley,  title  of,  363,  364 
Mulootjibbilly,  224 
Multorria,  191 
Mustadi  Muley,  234,  357 

Navy,  Moorish,  32,  43 
"Nazrani,"  44 
"  Neddeed  Jibbil,"  290,  363 
Nicholson,  Captain,  370 
Niger,  353 
Nil  Wad,  352 
Norbury,  Captain,  145 
Nun  Wad,  195 


OflScials,  robbery  of,  342 
Omar,  a  Scotchman  "Reis,"  or  cap- 
tain of  a  Moorish  zebek,  32 
Om-er-R'bia,  98 

"  Oodali,"  Christian  renegade,  31 
Oold-el-Ariba,  Mohammed,  357 
Ooled  Aboussebah  Arabs,  288,  364,  365 
Oudah,  Lalla,  97 
"  Our  Lady  of  Mercy,"  Fathers  of,  27 

Peacock,  Captain,  322,  324 
Fellow's  book,  37 

„  „      proofs  of   its  authen- 

ticity, 37,38 
,,      journey  to  Mequinez,  50,  337 
,,  ,,  Morocco  City,  196, 


Pellow,   mention  of   him  in  Braith- 
waite's  narrative,  35,  36 
,,     in  James's  "  Straights  of  Gib- 
raltar," 35 
Perez  Abdel  Kadr,  370 
Petrobelli,  a  Triestan  employed  by  Sidi 

Mohammed,  32 
Piety  of  Moors,  362 
Pillet,  Pierre,  a  renegade,  32 
Pilots  Desert,  353 
Piracy,  Moorish  origin  of,  10,  11 
,,      decay  of,  15,  33 
,,      in    Morocco,   suppression    of, 

„      nature  of,  10  et  seq. 
„      recent   cases  of,  39,   40,  41, 
Pirates,  English,  in  Morocco,  12 

,,      Riff,  39 
Pitts,  Joseph,  352 
Pholps,  Thomas,  342,  369 
Pietrasanta,  a   Tuscan  employed  by 

Sidi  Mohammed,  33 
'»  PoUee,  Pedro,"  280,  363 
Poison,  fear  of,  in  Morocco,  342,  344 
Portuguese  in  Morocco,  347 
Presents  to  Sultan  regarded  as  tribute, 

Pretorians,  Black,  348 
Princes    of    Morocco    numerous    and 

poor,  346 
Provinces  of  Morocco,  uncertain  limits 

and  number  of,  343 
Pursser,  an  Enghsh  pirate,  11 
Pye,  Captain,  320 

Rabat,  9,  50,  262  (pi),  304,  333,  334 
"  Rabat  "  of  Saffi,  362 
Ras-el-Wad,  360 
"  Raval,"  334 
Redemptorial  Fathers,  27 
Religion  the  dividing  line  in  Morocco, 

Renegades,  29,  et  seq.,  44,  45,  46,  345 
,,  descendants   of,    in    Fez, 

Agooryand  other  towns, 




Renegades,  their  treachery  against  each 

other,  169 
Reis  Hadjj  ben  Hassan  Houet  Shivi, 

a  Moorish  captain,  16 
Riff  Pirates,  39 

Riffians  drink  wine  and  eat  pork,  345 
Ripperda,  Duke  of,  a  renegade,  32 
Robinson,  Commander,  on  the  vessel 

called  a  "  Tartan,"  368 
Rohlfs,  Gerhard,  365 
"  Rosselelwad,"  265,  360 
"  Roumi,"  44 
Russel's,  Mr.,  Embassy,  153,  348 


Sabine,  Governor,  of  Gibraltar,  320 

Saffi,  278,  362,  et  passim 

Safeegosoolz,  195 

Saffi,  time  when  Jew  or  Christian  for- 
bidden to  enter  on  horseback,  371 

St.  Louis  believed  to  have  become 
Moslem,  367 

Sallee-Rabat,  9,  30,  262  (pL),  333 

Sallee  Rovers,  9,  et  seq. 

Salletines'  ways  of  life,  13 

Sampson,  Captain,  319 

Sanctuaries,  362 

Saulty,  Count  Joseph  de,  45 

Savoy,  Marquisate,  bought  by  Ward, 
an  Anglo-Moorish  pirate,  12 

Scottish  girl,  romantic  story  of,  23 

Sebou  River,  368 

Sebastian,  Dom,  20,  362 

Seersceta,  Lalla,  26 

"  Segosule,"  285 

Sejea  Hambra,  195 

Senegal  River,  353 

Shademah  Province,  290 

Sharrot  River,  84 

Shatel-Arbi,  64 

"  Shot,  Larby,"  64 

Shaw,  Mrs.,  a  renegade,  25 

Shelley,  Captain,  215,  217 

Shereef-es-Muley,  25,  117 

Sherf-el-gusooli,  95 

Sherrers,  Palace  of,  59,  338 

Shinget,  196 

Shoarumlah,  219 

Sidi  Amara,  111 

Sidi  Bou  Azza, 
,,    el  Bamsoo,  119 
,,    Hamid  ben  Moosa,  195 
,,     Hussein,  361 
„    Ra'hal,  101,  111,  244 
„     el  Fileli,  102 
„    title  of,  364 
Slavery  in  Morocco,  suppression   of, 

Slaves,  Christian,  at  work,  pi.,  211 
,,       keeping  shops,  345 
,,       Moors  caution  in  purchasing, 

,,       narratives  of,  33,  34 
Sma  Hassan  Tower,  9 
Smine,  Muley,  53,  227,  357 
Smith,  Captain  John,  11,  367 
Snow,  a  vessel,  304,  308,  368 
S'ouera,  or  Soueira,  Moorish  native  of 

Mogador,  26,  345,  366,  367 
Sous  (Souze,  or  Sus)  Province,  39,  et 

Spanish  War  of  1859-60,  348 
Spartel,  Cape,  42,  815 
Spha,  Muley,  54 

Stewart,  Commodore,  65,  72,  339 
Sufega  or  Surega,  866 
Suliman  (S'Hman),  Muley,  38,  361 
Sultans,  Drunken,  345,  346 
Sultan,  how  treated,  73 
Surgery,  Moorish,  70,  339,  359 


Tabia,  19,  20 

Taffilet  and  the  Imperial  Family,  120, 

346,  347 
Tahar  Fenishe,  370 
Taib,  or  Tabia,  19,  20 
Taleb,  an  interpreter  of  the  law,  260 
"  Talgror,"  supposed  Province  of,  86, 

Tammerket  Wad,  363 
"  Tammorto  "  River,  285,  363 
Tamsaloaht,  252 
Tamusiga  of  Ptolemy,  366 
Tangier,  29 

„       Bashaw  of,  319 
Tanisna,  Kasbah,  81 



Tartan,  a  vessel,  304,  308,  368 

Tazourt,   Berber  name   of    Mogador, 

Tazelronalt,  361 

Tea-drinking,  297,  364 

Tedla,  235 

Telfil  ("  Teffilifille  "),  335 

Temple,  Sir  Greville,  quoted,  41 

Temsna,  Province,  80,  et  passim 

Tensift  River,  101,  290,  367 
Bridge,  20 

Terodant,  360 

Terrijet,  159 


Tetuan's,  Bashaw  of,   son's  love    of 
wine  and  pudding,  345 

Tezza,  or  Tazza,  130 

Tlemcen,  147 

Tobacco  forbidden,  345 

Toobin,  Captain,  293,  et  seq. 

Tourazt,  361 

Trinitarian  Fathers,  27 

Tunis  changes  since  French  Protecto- 
rate, 372 

Umseet  el  Eashib,  221 

Valid-el  Muley,  25 


Wad-Enfisa,  360 

"  Waddon  Enkeese,"  195 

"  Waddonfeese,"  262,  360 

Waladia,  El,  362 

Ward,  a  pirate  of  note  in  Morocco,  12 

Warren,  Captain,   on  vessel  called  a 

"  Snow,"  368 
Wazan,  Grand  Shereef  of,  345 
"  Willadea,"  282,  292,  362 
Wilson,  Captain,  292 
„       Sir  Daniel,  25 
Windus,  Mr,,  pockets  picked  by  Muley 

Abdallah's  guards,  345 
Windus,  Mr.,  his  buttons  cut  off  by 

domestics  of  Muley  Abdallah,  346 
Wine-drinking,  119,  344,  345,  346 

,,    sent  as  present  to  Muley  Ed- 

dehebi,  346 
"Wishaddah,"  130 
Wives,  European,  of  Sultans,  25,  26 
"  Woolderriva,  Mohamet,"  227,  357 
"  Wolelsager,"  52,  335 
Wounds,  how  treated,  344 

Yezeed  (or  Jezid),  Muley,  26,  27,  346, 

Ymin  Tanood,  95 
Yoneta  (or  Khoneta),  Lalla,  25,  299 

Zaouias,  or  Sanctuaries,  362 
Zebek  pirate,  pL,  335 
Zeitoun,  Wad-el,  130 
Zenboudj-el-Aousat,   scene  of    Muley 

Ismail's  defeat   by  Dey  of  Algiers, 

Zemmur  tribe,  189,  335 
Zidan,  Lalla,  349 

„      Muley,  14,  25,  29,  30 
Zooyet  Benns,  112 
Zouyet  et  Handore,  112 
"  Zumineeta,"  276,  361 
Zummitb,  a  kind  of  food,  80 










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Uiyversi^  of  Cali^mia  Library 
Los  Angeles 

This  book  is  DUE  on  the  last  date  stamped  below. 

Phone  Fienewals 

AUG0  2_2002 



FEB  1  2  2003 





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